Owen - Houston-Packer Collection BT300 .O9 1679

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i I· ~------------------------~---------------------- .XPI2:TOAOfiA, OR, A n · E~LARATION OF THE . GLORIOUS MYSTERY OF THE :Perfonof Chrift, G·OD and MA N. With the Infinite Wifdon1, Love aBd -Po\ver of Go D in the contrivance and confiitution -thereo£ As alfo oftlie Grounds and Reafons ofhis Incarnation, the Na;– ture of his Minifiry in Heaven, the prefent State of the Church above thereonJ an? roe Ufe of his Per!on in Religion. WITH An Account and Vindication of the- Honour,"Worlhip,Faitb,Love · and Obedience due unto him, in and from the Church. By John Ozven, D. D. -------- Yea doubtlefs.,- and1 count all things but lofs for_ the exce!ler.cy o[ . the k.!-otVIedge ofCh;ift (ef;u my ~ord; for whom I have f•iffer– e~ the lofs Bf al! things, and do count them but dung tk·at 1 ma; Wtn Chrijf, ,Phll. 3. 8. LONDON, Printed for NathtJ,nz~el Ponder, at the Peacoclz iil tile Poulnj) over again,ft the Stoclzs·Mark§t. 1679.

) j THE ·p RE FA C £, ' . L~~~.,_,~T is a gr:eat Promife concerning the Perfon of Chriil:, as he was to be .give~.-1_.,~.nnto the Church, _(for he was a ,(fbi!d born, aSon gt<Verz unto us, Ifo. 9· 6.) that God would lay hitn inZion for afounda"' tion, aStone, atr:yedStoJ!e, apreciotr.r corner Stone, aJure foundation, whereon he 'that believrth, Jhallnot make hajle, Ifa. 2 8. 1 6. Yet y.ras it alfo foretold concern– ing him, that this precious fot1ndation :fhould be for a ftone offlumbling, and for arock of offence, to both the houfes , o[Ifrael; for agin, and for afnare unte the Inhabitants cf J e– , , rufaletn : [o as that many a mong them Jhoulcl ftwnble and _fall, and be broken, and be fnared, and be taken, Ifa. 8. 1 4, 1 5. According unto this Protnife and Predicri.on, it ha th fallen out in all Ages qf the Church, as the ApofHe Pe– - ~~ ~eclares concerning the firfl: of them ; Wherefore– ___ ------ -- ~- --- -~. ~ --- ,A 2 -- -- --- -· -(C1id~ I•

i. . The Preface. {fa-ith he) alfo it tvc:U contained in t-/;e ·Scripture, rJ3ehold I lay in Zion achief corner flone, eleEl and precious, and be that be:: lierveth on him, jhall not be confounded. Unto you therefore which belie1Je, he is precious ; bttt unto tlmn that are difobedient, theflone whid1 the :Builders difollowed, the fame is .made the Head of the corner, and a ftone offlumbling, and a rock ofof fence, e1Jen unto them that ftumb.le at tl;e Word, bei11c_~ difobe::: dient, whereunto alfo t1)ey ))Jere appointed, 1 Epift. Chap. 2 . ver. 6, 7, 8. .Unto them that believe unto the fav,ing of the Soul, he is, he alwaies hath been precious; the Sun, the Rock, ·the Life, the Bread of their Souls,- every thing that is Good, Ufeful, Atniable, Defirable here or unto Eter... nity. - In, frotn, and by him, is all their Spiritual .and Eternal Life, Light, Power, CrovvTh, Confolation and Joy here, with everlafting Salvation hereafter. By hitn ftlone do they defire, expect and obtain Deliverance from that woful Apofracy from God, \vhich is accotn- . - "' . panied withal, which containeth in it virtually and me– ritorioufly, whatever is evil, noxious and deftructive unto our Nature, and which without relief ·will iffue in Eternal Mifery. By hitn . are they brought into the . nearefl: Cog~ation, Alliance and Friendfhip with God, the finnell Union unto hitn, and the moft holy Corn- -1ntmion \Vith him, that our finite Natures are capable of, and fo conducted unto, the ,bternal Enjoyment of hitn. For in him jhallall the feed oflfrael be juflified,- and Jhall

