Baxter - BX1765 B39 1691

I' ) Againft the Revolt to AForeign J urifdiCtidri; \Vhich would be to . England,its P ER7VRT; . CHVRCI-1-RVINE, and SLA VERY. , ..- In Two Parts. . ' I. TheHifiory ofMens Endeavors eo introduce It.' n. The Confutation of all Pretences for it. ' '· ~ Fully flaring the Controver(le , and Proving , That there)s nb Soveraign Power Cif Le,giflation, Judgment and Executionove~ the whole Church on Earth, A:rifiocratical or Monarchical; btit only Chrifis: Efpeciallyagainfi the Arifiocratifis who pface it• · in a Council _or Coiiege. ----~- -------~. ---.~~. ~~ --~· ~. ~~ .. ~. -- ,." By RICHARD !JAXTER, ari Earnell: De!irer of the Churches Concord, anli therefore an Enemy ro all f4lfe Tetrris, and Dividing Engines, and Self-exaltin·g Sea's; and a Defecder of Chrift's own a!figned Term5, which rake in all the true Chrifiians in the World·, and are Injurious or Cruel ---~to none. . 0.:."'11:'\·- ~,~. r.... .. .... . .. ,- -~- .. ·:~ -·.-,:·· ... -,~.-: --·" •' !\;·--,.., To beoffered eo rhe 'next Convocarion, befeeching theln to own the Doarine of Foreign Communion, but to l'lore with Re– nunciatio{l the Doetrineof Foreign J u,rifdieti•.:m, and roVindi– cate the Reformed Church of England, froll} rhe Guilt and Sufpitton which the French and Innovators injuriou!ly feek to faften on them,' ·;·~. "'·' _,._-- · -··, ·• · .. - .,.. ,...., . ' Luk. 22~ 24, 1. 5, 2 6. And there wa/ aftrlfeamong them w ri,:h of ihtm . (hOuld be accouuted'tl:e Grea.teft : And he [aid to them, i he Kings nf the. Gen~iles exerci(e Lordfhip overthull, a~d they that exerci[t Au.tho– rity upon the'f!J are .cafled B·enefaElm: Buj ye {htt!l not be fo ; bt~·t he t.hat i5 gr eateji ap10n~ you, let him be a~ the Tottnger,' and he thit u' chief lt4 he that dotk firve. ., . ,. ,. _-. , ,, ~ , , .. . z ~heff. 5· r2: We brjm·h.,ou Brethren to know, themwhicb labour iimo'ng jou,and are over rou i'l the Lo~d, and admonifhyou , ,I 3· A'!d to eftum them very highly in love for their wor~fak,e ;' and be at Feace al11ftng ·-ynur (ehm. ' ,.,. ' - : _' ·· ht;:~t'Jd>i_li oji? ' : ·<· LendoTt,,Primed for Ihfl. Parkhurft at the_Bibliand rT'hree Crowns, ; at the lower end of Chedp(lde. near Mercm (; h,.,pfl. 169 r. • -~~ . :: · - ..... ~-c~ · m ·-<- -J-~~'~'+. -~~~~.,...

.. ·' ·'> / I ' ~·. :

• I . I to the ReverendanddefervedlyHonoured Dr. JOHN TILLOTSON • I Dean of St. Paul's Church·. I . . Reverend_Sir, ·T·· HE Melfage on which this . . · ·Epifile cometh to you is, to intreat you to Prefent this Treatife to the next Con~ocation,and to endeavour their publick renuncia· cionofForeign Jurifdiction, and their cenfure of the Books that are written here for it. The Reafons of my re~ que!l: are, . I. T'he Canons conde1nn them.,· · that deny the Convocation to be the Cburch of England Reprefentative : And they that·have written for land.. promoted·this Doctrine and D·:ftgn, . · A 3 · have

/The EpiJlle D~dicatory. _, UJVe not onlv been ChiefMen in the tChurch, hut~have laboured to fa!teq ~heir Doctrine on the Chqrch, \vhich yet b~fore tpe. 6rpe qf BiJho;pLau,d, ' ~he : Chqrch difclairned -al)d ppenly ~6't1derpned; and took. Foreign]?ilhops anq ~ounciJ.s, for- l?r~.thren.·an9 aJau~ ~fable 1neans of Con1munion, while 'they did their .prop~r work ~ ~ ' but not by Jurifdicbon to be the,Governpurs p£·us, and .all · Chrifiian Kings ·and Kingdon1·s as their Subjects. -_ And lVhq can be Ign'ora'nt' that when af ~he·· prefent ·rhe Papift Bifhops ar~ v~ry · Many to . One Proteitanc Bi- • I fhop' 1 tbe.y will ' 'accordingly ~arry it by their YotFS inCouncils : ·And 1f tpe Major V~t~ .- be the Collegiullt ·J?«fio.ntrl}, ·that haye the · Chief Gq: , • ~7ernn1ent in che Interval of Couri-- · ~il~; we - ~are n'pw Subjt::crs to the 'Bifbo ps and ~hurch of Ro1lle ?. A,nd if . fb~;tloiria!} !Je!riu ; Prilpt~ n-luft ~all /) " p . ' '·" .• • ' " . " : .; ' " . . h'~ / ~ . f,L : '· ;

The Epiji!e Dedicatory~ the next Council, (or there muft be none till all Chriftian Kings . agre~ to call · it ) the prefent ·j~ like to be· long ·the Univerfal' 4ri– ftocracy. · · The Reprefentative Churcq ,of England is. fo nearly concerned i~ · ;this ·great Matter, both for the mo" ment ·of .it, and 'the imputation· of this Defign unto it, tha~ we· ~~annot ~hink they will lightly pafs it by without their cenfure. . ~"Which will be the more ·expe– Cted becaufe of the Owning of Dr. Beveridge's Sermbn. to them~ which I have here examined. . Dr. T!lhitby's Reconciler of Prate":' · Jlant s efcaped . not the Oxford cen~. fure ; and we hope the 1leprefen– tative Church of England, will no~ be more favourable ~ . to Subj~Elion, .\v h!ch is more rhan Rec{)nciling to the Foreign Papifls ': Left they che- - ' A 4 riili

tpp fipift~e p~Jica~otJ: ' . . riili th~ Sufpjcion that ~he ~efire of ,{q·:· much~ Concord' with ·· Franfe iq ..:t hu.rch ~6nfiitution qnd ~overn~ ~"'):' , _. ~· .· ' ' ' ' I ' 1 ine.nt, will intima.te aprep~r~tion to 'another Relation~ to them, which /inglatJdcannqt 'l:>ear w1th eafe. . .I '. And we are loth to 'be .difabled A • r • . • ,.._ · l Jo ' ~onfu~e rh~ Sep~r4tifts, that wjJl · ·never be recon~iled to the Church.of ~P,g{qnd; 1.f tqey - ~~n . . £1y that· ~~ · i~ revol~ed to' 1 S~bjeCtlOQ to the £a,. · piff:s ., ... ,, ·' · · .· · · · ' l ' ':Jjut \vhy .fhould we doub~ whe:– ther' the Convocation will renounce ~ha~ which b~th 'themfel ves ~L~d alJ the Church and Kingdol11are Sworn ~gainft,~ven all .E.~ckft·afii~aJ F~reigr\ Jurifchcrion. ··· · · ·· , 1 · · · ~ - li.'-' Th~ f}eafon~ why .I prefume . to ·de4r.e you to be: ~l1e Man that: fualJ prefenr"chls ]3ook ~nq ·Motion • r. fq rh~.m ? '' · .ar~ I.{e . it ~s · fcl ~ ~- that Cufto1n rn'lketh the Dean ot . ... . , ... . ' . ·• "' .• ! '. . , y;' :' i • , Paul's : ;,. ~i ~ { ·-'

