132 NO GENERAL CONSENT TO THE ELECTION OF POPES. If it be said that the election of a pope in old times was wont to be approved by the consent of all bishops in the world, according to the testimony of St Cyprian, who says of Cornelius, that "he was known by the testimony of his fellow-bishops, whose whole number, through all the world, with peaceful unanimity consented :"1 I answer, that this consent was not in the election, or antecedently to it; that it was only by letters or messages declaring the election, according to that of St Cyprian;a that it was not anywise peculiar to the Roman bishop, but such as was yielded to all catholic bishops, each of whom " was to be approved," as St Cyprian says, " by the testimony and judgment of his colleagues ;"3 that it was in order only to the maintaining fraternal communion and correspondence, signifying that such a bishop was duly elected by his clergy and people, was rightly ordained by his neighbour bishops, professed the catholic faith, and was therefore qualified for communion with his brethren. Such a consent to the election of any bishop of old was given, especially upon occasion, and when any question concerning the right of a bishop intervened, whereof now, in the election of a pope, no footstep remains. enim inoleverat hic mos, ut jam cuique ambitioso liceret Petri sedem invadere.Plat., p. 314. " Damasus II. invades the popedom by force, without any consent of the clergy and people ; for so was it now grown into custom, that any ambitious man might invade Peter's see." Eo enim turn pontificatus devenerat, ut qui plus largitione et ambition, non dico sanctitate vitee et doctrina valeret, is tantummodo dignitatis gra- dum bons oppressis et rejectis obtineret; quem moremutinam aliquando non retinuis- sent nostra tempora.Plat. in Sylv. III. " For the business of the papacy was come to that pass, that whoever, by bribery and ambition, I say not by holiness of life and learning, got thestart of others, he alone obtained that degree of dignity, goodmen in themeantime being depressed and rejected; which customI would toGod our times had not retained." Cum jam eo devenissent ecclesiastici, ut non coacti ut antea, sed sponte et largitionibus pontificium munus obirent.Plat. in Steph. VI.; Baron., ann. cxii. § 8. " Whenas now ecclesiastical persons are come to that pass that they execute the papal office, not being compelled unto it as heretofore, but of their own accord, and by brib- ing for it." Videbat enim imperator eo licentiæ factiosum queùnque et potentem, quamvis ignobilem devenisse, ut corruptis suffragiis tantam dignitatem consequeretur, &c. Plat. in Clem. II. p. 313. " For the emperor saw that every factious and power- ful person, though base and ignoble, was grown to that height of licentiousness that he obtained so great dignity by corruption and buying of suffrages." Omne papale nego- tium manus agunt. Quem dabis mihi de totamaxima urbe, qui to in papam receperit, pretio seu spe pretii non interveniente ? Bern. de Consid. iv. 2. " The whole business of making a pope is managed by gifts. Whom can you show me, in all this great city, who took you into the papacywithout being bribed and corrupted with reward, or at least with the hope of it ?" co-episcoporum testimonio, quorum numerus universus per totum mundum concordiunanimitate consentit.Cypr., Ep. lii. Cum Fabiani locus, id est, cum locus Petri, et gradus cathedra sacerdotalis, vacaret, quo occupato de Dei voluntate atque omnium nostrum consentione, &c.-Ibid. " When Fabianus' place, that is, when the place of Peter, and the degree of the sacerdotal chair, was vacant, which being obtained by thewill of God and all our consents," &c. 2 Satis erat ut to to episcopum factum literis nunciares, &c.Cypr., Ep. xlii.. " It was enough that you declared by letters that you were made bishop." 8 Episcopo semel facto, et collegarum ac plebis testimonio et judicio comprobato, &c. Cypr., Bp. ali.