~-------~---- ~ The_ Preface. ~ __ ·foal! glory, lfo. 4 5. 15. For IfraelJhall,befaved in theLord, 1VitlJ an everlajling Sal-vation, ·they jhall not be ctjhamed nor cone founded world 1Vithoutend; ruer. I 7· . , . · On thefe arid the like Accounts, the principallJefign of their whole_Lives unto whom he_ is thus precious, is to acquaint themfelves with hitn, the myflery of the \'Vifdom, Grace and Love of God, in his Perfon and Medi!tion as revealed ·unto us in the Scripture, which is Life Eternal~ ]oh. I 7· 3; to trufl: in hitn, and unto him, as unt? all the everhfi:ing concerntnents <?f their Souls, .. to love and honour hitn vvith all their hearts, to endea-· vour after conformity unto him, in all rhofe characters of Divine Goodnefs and Holinefs, which are reprefent– ed unto thetn in hiin. In thefe things conflft the foul, life, po\Ver, beauty and effic::~cy of Chrifl:ian Religion, without which, whatever outward orna1nents may be put upon its ·exercife, it is but an ufelefs, . lifelefs car– ~afs~ 'The \Vhole of this Defign is expre1fed in thofe heavenly words of the ApofHe, Phi!. 3. 8, 9, I o;'i I, I 2. · Yea doubtlefs, and !count all things but loft, for the excellency of the knolvledge of Chrifl Jefus my Lord; for ,w!Jom I ha.--ve , jujfered the lofs ofall thinl:.S>' and do count them but du~~' that . I mig!Jt ~in Christ, and be found in him, not having mine oum · rJ\.ighteoujiufs, iP!JiclJ' is of the La))), _but that 1Vhic!J' i5;. t}Jr~~rrJ~.;·; the Faitb of Chr!ft, the ~ig(3teot,frzejs 1V7Jich is ofGot! bflr_aitl;:, , _tha~ I may know him, and the P'ower ofhis tR~j1-trrec1ion, and the fel!owjhip of his Sujferings, being made conformable :mto a h~

The l)reface. ~ . . ~ l~is Death; if by any means I might attain unto the fJ\!Jurre'- [fion ~{the 'Dead : Not M though I had alr.eady qttained, either were al,·eadyperfeB; but I [ollo1v after, if that I may appre"' hend that for which I aljo am apprel?endedofChrift Jefus. 'This. is a Divine expreffion of that frame of heart, of that Defign which is predominant and e-fficacious ·in them. unto \Vhotn Chri£1: is precious. But on the other hand, accqrding unto the foremen– tioned PrediCtion, as he bath been a Cure-foundation un– ~o. all that believe ; fo he bath in like 1nanner been a Storie of fl:umbling, and a. Rockofoffence unto them· _ that ·fiurnble at the Word, being difobedient,whereunto· they alfo \Vere appointed. There is nothing in him, nothing wherein he is concerned, -nothing ·ofhim, his Perfon, his Natures, his Office, his Grace, his Love, his· PQwer, his Authority, his Relation unto the Church, but it bath been unto many a Stone of fl:umblirig,and Rock of offence. Concerning thefe things have been all the· woful Contefl:s, which have fallen out and been man- . ;tged atnong thofe that outwardly have made Profeffiorr of the Chrifl:ian Religion. And the Contentions about them do rather increafe than abate, unto this very day ; the difmal fruits ·whereof the World groaneth under, and is no· louger able to bear. For as the oppofition unto the Lord Chr!Pc in thefe things by men of peryerfe · ~inds, hath ruined their own Souls, as having dafhed themfelves in pieces againfl: this everlafl:ing Rock; fo · ll1 ' ' • "*f __, · ·; ;

The Preface. . in corijunCt:ion with others Lufl:s and Intere~s of the c~r~ nal minds ofmen, it hath filled the \Vorld tt felf \Vith blood and confufion. . The·Re-inthroning ofthe Pedon, Spirit, Grace and Authority of Chriil: in the hearts and confciences of men, is the only way vvhereby an end tnay be put unto thefe \Voful confliers. But thi~ is not to be expetted in any degree of PerfeCtion, amongfl: thetn \Vho.fl:umble · at this Stone of offence, whereunto they are appointed,. though in the iffue he will herein alfo fend .forth Judg– ment unto Vietory; and all the meek of the Earth !hall follow after it. In the mean titne, as thofe unto vvhotn is thus a Rock of offence; in his Perfon, his Spirit,. ) .his Grace, his Office and Authority, are diligent arid rdl:lefs (in their various w~ies and forms, in leffer or higher degrees, in fecret Artifice.,, or open contradi– Ctions unto any or all of thetn, un~ervarious pretences, · and for divers ends, even Secular Advantages fome of them, which the craft of Satan hath prepared for the enfnaring ~fthem) in .all waies o.f oppofition m1to his . Glory ; fo it is the highefl: Duty of thetn unto whom he is precious, whofe principal defign is to be found built , on hirri as the fure foundation; as to hold the rfruth concerning him, (his Perfon, Spirit, Grace, O$ce and Authority) and to abound in all Duties of Faith, . ,Lov~, T rufl:, Honour and Delight in hin1 ; fo alfo to, declare his Excellency, to plea? t~e caufe of ~is G.lory'· ·tO