· The Epijlle Dedicatory. · Pauls ufually to be chofen the Pro– locutor .to the ~owe~ Ho~fe~ I fpeak . bu~ by hearfay, having never been . . pne of them : ( For the Clergy of Lpndon choofing Mr. C/,lanty and Me for their Clerks, of. that ConvocJtion that made the Materials of the late differericing lntpofitions, BilhopShel– don by Prerogative excludecJ us to our ·Eafe: and fo tbe City of London confented not by their Clerk~ · to any of t hofe ACts.) . · 2. And you are the Man that • Publifhed that · Excellent l3ook of Dr. l[aac Barrow , which unanfwera– blv (againft .Jv1r.lhorndi/ze and fuch . . o·rhers) confuted the · P~etences to a ForeignJurifdiction. . · . 3· And yoq are ~no\vn to be fo firn1 a Friend to Love, Concord .and Peace, (like vour Fath~r il1 La\v Bi~ , ' • ' J . '· . . J!Jop ffiiJins ~· \vho pnce ~;_y ~ppoii~t" fD~I~f ~r~ate8 ) ~n~ ~g r~cq ~1~h us 1n a

The Epiflle Dtldicatory~ a Vniting Fornz of Concord) that I · . n1ay 'onfid.endy expect your beft Affiftance~ · / If any iliould J~e · (o advetfe -to ._ dlis ·Neceffary ·Wor~ as to turn . it ~ff by . diverting to · Accufation a– :j;ainft n1e , or 'the Nonconformifts, ·l pray reU them how impertinent t:hat is to the prefent Bufinefs : And if \ it be needful~ lhew them n1y Treatifo for National Churches, and c:hat~ of ,Fpifcopacy; and my Engli/h JVonco1lfornJity jlated and argued: And whereas I an1 faid to have refufed 'a • :B1fhoprick becaufe I was·againfr ~pifcopacy, be it knJwn· that in -I6'6I, , the Pacificators ·never offered a'ny · ' thing lower than ArchbifhopV/hels ~ Model of the Primitive Epifcopacy: And: when the ·King's Declaration , granted us lefs , we Publilhed a Th;ankfid Acceptance. . And I gave in \\Fri:ting the R.eafons Qf n1y Re... , fufal

The Epiflle Dedicatory. fufal to the Lord Chancellor·Hyde; . That Ifthat Declaration were Confirmed . py a Larp, ! woulc/ be no Bifhop;becaufe Jwould not difable 1!!1{elf to perfwaqe f16 llftfnJ as I iould to Conforuiity, hy drawing them to fay that I did it for my own Ends. Which Anfwer fatisfied · ~he Lord Chaqcelior. I think ·every .Blilioprick in.· England bath ·BuriecJ 1nany of ics Bilhops ~nee I?Y r~fufal; , / .. who an1 now near J?ying IQ the · z6thYear ofa Painful Life; and in.. treat · you thou,gh I be Deacl to do this Office, for the Endangered. · Church of England, and for your truly honouring Brother, ., , · ,' ~ • . J '· ~ \ Ri. Baxter~ --- ;.. ~ .2. ·~ • 1 • ~_;; . ~. ' .·. ro . I

.TO THE ,. . READER~ ' THis Book._ b~ing Written .at fevera! tin;es, 111ofl of·it 111any Tears ago, . · and [o11ze 'lately, andanfwering nzany Perfons n;ho' ufe the [a111e Argu- ., 1!tents, it hath one blemifh whicf? I anz ajbanzed of i7l the review; thqt is, The top oft rep,eating' i(Je [ante things ; e(pe– c~ally in 111)' four Letters to BijhopGun' irig ·; occafioned by ~ur oft repeatilig . .thenz in Conference. l he thing is_ ·ufital in long Difputa'tions, (as .hi the School$ men , in Dr. Twiffe Vind. Grat. and fuch others, the Adverfary nzak.,ing it needful;) But I anz far f ront ju{iifyin;; it ... . Had I intended it as one orderly !reatzJe at firft ·, and not written the "' ~ · ~Parts

To·the Reader. Parts on {everalOccafions, Qr had Iyet lime and Strength to have cafl it into a 111ore regular fbape,ii might have been I partly a11zended: Bttt I had rather it ctJme out thw than not at all : Whoever, _ .u di[pleafed at it, hy guilt or different . juclg11zent, I will pleafe nzy Confcience, whofe Peace I find poilible and quiet– . ting, while fuch Mens bath beenneither hitherto to 111e. · I' fznow ·that Age and NaturalWea~~ nefs; hath heenpart of the Caufe of nzy forgetting ·.oft that I had written the {a11ze ,before. .But while l confefs thh l.nfirnzity, J. will tell the Reader two.Stories "for his ufe ofit. . 1read in agreat Man that ·oft re– peating -in the Pulpit the [an1e thing, was 9 fign to the Hearers, that their , Teacher {pa~e not crudely and rt(fhly that he had never digefled or well flu– ·.died,nor light things tbat he valued JZOto• hit! that which he thought nece!fa'J and hadlong conjiclered. I

• To the Reader~ J heard of ·a · Preacher that would t~eeds hiS '$ervant .tell hinJ .what ·. M~n faid of His Preaching : And being ' urged (but.loth) .be Jaicl, They fay; Sir, that ·you very often repeat the fame things ; And· to tell you the truth, I think it is too true : For the \ lafi Dayyou repeate~ that wh~cb fou ., - · had faiq ·divers Dax~ before : . Saith· h~ Majir:t , ~Tell me\vha~ it was? He Paufed awhile, and[aid, I rem~mh>er not the words now ; Saith h'is Majler, ·. Didft thou fo underftand them as to . tell ·me the Matt~r. and tneaning of ·them,? But he could tell n~ither 1 Nay then, faitb his Mafter,. I .will .r_epeac , ·then1 yet agairl' for ~hy fak~> andfuch as thou art : Till theyare underftood and remernbred I have not 'faid them ~ oft _enough: God b'-~ 7ltercifitl to us Sinners.; - ·.;: I ' I I • .. ,

