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402

DISCOURSE

ON

THE UNITY

OF

THE

CHURCH.

every church, in more

private matters, touching its

own

particular

state, retained

its

liberty and authority, without being subject

or

ac-

countable to any

but the

common Lord.

In

such

cases

even synods

of

bishops

did not

think

it proper

or

just

for

them

to interpose,

the

prejudice of

that

liberty and

power which derived from

a

higher

source.'

These

things are

very

apparent,

as

by

the

course of ecclesiastical

history,

so

particularly in

that

most precious

monument of antiquity,

St

Cyprian's

Epistles,' by

which

it

is

most evident

that

in

those

times

every bishop or

pastor

was conceived

to have

a

double relation

or

capacity,

one

toward his

own

flock,

another

toward

the

whole-

flock.

One toward his

own

flock,

by

virtue

of which he,

taking

advice

of

his presbyters, together with

"

the

conscience of

his people

assisting,

'

ordered all things

tending to particular

edification, order, peace,

re-

formation, censure,

&c.,

without

fear of

being troubled by

appeals,

or

being liable to

give

any

account

but

to his

own

Lord,

whose vice-

gerent

he

was.`

Another

toward

the

whole

church in

behalf

of his people, upon

account whereof

he, according

to

occasion

or order,

applied himself

to

confer

with other

bishops

for

preservation of

the

common

truth

and

peace, when

they

could

not

otherwise be well

upheld than by

the

joint

conspiring of

the

pastors of

divers churches.

So

that

the

case of bishops was

like

to

that

of

princes, each

of

whom

has

a

free

superintendence in his

own

territory; but

for to

up-

hold

justice and

peace in

the

world, or

between adjacent nations,

the

intercourse of several princes

is needful.

The

peace

of

the

church

was

preserved

by

communion

of

all

parts

together,

not

by

the

subjection of

the

rest to

one

part.

1

Superest

ut

de

hac ipsa

re singuli quid

sentiamus, proferamus, neminem

judicantes

ant

a

jure

communionis

aliquem si diversum senserit amoventes,

&c.

Vid.

Cone.

Car

-

thay.,

apud

Cypr. p. 399.

Vid. Syn.

Ant.,

can. ix.

2

Vide

Ep. xxviii. 39, xiv. 18.

s

Sub populi

assistentis

conscientia.

Cypr.,

Ep. lxxviii.

+

-

actum

suum disponit

et dirigit

unusquisque

episcopus,

rationem propositi

sui

Domino

redditurus.

Cypr.,

Ep.

lii.

"Every

bishop

ordereth and directeth his

own

acts, being

to

render an

account of his purpose to

the Lord."

Cum

statutum

sit

omni-

bus

nobis, ac

aquum

sit

pariter

ac

justum,

ut

uniuscujusque causa illic

audiatur

ubi

est crimen admissum;

et

singulis pastoribus portio gregis

sit

adscripta,

quam

regat

unusquisque præpositus, rationem

actus

sui

Domino

redditurus.

Cypr.,

Ep.

lv.

ad

.

"

Since

it

is ordained

by us

all,

and

it

is likewise

just

and

equal,

that

every man's

causo

should be

there judged

where

the

crime is committed; and

to each

pastor

a

portion

of

the

flock

is assigned, which [he] is to

rule and

govern, being to give

an accountof his act

to the Lord."

Qua

in re

nec nos vim

cuiquam

facimus, nee legem damns, cum

habeat

in

ecclesiss

administratione voluntatis

sun

liberum

arbitrium

unusquisque

prsepositus,

rationem actus sui

Domino

redditurus

.

.

C.;rpr.,

Ep. lxxii.

ad

Steph.

P.;

Vide

Ep.

lxxiii.

p.

186;

Ep. lxxvi.

p.

212.

"In

which mat

ter neither

do we offer

violence

to any man nor

prescribe any

law, since every bishop

bath, in the

government of his church,

the

free

power

of his

will,

being to render an account

of

his

own

act unto the Lord."