. INTRODUCTION. 83 master of Westminster school, containing certain dark expressions, on the ground of which he was condemned in the additional fine of .R5,000 to the king, and ..3,000 to the archbishop, and kept close prisoner in the Tower. Mr. Osbaldestonwas fined £5,000 to the king, and£5,000 tothe archbishop ; to be deprived of all his spiritual promotions, to stand in the pillory before his own school, and have his ears nailed to it, and to be imprisoned during the king's pleasure. Mr. Osbaldeston being among the crowd in the court, when the sentence was pronounced, immediately went home, burnt some papers, and absconded, leaving a note on his desk in his study, with these words : " If the archbishop enquire for me, tell him I am gone beyond Canterbury." Mr. John Lilburne, afterwards a colonel in the army, for refusing to take an oath to answer all interro- gatories concerning his importing and publishing seditious libels, was fined £5,000, and whipped through the streets from the Fleet to the pillory in Westminster. While in the pillory, he was gagged, then carried to the Fleet, and com- mitted to close confinement, with irons on his haqds and feet, where he remained betwixt two and three years, without anypersons being allowed to see him. t These terrible proceedings, without serving the interest of the church, awakened universal resentment against those 'in power. Many thousand families were driven toHolland, and many thousands to. New England.# This so alarmed the king and the council, that a proclamation was issued, April 30, 1637, observing, " That great numbers of hii majesty's subjects were yearly transported to NewEngland, with their families and whole estates, that they might be out of thereach of ecclesiastical authority; his majesty therefore commands, that hisofficers of the several ports should suffet none to pass without license from the commissioners of the plantations, anda testimonial from their minister, of their conformity to the orders and discipline of the church." And to debar all ministers, it was ordered, " That whereas such ministers as are not conformable to the discipline and ceremoniesof the church, do frequently transport themselves to the plantations, where they take liberty to nourish their factious and schismatical humours, to the hindrance of the These letters made mention of a little great man; and in another pas- sage, the same person was denominated a little urchin. Such were thedark expressions which, by interpretation, were applied to Laud. t Rushworth's Collec. vol. ii. p. 417, 803, 817, 1: Sylvester's Life of Baxter, part i. p.