., . tHl!: ·CONTEN-TS '. · Of the Firft Part. . . ~NHift()rical Preface~ ·' . Cl'\ap. J. The Protef!ant Church ?f England . u againfl all Hu"? V~tver{At Sovera~gnty,, M a. narchical and Ariftocrattc'.tl, and agamft all F(freignJurifdiClion. . Chap. II. Thu whole Kingdom and Church u [worn ' agt~inft all Foreign 1urifdiClion, an.d againft all En– aeavours to alter theGovernment ; llndmuft not be Perjured. Chap. III. What Ende~tvours were u[ed by Pap:iffs to /wing England under a Foreign JurifdiEtion in . King lames's time. . The .Bijhop of Ambrun llnd others wrong him. · · ~bap. IV. Of the Papifts Endeavours inK. Cnarles · time, and tke great Injury they did him·efp'ecially the lrijh• •Maimburgh Declarlltion of the Durcheft of York. . . · Chap. V, The Foreiiln Leade,rsof the Englifh Conci– liators who arefor a Foreign 'Jurifditliot~. Gerfon for ~he. fofficiency of Chrift's Law to rule the Church. ~hap. VI. Grotius' s Judgment in hi; own words. Chap..VII. Thefeverat forts of Peace· maksr; abostt 1'opijhComroverfie.;~ . €ha' ''fiT·

the Contents.. _ -. Chap. VIII. The DoElrine of .Archbijhoji Bromhali · defending Grotitis. , . Chap: IX: The <Judgment ofArchbifhop Laud, tU de- · Hvered, I. By Dr. _Heylin. 2; By him[elf. . - Chap. X.. Dr. Peter Heylin's own Judgment. Chap. XI. The Judgment of Mr. Herbert-1horn– dike. Chap. XII. The Judgment of Dr. Sparrow Bifhop of Norwich, and divers others. · . · Chap. XIII. Bijhop Sain. Parker's Judgment. - Chap. XIV. Dr. Saywell's Arg~ments for" FQreign '. _1uri[diilion confideredr · Chap. XV, XVI, XVII, XVIII~ . Four .Lettert ~~~ Bijhop Guning. about a Foreign ']urifdit'iion. Clup. ~I~. Mr. H~ .Dodwell's Leviathan again, .Anatomrz.ed; andhuSecond Part confidered,c~ltea A · Difcourfe for .One Altar andOne PriefthooJ., Chap. XX. Of Dean Th. Pierce (aNd Dr. Ham..; mond cited by him.) . Chap. XXI. That thu fort of Prelatifts who · hav~ · been for a Coalition with. tbe French .or Roman Charch, have b~en the great Agents of all the ·;Di– viding, Silenping ., Perftcf4ting Laws, whjch·hMJt broup);; and k~pt uo theft zrrrears in our lacerate ftate. ' . · Chap. XXII. How they have been jlopt, and what Danger there iJ yet of them. _ I Chap. XXIII. Poftfcript agt~inft Dt. Beveridge~.t ConwcationSermon. \ ' - ~; ,,,:/ ~~ /

[ l ] r •, ,· An Hiflorical Prologue; a5 a Key to u1t ~ derftand our Eng!ijJJ Dijferen.ces. - §L IT is 'a dreadful Infbnce of the fotri!11 de- ~ ~ · ceivablenefs of Mankind, that one of the · · A moO: happy Kingdoms on Earth, ibould be almofi confumed by their own hand:;, in DiviGons infamous through the World, and that to this very day the Caufe and Matter of rhetl), is hot knowh (except by the contrivet·s, among our {elves) by fuch who tnadly continue the Di– vifions. Nor is it known who is in the faulr, but they !lrive on, accufing one another. And it's one of the facdefi notices in this World, that fiudi– ous Learned Pafiors that are grown old in Studies; and profefs all to be devoted tO Ti·uth and Love, are fo far from having skill and will to heal us,that they are the ·men .that caufe the \.\'9und, and keep it open, and are greater hinderers of our Concord and Peace, than Princes, Lords, or any Sec_ulars : Andwhat one judgeth the certain Caufe of the Worlds Divifions, another as confidently judgeth the only way to heal them : And both tides con– fers while they lay it on each othe-r, that it is the Clergy that are the deadliefl Enemies of Peace. § II. It is not the noife of Drums and Trum– pets, which tells an Army the caufes of the War 1 The 'Mafiers of the War can chufe their own– Trumpeters, and talk loudefi ·of that which they· ·Would hav~t divert men from the true caufe. Epii~ B ' ,

,• ...;;.. ·"' .; [ z ] eopacy, andLiturgy, and, and Con: formity, are the things that make the greateft D?ife. But 'Jewel, Bilfon, H'Ook§r, &c. differed not about thefe, nor Sir Edwin Snndys, the ·Author of Europ.e Speculum: Nor the Engliih Clergy and Par– liaments in BiihopAkbots days, who were of their mind, when the Differences began to rife and threaten us. § III. It's certain that the fundamental, univerfal Quarrel through the World, is .between the ~ followers of Cain and .Abel, the Serpents and the \~1.Nomans Seed, or the Servants of Satan and of Chrill :. For the carnal mind is enmity to God, . arid neither is nor can be fubjett to his Law. Selfifh" . ne{s is the fum of \vickedpefs ; and Holinefs of'· Moral good. Uniting in one God is poffible and fafe : But to the felfifh there are as many Religions and Ways, as fandy felf,interefi requiretl1. Good· men will do good, and·bad men will do evil,under every Form of Government : Becaufe Great– Good men are fo rare, to kee? Bad men from do– ing hurr, is not the fmallell: ·u[e of Laws. Good· men of differetlt Opinions can live ·in Love and Peace. I never knetv any called Puritanes, who· did not love and honour fuch Conformifis, as Bifhop 'Jewel, A· Bifbop Grindal, A. Bifbop Abbot, A. Bi{bopVjher, Bil11op Davenant, and many fach ~ and {uch as Mr. Bolton, Dr. Sibbs, Dr. Pref!on, Mr. U'hateley, and all fuch other; yea while they' ·wrote againll: fame of them (as Bi!hop Morton 1 .1-lal!, Downamc, <in;.) But what are the pllrticula'f! Quarrels ? 1 ' , - · · § IV. Departing from the only Center and· TeH ofUniverfal Concord, and dtvifimr an Vni.. ve-rf~l Ji:I#ntane So1.:err:igmy,. hath fee the World in.. ·~ . tG' . '

[ 3 ] tOmortal Difcord, on pretence of being the only : way to Concord. Chrifi only is the Head, the King, and Law-giver, and·Judge of the whole World: The Law of Nature, and facred infpired Apofrolical Scriptures, are his only Univerfal ' Law. Pafiors by the Word, and Princes by the Sword (conjoyned where it may be) rule . under him only in their feveral Provinces.. God made the largenefs of the Roman Empire a Receptive Means of the happy propagation of Chrifiianity.. Mans nature is prone to felfiibnefs and ambition : By ·degrees thofe humours, and the Wifdom of theWorld, conformed the Epifcopal Government to the Civil, and made thofe Bifl1ops higheft, who dwelt in the Cities where the Secular Rulers were highefl:. The Churches had before ufed to ferve God in Concord, and to Affemble for Confulta– tion when Concord required it. The Emperors therefore exalted the great Bi!bops, not to Go– vern alone, but to prefide in thefe Affemblies. The fir 1 fi General ~ouncil had been called as a ra. tional means to cure the ibameful threatning Dif-. cords of the Churches, without the formal.ity of -any Prefident, fave the Emperor and a temporary Moderator : But three Patriarchs were foon fet up, apd after made five, and other BHhops in dif– ferent degrees of grandeur : The great and fha- , king dangers bred by Religious Faetions, were ordered to be .decided by Aifemblies pf Biiliops, when ,changes were made in the Cities of the Empire, the Rule of conforming the Church to the Civil Gov.ernment bred a competition be– tween Rome and Conffantinople, becaufe of the tranllating of the Imperial Seat. Th- grew l~igher an'ct higher; and whenever any Emperm· B 2 · . of