The Preface. to vindicate ~ his Honour, and to witnefs him the only Refl: and Re\Vard of the Souls of men, as they. are called and have opportunity. This and no other is the peiign of the enfuing '"frea~ tife; wherein as all things fall unfpeakably fhort of the Glory, Excellency and Subli1nity of the SubjeCt treated of, for no Mind can conceive, no Tongue can exprefs the real fubfl:antial Glory ofthem ; fo there is no doubr but that in all the Parts of it, there is a Reflection offail– ings and itnperfe&ions from the weaknefs, ofits Author. Bu,r yet I tnufl: fay with confidence, that in the whole, . that Eternal Truth of God concerning the Myfl:ery of his Wifd~1n_, Love, ~race_ ~d Pow~r, in the Per!o ·· and Medratton of Chnfl,with our Dunes tovvards Hun– felfrherein, even the Father, Son, and Eternal Spirit, is pleaded and vindicated, which ffiall neve_r be fhaken by the utn1ofl endeavours and oppofition~ of the Gates ofI-Iell. And in the ackno\vledgment of the Truth c'oncern– ing thefe things confifts that Faith in an efpecial man– ner, \vhich . was the Life and Glory of the Primitive Church, \vhich they earnefHy contended for~ . wherein and whereby they were viCtorious againfl:.alJ the troops of fl:01nbling Adverfaries, by whotn it was affaulted.. In; giying te!hmony hereunto , they loved not ·their lives unto death, bu~ poured out their blood like \Vater, undet~ all the PJ,gan Perfecutions 1 which had .n<? other c deG~n i ' • ,;:)

The Preface. -defign but to cafi: them down and feparate thetn fro111 this impregnable Rock, ·this precious Foundation. _ lh the defence of thefe Tr.uths did they conflict in prayers, fl:udies, travels and writings, again£l: the f\varms of Se- ·.ducers, by whom they were oppofed. And for thi~ ca.ufe I thought to have confirmed the ptihcipal paffa- · ges of the enfuing Difcourfe with forne tefi:imonies from the mofi: Antient Writers of the firfi: Ages of the Church ; but I omitted that courfe, as fearing that the interpofition of fuch paffages might obfi:rutt intl:ead. · of promoting the edification of the common fort of Rea.4o ·rs, which I principally intended. Yet withal I thought not good utterly to neglect that defign, but to give at leaft a Specimen of their fentiments a.bout the principal Truths pleaded for, in this Preface to the whole. But herein alfo I meet with a difappointment ; for the Book""feller having unexpectedly unto m-e, finiil1ed the Printing of the Difcourfe it felf, I ·mufi: be contented to make ufe of \Vhat lyeth already colleCted under tny hand, not having leift1re or time to tr:Y:·:~e any farther . . enqmry. . · I £hall do fomething ofthis nature the rather,becaufe ·I fhall have occafton thereby to give a fi.11nn1ary ac, count of fome of the principal parts of the Difcourfe it felf, and to clear fotne paffages· i11 it, which, by fotne may be apprehended obfcure. Chap. 1. The fou11dation of the whole i3 laid in the B vindi-

