8ffi INTRODUCTION: parts of the kingdom, the parliament appointed a com- mittee to draw out of them all, such kind of remonstrance as would give his majesty an impartial representation of the deplorable state of the nation. The remonstrance was presented to the king, December 1, 1641; and enumerates the grievances, oppressions, and unbounded acts of the prerogative, since his majesty's accession : among which were " The suspension, deprivation, excommunication, and degradation of laborious, learned, and pious ministers. - The sharpness and severity of the high commission, assisted by the council-table, not much less grievous than the Romish inquisition. The rigour of the bishops' courts in the country, whereby numbers of tradesmen have been im- poverished, and driven to Holland and New England.- The advancement to ecclesiastical preferments, of those who were most officious in promoting superstition, and most virulent in railing against godliness and honesty.- The design of reconciling the church of Englandwith that of Rome.-And the late canons and oath imposed upon the clergy, under the most grievous penalties."+ But the king was displeased with the remonstrance ; he published an answer to it, and issued his royal proclamation, requiring an exact conformity to the religion as by law established.t During the year 1642, the king and the parliament put themselves respectively in a posture of defence, and used thosemilitary precautionswhich soon led to all the horrors of a civil war, and deluged the land with blood. Both parties published their declarations, in justification of their own cause. The king set up his standard at Nottingham, where about 2,000 came to him ; and greatly augmented his forces out of Shropshire, Worcestershire, and other counties. The parliament raised a gallant army under the command of the Earl of Essex. Many excellent divines became chaplains to the several regiments. Dr. Burgess and Mr. Marshall, to the general's own regiments ; Mr. Obadiah Sedgwick, to Colonel Hollis's regiment; Dr. Downing, to Lord Roberts' ; Mr. John Sedgwick, to the Earl of Stam- ford's ; Dr. Spurstowe,to Mr. Hampden's ; Mr. Perkins, to The debates in parliament about the remonstrancelasted from three o'clock in the afternoon, till ten next morning, which occasioned Sir B. R. to say, " It was the verdict of a starved jury." Oliver Cromwell told Lord Falkland, that if the remonstrance had been rejected, he would have sold all his estates next morning, and never have seen England any more.- Whillocke's Mem. p. Mist. vol. i. p. 246, 247. Rushworth's Collec. vol. v. p. 438-Nalson's Collec. Not. ii. p. 694. Rushworth's Colter. vol. v. p. 456.