' ' L of Conftantinople fell out with his own Patriarch, he either put him out, or favoured the prehemi– nence of the Biiliop of Rome to curb him : But ufually his own Biihop being at his command, he favoured ·his Intereft againfi the Roma-n : And it · being the Law of their Councils called (;enera1, that the five Patriarchs mufl: be there, by them– felves,or their Delegates,and the Emperors calling the Councils (upon great occafion.s) they called them in fomeFEaftern City for the moll: part, and the main Body of the Councils were the Greek Biiliops, very few·of. the Weflern being there, nor the Pope himfelfJ nor at C. P. Con£;. I. fo much as any Legate. When the Patriarch of Alexandria, who was ·the third, fell Out with him of Conftantinople, he would extol the Roman Preheminence to fireng– then bimfelf: And when the Eaft had Arian•per– fecucing Emperors and Biiliops, the Orthodox would fly for countenance ·to the ·Orthodox Em– peror and Bifhop in the Weft : But ufually the other four Patriarchs in Councils concurred, and ' the Roman Clergy were a {mall part of their Councils. · But thefe Councils difagreeing, be– came a··church tv1ilitant, and on pretence of agree– ing, the Churches tore them all to pieces, and all upon two occalions: I. \VHO SHOULD ,BE GREATEST, or pleafe the greareft for worldly Interefi? 2. WHO SHOULD PASS FOR ORTHODOX, when after the Arian and Mace– donian Herefies, much of the firife was about am– biguous words: Till at Iafi the Divilion of the Churches, the Degeneracy of the Clergy, the ~Jdnefs ofEmperors, and the Rebellion ofGene- • ,.. / ... rals,

[ 5 J rals, and Mutinies of Souldiers, delivered up the Empire to the Infidels. And the Bifhop of Rome became the Chief Rebel, and fet up the French in the Wefiern Empire, againfl his Lawful Prince, and furthered the .Divifion of the Empire to it~ Ruine. But this Divifion occafioned an Univer.:. fal Claim. § V. In all the old Contefis it never came in– to the mind of the Emperors or· the Councils, to _fe't up a Government over all the World, but on– ly in the Empire : They never Summoned the Bia1ops ofall the World but ohly of the Empire (and not mofr of them. J As I have oft faid, The Subfcriptions yet tell us that it was the Hi!hops of rhe Roman'Provinces. But the Empire being large, they ufed fometime the [welling phr4lfe of totim Orbu , meaning Orbis Romani : And the Greek Patriarchs never dreamed of a Jus Divi– m~m, or Eltablilhment by Chrift, or his Apofiles, much lefs of an Univerfal Power : For they all knew that Conftamir,JOple had n6 fuch pretence, being anew Erected Seat ; -And they were not fo impudent as to profefs to fee a Humane Law a~ gain!l: a Divine: And the Roman Biiliop long \-vent no higher, nor ever ufed that Argument a– gainfi Conftantinople [My Power is of God and yoMrs but ofMen] which had been mofi obviom and un– r,efiftible, and therefore would have been ·ufed, had it been true and then believed. But at lafl:, from the Name of Saint Peterls Suc– ceifor., the Pope began a double new Claim.· I. TQ A DIVINE RIGHT. 2. TO TilE GO– Vi:.RNMENT .0 FALL THE WORLD (of Chrifi:ians at lea{[. ) And the breaking of the Empire neceffitated him to this pretence which · B 3 his •

[ 6 ] his ambition ·bad obfcurely before begun. For elfe, I. His old power had died, when he was no Member of the Empire, and fo from under the ancient Government and Laws: Andall mufl: have been built on a new uncertain Foundation. :2. And when all the old Eafiern Empire was gone, his Power and Primacy would have been confined to a nart'ow compafs. VVherefore he ferved his prefent interefi; J. By fetcing 'up . the French Empire, and 2. ·By pretending to a.right ofUniverfal Soveraignty over the VVorld as the Succeffor of St. Peter. :For a General bath no firength without his Ar- \ 'my, who mufi have their Part in the Fight, the Victory, and the Prey: Popes always ruled but in and by thefe Councils : Thefe therefore muft, as Church Parliaments have their Power in the , llniverf2lSoveraigncy, -and the Pope as Univerfal _Monarch rnufl: Rule not abfolutely; but in and by thefe Law-makers and their Laws. How this Land was brought to Popery by de– grees, and how much the mofi Religious Men did towards it, I mufi not tell Hifiorically left I be too long. He that readeth but Beda, and Malmesbury, and HuntingtoJJ, and Hoveden, and Matthew Paris, may fee how the Roman Grandeur drew on the change, and how good people took the advancement of the Bifi1ops in Wealth and , Power, .and the ·Number and Endowments of Monafierie's to be the chief firengch of the Chri– :fiian Church, while Princes \V ere hardly refirain– ed from Rapacity, Sacriledge, and from the Crimes that co~nmonly breed in ·worldly Power, .Wealth and Plea.fure. The wickednefs of fome 1 Princes made the Power ofthe Prelates feem ne- · ·~' .ceffary

[ 7 ] ce'ifary to bridle them : And then better Princes rook it for their Chief .Piety to advance them, who were all taken for facred Perfons, Men of-God: And after the Saxom overthrow of the ·Brittains, the Countrey being Heathens, aad long in Con– verting, it rnuil: needs be that ignorance' mufi be ;predominant for a long time: And theCure ofit was greatly hindered by the continual Wars of the Saxon Kings among tbemfelves, and after bv. the Danijh Wars and Conquefi. And under the Normans the Bia1ops were :grown fo firong by their dependance on the Pope, who was then grown to the heighth of his Ufur– pation, as that they were almoft in continual Con– tefls with their Kings. The Ignorance of theEn. gliil1 Clergy was fo great that the Kings were put .to fetch their chief Bifi1ops fi·om other Lands,. where they had got more learning than was found at home,and fo had been trained up in the heighth , · ofPopery : And even thofe that were the moft :famous for Learning and fuch Piety as then pre– vailed, were yet mofi Zealoufly addieted to the Pope, and learnt of Rome to fl:rive for Gran– ,deur. V/ilfrid ofYork._who is magnified by Malmesbury .and others after Beda, was fo zealous to be the foie Bilbop in that large Northern Countrey, when the King and the A. 13iiliop of Canterbttry faid there was work enough for four, and decreed a di-vifion, that in relifl:ance of the King and_ the A. Bifhop he appealed to the Pope, and went di– vers times himfelf to Rome, and once at Seventy years of age, ratter thanhave his vail Bifhoprick · ~ividecl. ' .B 4 ' And •