The Preface. vindication of thofe words of our bleffed Saviour; ·wherein he declares.himfelf to be the Rock whereon the Church is built, Mat. 1- 6. 1. 8. And I Jay alfo unto thee, that thou art Peter, and upon this ~ck.JVill I build my Cl)urch, and the Gates ofBell foall not prervail again.ft it. _ The pre... tended ambiguity of thefe words, hath be.e·n \Vrefl:ed · by the fecular lnterdls of men to give occafion tint(} ·that prodigious controverfie among Chriftians,namely, \Vhether .Jefus Chrifl: or the Pope of (]\gme be the Rock . tvhereon the Church is built.. rfh0fe holy men of old , , unto wh0m Chri!l: was precious, being untainted with the defires of fecular Grandeur and Power, knew no thing hereof.. Telli1nonies may be, they have been· 1nultipliecl by 0thers unto this pu.rpofe ; I !hall men.~ tion fome ·few of them. ot7®.. t<1w ,; 7I"eJ; 1- 7f"Cl;-neJJ- 'ct-xl!:m oJ'b5, . -n mT-est., -n x/..~s a· im1pJ,v, &c•. faith Ignatitu Epifl• .ad Philadelph. He (that is Chrifl). i5 the way leading UNto tJ,e Father, the rJ?..pcl<,_tbel\j;Y, the Shephsrd, wherein he hath refpett unto. this,'Tefl:i- .many.And Orig~n exprefly denies the·words to be fpoke11 of Peter, in 'Afatth. chap. 16. Trafi. 1. Q!!_od Ji fuj/er unum illum Petrum tantum exiflimes totam E~clejiam tedijicari~ qutd t!iElttrM es deJohanne, & Apoflolorum unoquoque. ; Num at~ dtbirnus dicerequodadverfus Petrum unum non prevaliturtefunt ;.ortte inferorum. If you foalt ~;inktlJat the whole- O;,urch was built onPeter alone, ~1Vhat jha{l we fay' ofJohn, and each of .t.beApof!les? -what ffiall we dare to Jay that the Gates ofHell , · J' · foal!: ,•'

• I The Pcreface. jhall not pretVail agairr.ft Peter only ? So he~according unto the common opinion of the Antients, that there was no– thing pe~t1liar in the confeffion ofPeter, and the anfw·er made thereunto, as unto himfelf, but that he fpakeand . \Vas fpoken unto in the na1ne of all the reil: of the A– po{l:les. Eufeb. Prceparat. E<Vangel. lib. I. cap.·3. n-n o'voNJ~) 7T'e;9~(]"'7Tl9ii<m exxi\~wla- w.m7 n'i"'nlU ~ BcL;Jou~· eppt,W{J-€vn, ~ fk~xe;., oue_9-vfwv d+Jcfwv eux,~~ dG"fwv i3 ~o<pti\cZv dvJ"ei;v p.taTeOeJ-,O(Aevn ~ \ I ) , ~I ( \ ' I Is.. ,, ' \ ' --o•a- {J-trx,v ox.Eivnv -nv <X-U'T05 rx,'Tro<pnvnrro i\e;111, Ei?roJV' e-:;rl '111V I ) (\_ I \ , I \ I tl~ ' I 7re'Te_9-V ot'J'(9oop:naw fA'd 'T'llV ox.x/\nG"tav, '9 '7TVA<X-t ao 'd ot• '{9'-'TI;(JXUG"HG"tV w7n~. He proves the verity of Divine PrediCtions from the-glorious Accomplifhtnent of that Word at\d Promife of our Saviour, that he ):vould build his ChurdJ g~z tl:ie (]{gck, (that is, I-Iitnfelf) fo as-that the.Gates of Htll fhould not prevail againft it. For Unum hoc. eft immobile fundamentum, una hcec eftJcelix--fidei Petra, Petr.i ore confejJa, Tu es filius Vei 1Ji1Ji, faith Hilar. de Trin. lib.. 2 •. 'This is the only immorvable Fouridation ; this is. t1Je ble./Jed r]{gck of Faitl:>, confe./Jd by Peter ; Thou art , the Son of the Li.-ving God. And Epiphanus, ll.~r.- 39· €~ 'Tr; '7rhe.st- rro.,JTI'1 -f d(]"cp~/\'i!5 1r!czew~ of'tf.;Jop/Aaw p..';l d1v C-xxt~:rJ(J!rx,v ;· Upon this (1\!}ck of af Jured Faith·I Tvill build nzy Church. For many thotight that Faith itJelf was metonymically called the Rock, becaufe of its Objett, or the·Perfon of Chrift whichis fo. One or two 1nore out of AuJlin il1all clofe thefe te– ftitnonies. Super l)anc Petram, q!Jam c.onfejfus'es, jiq;er me– ipfum flium Dei -yi--vi, ted~ficabo Ecclefiam meam. Super me tedijjcabo te, non 1.ne [uper t~; 'De.verbis Dom..Serm•. 1 3.. URon ·· this

