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OBJECTION

FROM

THE INDEPENDENT

THEORY.

413

that

Christendom stands divided

under

divers

temporal

sovereignties;

for

their

resolutions may

intrench

on

the

interest

of

some

princes,

and hardly

can

they

be accommodated to

the

civil laws

and customs

of

every state.

Whence

we see

that

France

will

not admit the

decrees of

their

Tridentine

synod.

Ans.

8.

There

was

no such inconvenience

in

them

while Christen-

dom

was

in

a manner

confined

within

one

empire;

for

then nothing

could

bé decreed

or executed

without

the

emperor's leave or

to

his

prejudice.

Ans.

9.

Yea,

as

things

now

stand,

it

is impossible

there

should

be

a

free council, most of

the

bishops being

sworn vassals

and

clients

to

the

pope, and

by

their

own

interests

concerned

to maintain his

exor-

bitant

grandeur and

domination.'

Ans.

10.

In

the

opinion of

St

Athanasius2

there

was

no reason-

able cause of

synods,

except

in

case

of new heresies springing

up,

which may be confuted by

the

joint

consent

of bishops.

Ans.

11.

As

for

particular

synods,

they

only signify

that

it

was

useful

for

neighbour

bishops

to

conspire

in promoting

truth,

order,

and

peace,

as

we

have otherwhere showed.'

Councils have often been convened

for

bad

designs,

and been made

engines to

oppress

truth

and

enslave Christendom.

That

of

Antioch against Athanasius,

of

Ariminum

for

Arianism;

the

second

Ephesine to

restore Eutyches

and

reject

Flavianus; the

second

of

Nice

to impose

the

worship of images

;*

the

synod of

Ari-

minum to

countenance Arians.

So

the

fourth

synod

of

Lateran

(sub

Inn.

III.)

to

settle

the

prodigious doctrine of

transubstantiation,

and

the

wicked

doctrine

of papal

authority

over

princes;

the

first synod

of Lyons

to

practise

that

hellish doctrine of deposing

kings;

the

synod

of Constance

to

establish

the

maim

of

the

eucharist, against

the

Calixtines

of Bohemia.

The Lateran (under

Leo

X.) was called, as

the

archbishop of

Patras

affirmed, " for

the exaltation

of

the

apostolical

see;

"'

the

synod of

Trent

to settle

a

raff

of errors

and

superstitions.

Obj.II.

[XIII.]

It

may

farther

be

objected,

that

this

doctrine

favours

the

conceits

of

the Independents

concerning ecclesiastical discipline.

I

answer,

no;

for,

Hist. Trid.,

p.

67.

A free council.

P.

Leo

I.,

Ep.

-

R

Ai la

vüv

znaú¡.cevar

xap' ausrw

oúvaóor

vroiay

ixoumry

süloy;v

aiviar,

&c.

Athan.

de

Syn. p. 873.

3

Subrependi enim

occasiones non

pretermittit

ambitio,

et

quoties

ob

intercurrentes

causas generalis congregatio

facta fuerit

sacerdotem, difficile est

ut

cupiditas impro-

borum non aliquid supra mensuram suam

non

moliatur

appetere.

Leo

M,

Ep.

lxii.

ad

Maximum

Ant., Ep.

.

*

In

all the former editions this

word

"

images" has been unaccountably

printed

"

babies."

En.

4

Pro

apostolicse

sedis

exaltations.

Lat.

Syn.,

sess.

x

p.

120.