[ 8 ] And whenby his better skill in Computation he,prevailed the Holy Scots for .the Roman time of Eafter, the Merit of that, and that he was ~he firft that brought in linging by Antiphons 1 and the Benedictine Monkery were good werks which he pleaded againfi diminifhmg his Biihoprick: JtJ!. L11almesbury, p. I 5I. -- The mofl: Learned were placed at Canterbury, Viz., Odo, Dtmftane, fpecially Lanfrank!;, Anfelme;., &c. whofe Miracles by the Monks are magnified beyond belief, which tended much to advance ~hei r Interefi. But what the generality of the :Bifhops were long, judge by the~ words of N.[almef– bury de geft. Font. Li . I. p. n6. [[peaking howSti– p,andm gotboth the Bjfhopricks of Winehe{fer and Canterbury, and how Sacrilegious and Wicked a Life he lived, felling Bifhopricks and Abbies, of unbounded Ambition and Covetoufnefs,- adds, [ Sgd ego conjicio iRum non j udicio fed errore peccare, . quod homo illueratu-s ( jtcuti pleriq; & pene omneJ tunc temporis A n;,lite Epi[copi )' ne{ciret quantum deliquerit, rem Ecclefiafticorum negotiorum ficut publicorum aEli– t.::t,ri exiftimaiJs,] that is, [But I coniefJure tkat he Ji1med not kpowingly but by error ; That being an 1//i--; terat e Man, ( & mo[t and almoft all the Bijhops of England thm were ) he k,.new not how . mur;h heotran;-:.._ grejfed; thinking that Chlf,_rchm.atters were to·be ma- - ltaged likg Pub!iclz matter I, J ( that is fecular.) · _And this was in good K. Edward's Reign, and at the Conqueft. And is it any wonder if fuch Bi· fbops broQgbt in Popery. And though the Con– queror. firove .not till he was fetled, he and his ~on ·aft~t him .wer~ fain tp be refolute in defend– :mg themf~lvesagamft their own Prelates and the fop~: And though f.lert.~ I. wifely ordered them, , . ' . th~ . ' ,, .

[ 9 l the Bifhops that had Sworn to be true to the Em~ prefs his Daughter, broke their Oath, and after [wore io K. Stephen againfr her" and brake that Oath, and fware to her again, and brake that Oath, and again turned to Stephen, and his own Brother the Bi(hop of lf'inchejfer led the way : And no wond~r when they were great enough to Build fuddenly the many great Caltles, ( Sherburne, Salisbury, Devifes, M-almesbury, &c. which he fur– prizeci. ) And when Hen. 2. fucceeded Stephen afrer long bloody VVars, with the greatefc ad– vantage of a Powerful Government, yet was he not able to mafcer his own Bia1ops ftrengthened by the Pope. VVho feared not openly to tell him as ThomM of Canterbury did, [ Certum ejfe Re- . ges poteftatem fuam ab ~Ecclefia accipere, & non ipfam ab il!is fed a Chriflo, &c. Hoveden, · Hen. z.. , p. 285 .] . . § VI. But the General and his Army, the Uni-· verfal Church-Monarch and his Church-Parlia– ment could not well agree. Many hundred years the Roman Church-Monarch having the Prefer– ments in his power, got Councillors to his mind, who were as ready to be militant againfl: Prince~, and Peace, as he to command it : Till at laff: the · Monarch by a packt' bribed /Clergy having got poifeffion ofa Power like to abiolute, difgraced it with a fucceffion of fuch Monfiers ofwickednets, as the moft flattering of their Hifl:orians declare to be unworthy to be named in the Catalogue. And they had fo often two Popes at once, filling the World \-\ith blood, while by the Sword they tryed their Caufe, and at laft three Popes (and faith Wernerus in Fafc. Temp. once fix at once that were then, anq had been Popes) fome Kingdoms being for •

[ IO ] .for one, and fbme ·for another, that the Chrifiian World could no longer bear the mifchievous ef– feCt, France having one Pope, and Italy and Ger– :many another, expofe the Nations to blood, ·and the Chrifiian Religion to decay and [corn: Till neceffity forced the Emperor of Germany and other Princes, firfi .bY the Council of Conftance, and after by that at Bajil, to overtop, depofe·and .corrett the Popes. · §. VII. But when the Councils were ended, though a Decennial Council was decreed, and all means ufed to prevent relapfe, the chief Executive Pml\rer in the intervals being in the Monarch (the Pope') and it being the Pope, ·and not the Coun– cils tha.t gave Preferments, all the Councils De– crees againll: Abfolutenefs, and for Decennial Councils proved but empty words. The worldly Bi(hops clave to the Pope. Eugenius 4· condemned , and Depofed as an Heretick, Simoniack, &c. con– tinued in defpight .of his depofers, and their fuc– cefiion is froin him to this day. The Greeks by ne~effity were forced a: while to countenance a debauched Council at·Flo,rence, to undo what the .rither Councils had done, (who are th~re pro– nounced Rebellious Church-Parliaments, who would have changed the Univerfal Monarchy ;) But being cheated, they went home, and had fo fad entertainment by the Greek Church, as made · them repent~ and wia1 they had hearkened to • their M arctu Ephefus.. ' § VIII. Things returning to the old channel of Tyr~n·ny and Corruption, and their Clergy not re– forming, Reformers got a double advantage, r. By .rbe fenfe of the need of Reformation, which the -two Church-Parliaments, Conftance and Bafil (after . Pifa) •

[ I I ] Pi fa) had left upon the Peoples minds, with the general murmur at their frufiration. 2.. The hor– rid CorruPtion of the Clergy by grofs Ignorance, palpable Errours, Pride, Covetoufnefs, and almofi: all iniquity, which made even nature}oa~h them: Whereupon the old Bohemian complamts were re– affumed, and Teceliuis Indulgencei provoking Lu– ther, he 01wakened the ·univerfity of Wittenburg, and they the Princes and Learned ~en of Germany. § IX. At their firft awakening, they coming ·newly out ofdarknefs, were fenfible of little but the grofs fort of corruptions, which men of com– mon fenfe and morality might perceive : And few had fiudied the Ciife ofa Pretended Univerfal Jurifdittion, being bred up in the Reverence of that Church Unity for which it was pretended : But one Truth let in another till the cafe became very commonly underfiood. · Accordingly men fell into three Parties. r. The worldly Clergy was againll: Church-Parliaments, unlefs fuch as would obey the Pope, · and againll: Reformation, ·faying, The Pope was fitteft to do what was to be done, for Councils and Popular Humours would never know where to fiop, but would break down all the Churches firength and glory. ,2. Luther's Party (after their riper thoughts) were for fuch a Reformation as confified in a nul– !ifying of the Papal Church and Separation from It, as no True Church, but the Seat of Amichrilt. 3. Amoderate fore of Papills were for reforming ' of many things in the Roman Church, but not for null~fying it. They were for· reconciling t_he t\VO Parties, an~ for fubmiffive Conformity, but not for Sepa1:at10n. Such were julim Pflug; Sidonim, and Agpcola, who drew up the Interim, and alfo EiJ[mus, •

