98 INTRODUCTION. expectations. Upon the entrance of the king, May 29,1660, as he passed through the city towards Westminster, the London ministers, by the hands of old Mr. Arthur Jackson, presented his majesty with a richly adorned bible ; which he received, saying, " It shall be the rule of my govern- merit and my life.". King CHA RLES II. being now seated on the throne of his ancestors, the commencement of his reign was a continued jubilee. But from the period of his accession, he grasped at arbitrary power, and shewed but little inclination to dependupon parliaments.+ " The restoration,"says Burnet, "brought with it the throwing off the very professions of virtue and piety, and entertainments and drunkenness over- run the three kingdoms. The king had a good under- standing; and knew well the state of affairs both at home and abroad. He had a softness of temper that charmed all who came near him, till they found out how little they could depend on good looks, kind words, and fair promises ; in which he was liberal to an excess, because he intended nothing by them, but to get rid of importunities. He seemed to have no sense of religion. He was no atheist, but disguised his popery to the last."f Upon his majesty's accession, many of the puritans were in great hopes of favour. Besides the promises of men in power, they had an assurance from the king, in his declaration from Breda, " That he should grant liberty to tender consciences, and that noman should be questioned for a difference of opinion in matters of religion, whodid not disturb the peace of the kingdom."§ Afterwards, the king having issued his declaration concerning ecclesiastical matters, dated October 25, 1660 ; and the London ministers having presented to him their address of thanks, his majesty returned them this answer : " Gentlemen, I will endeavour to give you all satisfaction, and to make you as happy as myself."i All this was, indeed, most encouraging. Their hopes were further cherished by ten of their number being made the king's chaplains, though none of them preached, except Dr. Reynolds, Dr. Spurstowe, Mr. Calamy, and Mr. Baxter, once each.s But all their hopes were soon blasted. Many hundreds of worthy ministers enjoying sequestered livings, were displaced soon after his majesty's return. The fellows and heads of colleges in the two universities, who 4. Palmer's Noncon. Mem. vol. i. p.20. + Wel wood'sMemoirs, p.121. t Burnet's Hibt, of his Time, vol. i. p. 92. § Whitlocke's Mem. p. 702. Kennet's Chronicle, p. 315. Sylvester's Lifeof Baxter,part ii. p. 229.