J2 INTRODUCTION. conformists, when they all readily subscribed. But the bishops and clergy in convocation had the confidence, at the same time, to make new canons of discipline, by which they greatly increased the burdens of the puritans. They required subscriptionto all the articles, even those relating to the rites, ceremonies, order and policy of the church, as well as others, contrary to the above statute. The bishops called in all their licenses to preach, forbidding all ministers to preach without new ones. Most of the nonconformists claiming the liberty allowed them by the Iaws of the land, refused the canonical subscription, as a most grievous usurpation over their consciences ; for which great numbers were turned out of their livings.. This led them to preach in other churches, or in private houses, without license, as theywere able to procure an opportunity. But the queen hearing of this, immediately commanded the archbishop and other ecclesiastical commissioners not to suffer any minister to read, pray, preach, or administer either of the sacraments, in any church, chapel, or private place, without a license from her majesty, the archbishop, or the bishop of the diocese. f These tyrannical measures, instead of bringing the puri- tans nearer the standard of conformity, drove them farther from the church. They could not with a good conscience, observe the new ecclesiastical impositions ; and, therefore, the chief among themwere cited to appear at Lambeth; t among whom were Drs. Sampson and Wyburn, and Messrs. Goodman, Lever, Walker, Goff, Deering, Field, Brown, and Johnson. These divines were ready to subscribe to the doctrines of faith and the sacraments, according to law, but excused themselves from doing more. Goodman was suspended, and constrained to sign a recantation. Lever quietly resigned his prebend in the church of Durham. Deeringwas long molestedand suspended. Johnson suffered similar treatment. Dr. Willoughby was deprived for re- fusing the above canonical subscription.§ Mr. Gilby and Mr. Whittingham endured many troubles for their non- conformity. These proceedings opened the eyes of the people ; and the parliament in 1572, warmly espoused the cause of the distressed ministers. The queen and bishops havingmost shamefully abused their pretended spiritual power, two bills were brought into the house, in one of which the . MS. Chronology, vol. i. p. 135. (1-2) f Strype's Parker, p. 324, 325. f Ibid, p. 326. § Ibid, p. 372.