I .. [ 12 ] . Erafmm, Cpre./Jander, Ar. Baldwin, W,icelim,&c. And in France the great Chancellor Michael Hofpitalias, Thstmu;,and many of their moll: excellent Lawyers and Parliament·men, and fome Bitbops and Divines. ' Thefe men being ·offended at the Separating part of the Reformation, were taken with the no– rion of Unity ail(! Government, but underfiood not the true Hate 6fthe Controverfie, and·were of two minds among themfelves. I. Some had long had an untryed notion by Tradition, that the Church throughout the World was One Body Po– lirick under one Humane Government. 2. Others -never thought of that, but having feen a fubmif– fion of all the vVefiern Churches to the Pope, thought a Separation unlawful. § X. But the cafe of the Separation, which they underfiopd not who blamed it, was this· The Reformers took the Univerfal Church in all the Earth to have .no Head, King, or Soveraign Governour but Chrill, none elfe having the leall: 1hew of true capacity or right; and therefore that none had an Univerfal Legiflative, Judicial or Executive Power: And a Church-Soveraignty ·was amore irrational conceit than a ~Civil Sove– raignty over all the Earth: And an Arifiocracy of Bithops more irrational tha~ a Papal Monarchy. Therefore they profeifed not to feparate from Pa– pifts as Chriftians, or from any of their Societies as parts ofChrifi's Church; but to renounce, de– ny, and feparace from their newVfurped Church– Species or Form, as it is feigned to be an Vniver(al 1-iumane Soveraign \'\'ith hu Subjeils. Had they ne– ver cvrrupted other Doc1rine or Worthip this Church~Species of Univerfal Sovcraignty, is to be f~par~e.d from. , 2. And

( I) ] 2. And with all, the Reformers found, chat though they could have fubmitted to Patriarch5 'as a Humane Power fet up by Princes, had they Governed according to the Laws of Chrifi, yet 1. It being but a Humane Power, z. And one Prince having no right to fet up a Patriarch over another Princes Subjects, 3. And the Roman Pa– triarch claiming alfo the Univerfal Soveraigncy, or part of it in Councils ; 4· And having corrupted DoCtrine, \Vor{hip and Difcipline, they took it to be their duty to renounce alfo the Pope's Pa– triarchal Government ; and for all Chri.fii:ms to obey Chrifi's Univerfal Laws alone, and the Lo– cal Laws circa facra left to man's Legillation, of the particular Princes and Stares where they live. And not to place Univerfal Unity or Concord in any Ufurping Humane Soveraign, or their Laws, or mutable circumfiances : And, had tbofe ex– celle'nt moderate Papifis befcre-named, well fiu- , died this point of Univerfal Soveraigncy, it's like· they had forfaken Rome. § XI. When the Pope thought to fatisfie the World, and confound the Reformation by the Council of Trent, the Cardinal of Lorain, and the French con{ented not to much that they.there did; bu'dluck to the Councils of Con]lance and Bajil, left they 1l1ould lofe the Liberties of the Gallican Chutch : So that it was long e're that Nation feemed to own the Council of Trent, , and never did it heartily and univerfally ; but continued ar , {ome further ~ifi'ance from the Abfolutenefs of the Pope than Italy or Spain. And to this day they continue to maintain, 1. That the Pope bath no - ·po\\er over the King in Temporals :· z. That he haeh no-Power to Depofe Kings: 3. That Gene– ral • ' •

[ 14 ] I • I 'ral Councils are fo far above him as to reformhim and his diforders 4. That he is not Infallible alone, but in conjunction with the Church or Councils. And though fome have {poken and written againfi the firfi and fecond, Barclay and many others have confuted them, and the Parlia– ments have burnt their Books. And this is the Moderate Popery of France. · . vVell may I call them Papifis fiill ; for' I. They renounce not a Humane Univerfal Church Sove· raigncy. 2. They allow the Pope to call Coun– cils, and Prelide,' and to be the principium Vnitatu, and Patriarch of theWeft. 3.They know that when no Chqrch-Parliaments are in being, the Univerfal Executive Power rnufi be continued, or the Uni– verfal Policy be diffolved : Therefore they allow the Pope a Right of llnivetfal Government ac- · . carding to the Canons, but not Arbitrary ; and therefore not above Councils : So that if thofe that' are .for the King 1 Rul}ng by Law, and making Laws only in and by Parliaments, be yet for Mo.. narchy then f;oncil. Conftan. Bafil, and the French are yet for Popery. · A.s to our Reformation it is fo fully recorded by many and newly by that excellent and moderate Hiftorian Dr. Burnet, that for the time he writ'es I fhall only tranfcribe a few Notes out of his A– br~dgmenc. Page 87. The Oaths which the Biiliops fwore to the ·Pope and the King were found fo incon– fifrenr, as it appeared both could not be kept ; vvHich caufed the Popes to bedifmift. , Page r r3· An Act was 111ade for EleCtion and Confecration of Biiliops ; in iliort, The King to, pame one, and the Dean and Chapter in twelve days

[ 15 ] days to return an EleCtion of the perfon named by thei~ing .· Page 138. ·Cranmer, Tonffall, Clarlzand Good– ri~ Bi!hops being called to give their Opinion, of the Emperors Power to call Councils faid, That though ancient Councils were called by the Roman Emperors, yet that was done by reafon o£ the extent of their Monarchy that was now ceaf– ed : But fince other Princes had an entire Monar- , chy within their Dominions : Yet if one or more of thofe Princes fhould agree to call a Council t o a good intent, and delire the concurrence of the reil, they were bound by the rule ofCHARITY, to agree to it. , Page 139. Crarmter faid-that this Authority ofGeneral Councils flowed not from the Num– ber of Biihops, but from the Matter -of their de– ci!ions; which were received with an Univerfal Confent ; for there were many more Biihops at .Arimini- than at Nice or Conftantinople, &c<> ChrilJ: had named no Head of the whole Church as God had named no Head of the World - In Qgeen f-liz.abeth's Reign Is 59· the Divines appointed to difpute againft the Papifi :Biil1ops in . their ftcond paper maintain, That every Church had power ·to reform it [elf : This they founded on the ' Epiftles of Paul to the particular Churches, and St. John to the Angels of the · Seven Churches : . In the firfi three Ages there were no Genera l Coun~ils, but every Biil1op in his Diocefs, or fucb few Bt!hops as could afiemble together, condem– ned Herelies, determined Matters that were , n- , r.:efied ; fo did alfo the Orthodox after Arrianifmr: . had fo overfpread the World that even the See of Rome was defiled with it. I'age, •

