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XXII

INTRODUCTORY ESSAY.

their

head. And

as

Christ,

the

king

of

the

church,

has undoubtedly

received

"

all power

in

heaven

and in earth,"

the

same

universal

juris-

diction

is

presumed

to

belong to his delegate

and

representative.*

That

this extravagant

claim has

been made

by

the

popes for

many

centuries

is

beyond

all

question.

Our

author

has

observed,

in

his

Introduction,

that

Gregory

II.,

who was

ordained in

715

(several

years before

Pepin's

dotation of temporal

possessions

to the

pope),

"

may be

reputed the father of

that

doctrine,

which,

being

fostered

by

his

successors, was

by Pope

Gregory

VII.

(Hildebrand) brought

up

to its robust

pitch and stature,"

p. 17.

The

following

may be

selected from

many other

decrees of

the

popes

and

councils, as

a

spe-

cimen of

the authority

claimed, aild

the

grounds

on which

it

was

made

to rest;

it

is

from

the

famous

"

Extravagant"

of Boniface

VIII.:

"All

the

faithful of Christ,

by

necessity

of

salvation, are subject

to the

Roman

pontiff, who

has both

swords,

and judges all

men,

but

is

judged

by no

one.

In

the

power of

which successor we

are

taught

by the

evangelical sayings

that

there are

two

swords,

the spiritual

and the temporal;

for

when

the

apostles said,

'

Behold,

here,'

that

is,

in the

church,

`are

two

swords,'

the

Lord

did

not

answer

that

there

were too

many,

but

merely

enough.

Certainly he

who denies

that

the

temporal

sword is

in the

hand

of

Peter attends little

to

that

word of

the

Lord,

`.Put up thy sward into

its

sheath.' Each,

then,

is

in

the

power

of

the

church,

the

spiritual and

the

material

sword.

But

one is

to be

used

for,

the other

by

the

church;

one

by

the

hand

of

the

priest,

the

other

by

the

hand

of

kings and

soldiers,

but

at

the

nod and

permission of

the

priest.

Thus

the

prophecy of

Jeremiah

is

verified

in the

church and

the

ecclesiastical power:

`See,

I

have

set

thee

this

day

over the

nations and

over the

kingdoms.' There-

fore,

if

the

earthly

power

turn

aside,

it

will be

judged

by

the

spiri-

tual

power;

and if a spiritual

inferior,

by

his superior.

But

if

the

high

spiritual

power

turn

aside,

it

can be

judged by

God alone,

not

by man;

since

the

apostle bears witness,

The

spiritual

man

judgeth all

things, but he

himself is judged

by no

man.' And this

authority

is

not

human,

though

given

to man and

exercised

by man;

but rather

divine, given

by the

divine

mouth to

Peter

himself

and

his

successors,

in him

whom

he

confirmed

to be a

firm rock,

the

Lord

saying

to

Peter

himself,

'Whatsoever thou shalt bind

on

earth

shall

be

bound

in

heaven.' Whosoever, therefore, resists

this

power, resists

the

ordinance of God; unless he pretend,

as

the

Manichees,

that

there

are

two

beginnings, which

we

judge

false

and

heretical,

because,

as Moses testifies,

not

in

the

beginnings,

but

`in

the beginning,

God

See

this point ably argued

and

illustrated in

" The Papacy,"

by the

Rev.

J.

A.

Wylie,

chap. v.