THERE IS NOW NO TRUE POPE. 135 (2.) In timeswhen theRomans wouldnot suffer popes to live with them.' (3.) In case of discontinuance from Rome, when the popes, so call= ing themselves, for above seventy years abode in France; when they, indeed, not being chosen by the Roman people, nor exercising pas- toral care over them, were only titular, not real bishops of Rome, (they were popes of Avignon, not of Rome, and successors of God knows whom, not of St Peter),nomore than one continually living in England can be bishop of Jerusalem. (4.) In times of many long schisms (twenty-two schisms), when eitherthere was no true pope, or, which in effect was the same, no cer- tain one. Inopemme copia feat, [Abundance has made me poor.] (5.) Whenpopes were intruded byviolence,whomBaronius him- self positivelyaffirms to have been no popes;' how, then, could a succession of true popes be continued from them by the clergy which they, in virtue of their papal authority, pretended to create? (6.) When elections had a flaw in them, were uncanonical, and so null. (7.) When popes were simoniacally chosen; who, by their own rules and laws, are no true popes, being heretics, heresiarchs.' The which was done for long courses of time very commonly, and in a manner constantly.' (8.) When popes have been deposed, as some [have been], by the emperors, others by general councils; in which case, according to papal principles, the successors were illegal, for the pope being sove- reign, he couldnotbejudgedor deposed, and his successor isan usurper. (9.) When popes were heretical ;that is, say they, no popes. (10.) When [popes have been] atheists, sorcerers, &c. Elections in some of these cases being null, and therefore the acts consequent to them invalid, there is probably a defailance of right continued to posterity.' ' Vide Bern., Ep. ccxlii. ccxliii.; Bell. iv. 4. 2 Baron., ad an. cxii. § 8. 3 P. Greg. VII., Ep. iii. 7; P. Jul. in Conc. Lat., sess. v. p. 57. Non solum bujus- modi electio vel assumptio eo ipso nulla existat, &c. Vide sup. § 12. " Such an elec- tion or assumption, let it not only be upon that account void and null." 4 Vide qumso quantum isti degeneraverint a majoribus suis; illi enim, utpote viri sanctissimi, dignitatemultro oblatam contemnebant, orationi et doctrinen Christiana vacantes; hi vero largitione et ambitione pontificatumquenrentes, et adepti, posthabito divino cultu, &c. Plat. in Serg. iii. p. 279. Vide in Bened. IV. p. 277. "See, I beseech you, how much they have degenerated from their ancestors; for they, as being very holy men, did contemn that dignitywhen freely offered, giving themselves wholly to prayer and thedoctrine of Christ; but these by bribery and ambition seek and ob- tain thepapacy." 6 Plat. in Joh. x. p. 275. Pontifices ipsi a Petri vestigiisdiscesserant. "The popes had swerved from the examples of Peter." Possessor malm fidei nllo tempore non pra- scribit. Reg. Jur. ii. in Sixto. "He that has no right to the thing he possesses can - not plead any length of time to make his possession lawful."