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XX

INTRODUCTORY ESSAY.

the

church.

In

earthly

governments,

a substitute

may be found qua-

lified

for

all the functions of

the

sovereign;

but

in

the

spiritual king-

dom of

the

church,

this

miserable vicar

is

incapable of performing a

single

act

of

that

office

which

Christ

executes as

king

of

Zion.

He

can

neither

give

repentance to Israel, nor

the

remission of

sins,

can

neither

subdue

the

hearts nor

conquer

the

enemies of his people,

can

neither

sanctify

nor

save

their

souls,

can

neither

bless

the

ordinances of grace

nor manage

the

operations of providence.

He

has

the

name of a spiritual monarch,

but

not a

shred of

the thing

itself;

he

has "

the

likeness of

a kingly

crown,"

but not

the

reality.

He

is

the

greatest anomaly in this

world,

the

earthly head

of

a

spi-

ritual

body,

a

despot without

power,

a

viceroy

without

commission,

a

shadow

without

a

substance!

One

thing

only

was

wanting

to

complete

this

climax of fictitious

authority,

the

assumption

of

temporal in

conjunction

with and

springing

from

the

spiritual jurisdiction.

With

regard to

the

former,

history attests

the

consequences_

of

the temporal authority

with

which

the

popes were invested.

We

may

content

ourselves

with

the

follow-

ing sketch of

them

by

Guicciardini,

the

celebrated

Florentine

his-

torian

:

"

By

these foundations

and

means,

being raised to an earthly

power,

forgetting

by

little

and little

the

salvation

of

souls

and

the

commandments

of

God,

and

bending

all

their thoughts to

worldly greatness, no longer

using

the

spiritual

power

but

as

an

instrument

of

the

temporal, resembling

rather

secular princes

than

popes

or

bishops,

their

cares

and

endeavours were now no

longer sanctity of

life,

no longer propagation

of

religion, no

longer

zeal

and charity towards

their

neighbours,

but

to raise arms, and to

make

war against

Christians,

managing

their

sacrifices

with

bloody

hands and thoughts. Theybegan to

gather

treasure, to

make

new laws, to invent new

tricks and

new

devices

to get

money on all

sides,

to use

the

spiritual armswithout respect, for this

onlyend,

to

profane sacred things

without

shame,

for this

only

purpose.

The

great

wealth

lavishly bestowed upon

them and

their

whole

court

was accompanied

with pride, luxury,

dishonesty, lust,

and

abominable pleasures;

their

successors

having no care

of the perpetual

dignity

of the Papacy. Instead

whereof they had an ambitious and pestilent

desire to

exalt

their

children,

nephews,

and

kindred, not

only

to

excessive

riches,

but to

principalities and kingdoms; no longer conferring dignities upon men of

desert

and

virtue,

but

almost always

either

selling

them to the most

giver,

or

distributing

them to persons most fit for

their

ambition, avarice,

and other

shameful

plea-

sures."*

But

on

this point

we

must

carefully distinguish between

the

tem-

poral honours and

possessions

conferred on

the

Roman pontiff

and

the

temporal jurisdiction

which

he

claims

in virtue

of his

office.

*

The

above

is

part

of

the

famous passage

in

Guicciardini's

"

History of the Wars

of

Italy,"

which was expunged from

the Italian and Latin

editions,

but

restored

by

old

Fenton in his translation

of 1618, p. 177.