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INTRODIICTION.

7

peace

and

alliance be

made among Christians

for

at

least

ten

years;

and to

that

bind

kings

in the

fetters

of

the great

King, and

constrain

nobles

by

the

iron manacles

of

censures

:

for

to thee

is

given all power

in

heaven

and in

earth.

"'

This

is

the

doctrine which

Baronius,

with a Roman

confidence,

so

often asserts

and

drives forward, saying

that

"

there

can

be

no

doubt

of

it

but that the

civil

principality

is subject

to the

sacerdotal

;" and

that

"

God

has made

the

political government subject

to

the

do-

minion of

the

spiritual

church."

3*

§

III.

From

that

doctrine

the

opinion

in

effect does

not

differ,

which Bellarmine vouches for

the

common opinion

of

Catholics,

that

"

by

reason of

the

spiritual

power,

the

pope,

at

least indirectly, has

a

supreme power even

in

temporal matters.

"'

This opinion,

so

common,

does

not,

I

say,

in

effect

and practical

consideration,

any

wise differ from

the

former,

but

only

in

words

de-

vised

to shun

envy,

and

veil

the

impudence

of

the

other assertion:

for

the

qualifications,

"

By

reason

of

the

spiritual

power," and, "

At

least indirectly," are

but

notional, insignificant,

and

illusive,

in regard

to

practice,

it

importing not, if he has in his keeping

a

sovereign

power,

upon what account

or

in what formality

he

employs

it:

seeing

that

every

matter

is easily

referrible

to a spiritual account;

seeing

he

is sole

judge upon what

account

he acts;

seeing expe-

rience

shows

that

he

will spiritualize all

his interests, and upon

any

occasion exercise

that

pretended authority; rand]

seeing

it

little

Arripe

ergo

gladium

divina

potestatis

tibi

creditum, bis

acutum; et

jube, impera,

manda,

ut

pax universalis

et

colligatio

per

decennium

inter

Christianos ad minus fiat

;

et

reges ad

id in

compedibus

magni Regis

liga,

et

nobiles

in

manicis ferreis censurarum

constringe

:

quoniam

tibi data

est

omnis potestas

in

ccelo

et

in

terra.

Episc.

Patrac.,

Bess.

x. p.

133.

2

Politicum principatum sacerdotali

esse

subjectum

nulla

potest

esse

dubitatio.

Ann.

57,

§

23.

3

Politicum imperium subjecit spiritualis ecclesia

dominio.

Ibid,

§

53.

*

Charles

Butler,

Esq.,

in

his

"Book

of

the

Roman Catholic Church," adduces

the

following

outlines of

the

doctrines of

that

class

of divines called Transalpine, or

Ultra

-

montane, who dwell

in

or near

Rome,

and

who

are distinguished

from

the

Cisalpine,

who reside on

the French

side of

the

Alps.

The Transalpine are

those

who

are under

the

immediate direction of

the

pope,

and

compose

his

court,

who

are

considered

sounder

in the faith

concerning

the

supremacy

than the

French, or those

who live

at

a distance

from

Rome.

He

says,

"

Transalpine divines

attribute

to

the

pope

a divine

right

to

the

exercise,

indirect

at

least, of

the

temporal power for

effecting

a spiritual

good; and,

in

consequence of

it, maintained

that

the

supreme power

of

every

state

was

so

far

subject

to the

pope,

that

when he

deemed

that

the

bad conduct of

the

sovereign

rendered

it

essential to

the

good

of the church

that

he should reign

no longer,

the

pope was

then

authorized,

by his

divine

commission,

to deprive him of his sovereignty,and

absolve

his

subjects

from

their

obligation of allegiance;

and that,

even on

ordinary

occasions,

he

might

enforce obedience

to his

spiritual

legislation and

jurisdiction by

civil penalties."

Book

of

the

Roman

Catholic Church,

pp. 121, 122. 8vo.

London:

1826.

ED.

4

Tertia

sententia

media

et

catholicorum

communis, pontificem

ut

pontificem

non

habere directe et immediate ullam temporalempotestatem,

sed solum

spiritualem,

tamen

ratione spiritualis habere

saltem indirecte potestatem quondam, eamque

summam,

in

temporalibus.BelL,

vol.

i.