INTRODUCTION. 69 suspended and imprisoned. " It was designed," says Bishop Kennet, " as a trap to catch men of tender con- sciences, and as a means of promoting the ease, wealth and grandeur of the bishops. "* Theking, atthe opening of the parliament in 1620, made this solemn declaration : "Imean," said he, " not to compel any man's conscience; for I ever protested against But his majesty soon forgot his owndeclaration; and to increase the distress of the puritans, he set forth his directions to all the clergy, forbidding them to preach on the deep points of controversy betwixt the Arminians and Calvinists. The puritans had hitherto suffered only for refusing the ceremo- nies, but now their doctrine itself became an offence. Most Calvinists were now excluded from court preferments: The way to rise in the church, was to preach up the absolute power of the king, to declaim against the rigours of Cal- vinism, and to speak favourably of popery. Those who scrupled were neglected, and denominated doctrinal puri- tans; but having withstood all the arbitrary proceedings adoptedboth in church and state, they will be esteemed by posterity, as i he glory of the English nation.t Many of the puritans now groaned under the oppressive measures of the prelates. Mr. Collins was cast into prison for nonconformity. Though he was not suffered to preach in the churches, he preached to the malefactors in prison, and there procured himself a subsistence by correcting the press.§ Mr. Knight of Pembroke college, Oxford, was cited up to .London, and committed to the Gatehouse. Mr. Peck having catechised his family, and sung a psalm in his own house, when several of his neighbours were present, they were all required by Bishop Harsnet to do penance and recant. Those who refused were immediately excommu- nicated and condemned in heavy costs. The citizens of Norwichafterwards complained of this cruel oppression to parliament. The celebratedMr. Dod was oftencited before the bishops, and was four times suspended. Mr. Whately was convened before the high commission, and required to make a public recantation. Mr. Whiting was prosecuted by the Bishop of Norwich, and brought before the high commission, expecting to be deprived of considerable 4. Several of the bishops, however, declared their opinion against the Book of Sports. And Archbishop Abbot being at Croydon the day on which it was ordered to be read in the churches, expressly forbad it to be read there.-Kennet's Hist, of Eng. vol. ii. p. 709. + MS. Chronology, vol. ii. p. 667. (13.) t Neal's Puritans, vol. ii. p. 1213. § Wood's AtheneeOxon. vol. ii.