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INTRODUCTION.

5

France,

in the

Convention of Orders, anno 1595, declared against

that

decree,

as

infringing

their

king's authority.'

It

was

therefore advisedly

done,

not to meddle with

so

ticklish a

point. But, in

the meantime, their

policy seems

greater

than their

charity, which

might

have inclined

them not

to leave

the

world

in

darkness

and

doubt,

and

unresolved

in a point of

so

main import-

ance;

as,

indeed,

they

did in others of

no small consequence, dis-

puted

among

their

divines

with obstinate heat,

viz.,

the

divine

right

of bishops,

the

necessity of residence,

the

immaculate

concep-

tion,

&c.

The

opinions,

therefore, among

them

concerning

the

pope's

autho-

rity,

as

they

have been,

so

they

are,

and

in

likelihood may continue,

very

different.

§

II.

There are

among

them

those

who

ascribe

to

the

pope

an

universal, absolute,

and

boundless

empire

over

all

persons indiffer-

ently,

and in all matters,

conferred

and settled

on

him by

divine

immutable sanction;

so,

that

all

men, of whatever

degree,

are obliged

in

conscience

to

believe

whatever he authoritatively

dictates,

and to

obey

whatever he prescribes;

so

that

if

princes themselves refuse

obedience-

to

his

will,

he may excommunicate them, cashier them,

depose

them, extirpate them.

If

he

charge us to hold no commu-

nion

with

our prince, to renounce our allegiance to him, to abandon,

oppose,

and persecute him even to death,

we

may without

scruple,

we

must in duty

obey.

If

he interdict

whole

nations

from

the

exercise

of God's worship

and

service,

they must

comply

therein.

So

that,

according

to

their

conceits,

he

is

in

effect sovereign

lord

of

all

the

world,

and

superior, even

in

temporal

or civil

matters, unto all

kings and

princes.

It

is

notorious

that

many

canonists,

if

not

most,

and many

divines

of

that

party maintain

this

doctrine, affirming

that

all

the

power

of Christ

(the

"

Lord of

lords,

and King

of

kings," to

whom

all

power

in heaven and earth appertains)

is

imparted to

the

pope, as

to

his

vicegerent'

This

is

the

doctrine

which,

almost four

hundred

years

ago,

Augus-

tinus Triumphus,

in

his " egregious

work"

concerning

ecclesiastical

power,

taught, attributing to the

pope " an incomprehensible

and

Hic articulus

est

contra authoritatem

regis,

qui non potest

privari

suo

domino

temporali, respectu

cujus nullum

superiorem

recognoscit.--

Bochel.,

lib.

v.

tit.

20, cap.

45.

"

This article

is

against the

authority

of

the

king,

who

cannot

be deprived of

his

temporal

dominion,

wherein he

acknowledges no

superior."

2

Prima sententia

est, summum pontificem

jure

divino

habere plenissimampotesta-

tern

in

universum

orbem

terrarum, tam in rebus

ecclesiasticis

quam

civilibus.

Ita

docent Aug.

Triumphus, Alvarus Pelagius, Panormitanus, Hostiensis,

Sylvester,

et

alii

non

pauci.

Belt,

vol. i. '

The first opinion

is,

that

the

pope

hath

a

most

full

power

over

the

whole world,

both

in

ecclesiastical

and

civil affairs.

This

is

the doctrine

of

Aug.

Triumphus,"

&c.,

"and

of

many others."