INTRODUCTION. 67 the same time, convicted of heresy by Dr. Neile, bishop of Coventry and Lichfield, and burnt at Lichfield, April 11. In the king's warrant for his execution, he is charged with no less thansixteen distinct heresies, among which are,those ofthe Ebionites, Corinthians, Arians, and Anabaptists, and other heretical, execrable, and unheard-ofopinions. Some of the opinions imputed to him savoured of vanity, super- stition, and enthusiasm; and he was certainly an object more deserving of compassion than of punishment.* But, to gratify the wishes of his enemies, he must pass through the fire.-There was another condemned to be burnt for similar heresies ; but the constancyof the above sufferers having greatly moved the pity of the spectators, he was left to linger out a miserable life in Newgate.i. Many of the puritans being driven into exile, continued a number ofyears in a foreign land. They raised congre- gations and formed christian churches, according to their views of the New Testament. Mr. John Robinson, pastor of the church at Leyden, first struck out the congregational or independent form of church government. Afterwards, about a hundred of his church transplanted themselves to America, and laid the foundation of the colony of New England. But some of the worthy exiles ventured at length to return home. Mr. Henry Jacob having espoused the sentiments of the independents, returned about the year 1616; and communicating to his friends his design of forming a separate church, like those in Holland, they, seeing no prospect of any reformationofthe national church, signified their approbation. They spent a day in solemn devotion, to implore the divine blessing upon the under- taking ; and having made an open confession of their faith in Christ, they joined hands, and convenanted with each other to walk together in all the ordinances of God, as far as he had already made knownto them, or should hereafter make known to them. Mr. Jacob was chosen pastor by the suffrage of the brotherhood, and others to the office of deacons. This was the first INDEPENDENT church in England. During this year, his majesty, by the advice of the bishops, issued his royal directions for a better conformity to the established church. He required " That all students who took their degrees, should subscribe to the thirty-sixth canon.-That all scholars should wear their scholastical * Narration of the burning of Legattand Whiteman, Edit. 165h .1 Fuller's Church Hist. b. x. p. 62-64.