INTRODUCTION. 19 popish innovations, which being still retained in the church, were stumbling blocks to many worthy subjects.* In the year 1559, the queen published her Injunctions, consisting of upwards of fifty distinct articles. She com- manded all her loving subjects obediently to receive, and truly to observe and keep them, according to their offices, degrees and estates, upon pain of suspension, deprivation, excommunication, and such other censures as to those who had, ecclesiastical jurisdiction under her majesty, should seemmeet.t Though in these injunctions the queen mani- fested sonic disapprobation of the Romish superstitions and idolatry, she was much inclined to retain images in churches, and thought they were useful in exciting devotion, and in drawing people to public worship. Her object was to unite the papists and protestants together.t She still re- , tained a crucifix upon the altar, with lights burning before it, in her own' chapel, when three bishops officiated, all in rich copes, before the idol.§ Instead of stripping religion of the numerous, pompous ceremonies with which it was incumbered, she was inclined rather to keep it as near as possible to the Romish ritual : and even some years after her accession, one of her chaplains having preached in defence of the real presence, she presented her public thanks to him, for his pains and piety.11 She spoke with great bitterness against the marriage of the clergy, and repented having made married persons bishops.s Her majesty having appointed a committee of divines to review King Edward's liturgy, she commanded them to strike out all passages offensive to the pope, and to make the people easy about the corporeal presence of Christ in the sacra- ment.** The liturgy was, therefore, exceedingly well fitted to the approbation of the papists.++ The queen com- manded, that the Lord's table should be placed in the form , of an altar ; that reverence should be made at the name of Jesus ; that music should be retained in the churches; and that all the festivals should be observed as in times of popery.tt The reformation of King Edward, therefore, instead of being carried forwards and perfected, was ac- cording to Burnet, removed considerably backwards, partly MS. Remarks, p. 463. + Sparrow's Collec. p. 65-86. . Burnet's Hist. of Refor. vol. ii. p. 397. § Ibid. vol. iii. p. 292. H Heylin's Hist. of Refor. p. 124. Edit. 1670. Strype's Parker, p. 109. .5. Burnet's Hist. of Refor. vol. ii. p. 392. Heylin's Hist. of Pres. p. 259. Heylin's Hist. of Refor. p. 283. Edit. 1674.