• ,. [ t6 ] . Page j 58. A Bill chat came to nothing was for empowering thirry two Perfons to revife the Ec– cleliafiical Laws: ~ut as this !all: was then let fall, fo to the great prejudice of this Church, it bath flept ever fince. . For before this p. I 29, 130. 1. 2. In King Edward's Reign Bucer's Opinion was asked about the review of the Common Prayer Book: He ,wi01ed there might not be only a denunciation a– gainft fcandalous Perfons that came to the Sac;ra· rnent, put a Difcipline to exclude them : That the Habits might be laid afide, &c.- At the tame rime he underfiood that die King expected aNew Years Gift from him, of a Book ·written particularly'for his own ufe: So he made a Book . for him concerning the Kingdom of Chrilt: He pr~fr much the letting up a firict: Difcipline, the SanCtification of the Lords day, the appointing many days of Falling, and that Pltiralities and , Non-refldence might be effettually conde;mned ; that Cbildreij might be Catechized, that the re– verence due to Churches might be preferved, that the Pafioral FunCtion might be refiored to \:v·hat it ought to be, that Bifbops might throw off Secular Affairs, and take care of their Dio·– ceffes, and Govern them by the advice of their Presbyters ; chat there might be Rural .Bif11ops over rvveQtY or thirty Parifhes, and that Provin– cial Councils might meet twice a year; that Church Lands be ren:ored, and a fourth part af– figned to the poor ;-- that care be taken for Ed tion of Youth and for repreffing Luxury, that the Law be reformed, and no Office fold but given to . the ·moft deferving, that none be· put in Prifon upon flight offences__:....., The yourrg --··---.. K. mg ' ,

[ l'j J King was much 'pleafed with thefe advices: And upon that began himfelf to form a Scheme for amending many things, o c. ~ It appears by it: that he intended to up aChurch Difcipline, and fettle aMethod for breeding Youth_.__ Page 361, 362, 1i.4. To return to Qpeen E– lit..abeth, the Changes are recited, and he addeth, [The liberty given to explain in what fence the Oath of Supremacy was tak§n, gave a great evidence.of the , 1 Moderation of the .§0eens Government ; that jhe would not lay{nares[flr her people, which is always a fign of a Wicked and Tyrannical Princ.e. But the ~en reckpned that if fuch comprehenfi-r,'e Method; could be found ouras would once bring her people: tender any Vnion, thortgh perhaps there might remain a great diverfity of Opinion, that would wear o;fwith the pre-. (ent Age, and in the next Generation all wo11Jd be of one mind. ·· Page 363. The Empowering Lay- men to depriv~ ,, or Excommunicate, could not be eafily excufed; but was as juftifoable as the Commiffions ta Lay-Chancellors for thofe things were. There are 9400 Benefices in Engl~nd, but of all theft the J.Vum– ber ofthofe (viz. . Papift{ ) who chofe to rejign rather than take the Oath was very inconjiderable. - Fou.rtten Bijhops, Si:t: Abbots, Twelve Deans; Twelve Arch– deacons, Fifteetz Heads of Cu!ledg,es, Fifty Prebenda- ries, and Eighty Reaors wa.s the whole number of thofe that were turned out : But it WM believed that the · greateft part compli'ed againft tbe'ir 'cenfciences, and woHld have been ready for another turn, if the;.~n · ' had died white that Race of Incumbents lived; andthe next Succejfor had been of another Religion. · Read·what he faith of Mt. Parker's gteat unwillingnefs to be A. Bithop, and the threatc ning , •

• i[ }8 ] elfe .to Imprifon him. p. 363, 364, &c: I conclud~ with that honeff Note, p. 369~ [ There was orre thing yet Wtlnting to compleat the Re– formation of this Church, which WM the reftoring t!i Rrimitive Diji:ipline againft fcandalOUf _Perfom, the ftabli{hing the Government of the Church in Ecclefiaf– tical hands, and tak}.ng it out of Lay hands who have fo long;rofaned it-- ' S@ that the dreadful/eft of · All Cenfures is flOW .b~c9me moft [corned and defpi{ed. .See the refr. { ~ '- . The Papifis in Queen ,Eliz.abeth s days _ fome– time firove by Treafons the ·recov:ery of their ·Power; and fecn:tly firove by PoJ.icy ·to-divide ·. the Prot~ftants, and to root out thpfe.that were mofi againfi them. Th~ Miniller.s ·1!1rthappily fell into the[e Parries. I. Some were for the -Gran– tieur ofthe Bif.hops, and for firiet: oh~rvance of Liturgy and Ceremonies, and againft Parochial .Dik:ipline ; and thefe prevailed with tpe C4Ieen. -z~ Some were againft Diocefan Bifbops.· and Ce– .t·emonies, and iome ·things in the L_iturgy, and .were for Parifh Difcipline : And thefe were called Nonconformifts and Puritans. 3~ MelanElhon and Bueer had prevailed i with fome others, who were indifferent as to .Bi{hops, and mqft of the Ceremonies and Forms, but Zealous for Parifh Difcipline andagodly Life, and for u£ing ' things indifferent only indifferently, to EdificatiQQ, and not ro the hinderance -of the Minift.ry of refufers. And Bucer's Scripta Anglicana written for K. Ed~ w..ard, which urged this Parifh Difcipline with great Zeal and Judgment, prevailed wi,th a great part of the Queens Council; andof the-Proteftant Nobility and Gentry 7 but rnoft of the Clergy were~f the two firft meiuioned Opinions, called Extreams by othe~ § 4· . '

[ i9 J § 4~ All the Parliaments that were called ~n 'QueenEliz..abeth's time were frill fufpicious rhat Popery would keep too much ftrength by tbe peoples Ignorance and Impiety, ·for want of good Preaching and godly Living in the Miniftry : And therefore were u(ually complainingo( the Biiliops ( efpecially Whitguift ) ·for filencing {o ~any Nonconforming Preachers, and keeping up fo ma– ny Pluralifrs, and fo many meer Readers: And they were ofc attempting a Reformation of ttiis, and to have refcored the Nonconformifts, and . united the godly Proteftants: But by the RHhops Counfel the Queen ftill reftrained them, - and charged them not to meddle with Ecclefiaftical Matters , as belonging to her ; In Sir Simond Dewes Journals you may fee the many attempts and her confcant prohibition and reftraim: : And Parliaments were loth to offend her, or make any breach, remembering how great a deliverance they lud by her from Q;1een 'Mary' s Perfecutions: Though . they grudged at the lmprifonment of Mr. Strick]and and others that had fpoke earnefdy. for Reformation, of Bi{hol'! Affair-s, and tbe Mini– frry, yet they bore it patiently becaufe of what they did enjoy. One oftheir frrongeft attempts you may read in their Petition of Sixteen Articles in Sir Siln. Dewes, An. i 584, and I 58;. page 3)7• which is well worth the reading : But it was not endured. · But ilie long endured the Popilh Bifl1ops in their Seats, though in Parliament the A Bi01op of York,– the Bifhop of London, the Bi!l10ps of Worcefter, Landajf, Coventree, Oxford, Chefter·, the Abb:>t of We[tminffer were againft the Bill for the Supre... macy and aboli{hing Pop.ery. See Sir s. Dewe·s. c-:z. p. zs. •

'. [ zo ] . • I ' . J1 • p. 28. and p. 23. alfo the Bilhops of Winchefler-; Carlile, Exceter. Which patience of hers men.. tioned put Sir s. D. the Hifi:orian on the recital of fo large aCatalogue of Records for the Kings Power againfi: rhe Pope and Ufurping Bii11ops as is worth the reading, page 24; § 5. Alfo for many years the Papills came to our Temples, till the Pope forbad therh : But the Parliament men much <iiffered about this : Some . would have all men forced to the Sacrament : Others would have them forced to hear fome al– lowed Teachers, but not to be compelled eo the · Sacrarrient, becaufe it is the invefiing of men in tbe Pardon of fin and right to· Salvation, which no unwilling Perfon is capable of. Of this fee in the 'forefaid Author, p. 177· the Excellent Speech ofMr. Af!lionke, and ofothers. I memion this becaufe the late Reconcilers have made the mixture of Papifis and Protefiants in Communion the firfi ten years of the Qgeen to be the defireable fiate to which they would have . had us reduced. Of whichmor·e anon. But the Qyeen here~alfo refirained them, and would have alllefc to her and the Bifhops. Mr. Yelverton told them how perillou5 aPreli– dent it might prove for worfer times for the Par– liament to be fo refl:rained ; Where ( faithhe ) the-re riJtU fuch fulne[J of Power, ao even the right.of the Crown wa& to b'e determined, and by warrant whereof we had fo refolved, that to fay the Parliament had no Power to determine of the Crown w.u High Treafon. ·Ibid. page I 76. · · § 6. The Invalion 1588, and many Treafons, and the Popes Excommunications, increafed the Parliaments Z~al againfi Popery 1 and the . Ci~rgtes

( ZI J gies alfo: And when the Cafe of the Qleen of Scots was referred to the Council of the Parlia– 'ment, they earnefily urged the Queen by many Reafons, to execute the Sentence ofDeath which was pafi upon her ; feeing while the Papifis hoped for her Reign, neither the Life of the Queen nor :the Kingdom could be fafe. See Sirs. D' Ewes, page 400, &c. Thefe were their apprehenfions . then of Po- _.pery. . § 7· In K. ']ames's time the horrid Powder .·Plot to have blown up King and Parliament, and · the Murder ofTwo Kings in France fucceffively, , H. 3· and H. 4· and other Inhumanities, in– creafed this Kingdoms Zeal ~ainfl: Popery. As the Oaths ofAllegiance and Suprema·cy were made for their difcovery, fo multitudes of Learned Men were employed in confuting their pretended · Sovereignty and manifold Errors. And the coni· mon Preachers ,had ovdinarily in their Sermons One Vfe, .. as they.called it, for the Conf.utationofthe Papijfs. Befides,that the Homilies and <Jewels wri– tings againfi them were to be in every Church. And as many of the Bifhop~ in Qyeen Eli~abeth's firfr time were fuch as had been Exiles and ·Suf– fered by the Papifis, fo many both in her days and K. 'James's, were Learned and Godly Men, who remembred former times, and were greatly defirous.of the Extirpation of Popery, and of the increafe of able Preachers, and of the Concord of Proteltants to chat End. And the Books of Mar.:. tyrs written by }-ohn Fox being common in all parts of the Land, increafed .the peoples hatred of Religious cruelcy. But fome few Bifhops ( fpeci– ~11y A. Bi~pWhitgltij't and Bantroft ) exceed<id · C 3 the •

[ 22 J the reil: in their profecution of the Nonconfor: rnifts ; And though befot;e by connivance they had enjoyed more quietnefs, yet when once the Canon,was made and Executed for Subfcribing that [ there i1 nothing,contrary to the Word of God in the .Liturgy, &c. J and the Excommunicating Canons, five, fix, feven, &c. the reconciliation of the Ptotefiants feemed hopelefs. Yet even the hottefi profecuting Bii11ops were firm Adverfaries to Popery; yea Whitguift though~ Arminianifm came fo near it, as made him con– fent to the ill~framed Lambeth Articles. And that nnhappy Controverfie called Ar~inian ( which I have largely proved to be over~aggra\·ated on both fides for want ofadifiintt way of Examina– tion, in my Cath. 'Iheol.) increafed the Divifion ' much. Tbe Je(uits being mofi hated by the Pro– tefiants, the Arrninians were taken to incline ' to Popery, though the Dominicans who had been on the c0nrrary fide, had been the Bloody Ma- - fiers of the Inquifttion. And when our Englifh ·Atminians were accufed of approaching Popery, it inclined fome of them to think more favoura"' bly of a Reconciliation with thofe whom they were likened to. And the Papifts neN"er ceafed their diligence, fecrer or open, for the refiorati– on of their Forreign Jurifdittion and their Er– rours. § XII. The Councils at the Laterane, Lyons,and others having fo fee up the Pope above Kings, as that thofe whom he Exccmmunicates may be de– pofed, and ' are then no Kings: And their Moll: Learned Doet:ors writing this, the Pope came ,to · hy much of his, firengrh upon King-killing; and it hath proved too fuccefsful : Had it been only . - - againft

[. 2~ J againfi Rebellion, Kings had their defenGe: .. ·nut what can one do againlt a Defp.eradot -who is pro– mifed Preferment if he efcape, and taught, if he {o die for th~ fervice of the. Church, to look for– as mu~h gteater a Reward than Martyrs, as his fervice is more voluntary, and o:f more publkk benefit than theirs? When Henry the Tliird was (o murdered in. France, Henry the Fourth turned Papifi, it's like much for fear. And when the firft Knife had but ftruck out his Teeth, the next diC. patcht him. King James here was not a fearlefS man: He had known of the many Treafons which Qleen Eliz.,abeth efcaped. T:be Powder-Pl.ot thundred to him, though it tqok not .fire. King ,Henry's Stabs did yet [peak louder. He .was told, This jhall be y(mr End; thin/znot to efcape; Infiluments · will be found whfJ prefer the Ch~trch befo·re their Li11es, if yoH repent 'i'lot. What a firait now is a King in, whofe Life is thus at the mercy of a thoufand de– luded defperate Slaves of the Pope ! ·That which kindlech revenging anger in aKingdom or Senate, may rationally caufe fear in a lingie man : For it is eafie.r to kill aKing, thana Kingdom or a mul– titude. § XIII. The unhappy Differences about the five Articles in Belgio (in !Vhich I am pafi: doubt both Parties there were much to be blamed) involved · the Learned Hugo ·Grotius in fufferings : The Con– tra-Remonfl:rants were too violent, and trufied to the Sword of the Prince of Orn,nge; ctnd Grotim . being condemned to lmpri[onment, and by his \Yife ~ot out in a Trunk, on pretence of carrying , away hts Books, becoming tht; Queen of ~wedens_ Refident Embaffador in France, no doubt exafpe– , rated, and falling into intimate acquaintance with . c4 ~ •