·The .Prerace. ·ihi5 (j{gck which tlJou haft confeffed, upon my felf the Son of the .Lirving God, I will buildmy Church. I will build thee upon . ~y felf, andnot my [elf on thee. And he more fully de– clareth his 1nind, TraEl. 1 24. inJohan. Ecclefia .in hoc Jeculo dirverfis tentationibus, rvelut imbribus, Jluminibu,, tempeflati:! bufque quatitur, & non cad~t; quoniam fundata eft Jiepra · Petram; unde &Petrus nomen accepit. Non enim a Petro Petra, fed Petrus aPetri; jicut non Chriflus a Chrifliano, fed Chriftianus .aChrifto ruocatur. Ideo quippe qit DominusJuper ];anc P~tram .ediftcaboEccl~fiam meam, quia-dixerat Petrus, tu ,es Chriflusfilius /Dei rui"Vi ; Juper hanc ergo ( inquit ) Petram .quam confejfus es, .ed&lJcabo Ecclefiam meam. Petra enim erat .Chrijl'us, Jupra quod fundamentum etiam ipfe .edi[icatus eft Pe== trus ;· fundamentum quippe aliud nemo poteft ponere, pr.eter i~ quod pojitumeft, quod eft Jefus Chrijtus. The Church inthf! uxJrld is jhaken with di1Jers temptations, as with jhowers, jloof.ls and tempefts, yet fal!eth not, becaufe it is built on the rt\gck (Petra) from 1vhence Peter took bis name. For the rf.{gck is not calledPetra from Peter, but Peter is fo called from Pe- 1 tra the rJ.\!;ck; M Chrift is not fo called from Chrijlian, but Chriflian from Chrifl. Therefore [aid the Lord, upon this R.!ck 1vill I buildnry Church, becaufe Peter hadJaid, thou art Chrift, the Son~{ the Living God. Upon this rJ(()(k, 1vhich tl;ou haft conf effid, will I buzldmy Church. For Chrift him:felf 1vas the lf\!!ck on 1vhich foundationPeter himfelf tVM built. For other foundatirJncail no man lay , Ja-ue that 11Jhich is laid, u:hich is Jefus Christ. Cha

The Preface. .[!Jap. 2. Againfl: this Rock, this Foundation of the Church, the Perfon of Chrift, and the Faith of the Church concerning it, great oppofition hath been made by the Gates ofHell. Not to ni.enti'on the rage of the Pagan world endeavouring by all effeCts of violence and cruelty to caR: the Church from this Foundation ; all the H;erefies wherewith fron1 the beginning, and for forrie.-centuries of years enfuing it \Vas .peilered, con– filled in direct and immediate oppofitions unto ·the '~ternal Truth concerning the Perfon of Chrifl:. S01ne that are fo efl:eemed indeed, never pretended unto any fobriery, but were meer effects of.delirant Imagina– tions ; yet did even they alfo one way or other derive frmn an hatred unto the Perfon ofChrift, and centred therein. Their beginning was early in the Church, even before t~e writing ofthe Gofpel by John or his ~~ tVelations, and indeed before fome of Paul's .EpifHes. Arid although their beginning \Vas but fmall, and feen1ingly contemptible, yet being full of the poifon pf the Old Serpent, they diffufed themfelves in various Dupes and fonns, until there was nothing left of Chrift, no– thing that related unto hi1n, not his Natures, Divine or 1-Ium~ne, pot their Properties nor Acbngs, not his Per– fon, nor the Union of his Natures therein, that \Vas not oppofed and affaulted by them. Efpecially fo foon as the Gofpel had fi.1bdued the ~man Empire unto Cbrift, and \Vas ovvned by the Rulers of it, the \Vhole \Yorld b \VlS

Tbe Preface~ . was for fotne Ages ·filled with uproars,. confufion; and: fcandalous diforders about the Perfon of Chrift,through. the curfed oppofitions made thereunto by the Gates. of Hell. Neither had the Church any RdlSrom thefe con– flitts for .aooutfive hundred _.years. But near that · pe· riod of time, the Power ofTruth and Religion begin-– ing univerfally to decay~ong the outward Profeffors, of them, Satan took a vantage to make that havock and deil:ruetion of the · hurch, by fuperil:ition, falfe worlliip, and profanenefs of life, which he failed of in his attetnpt again£1: the Perfon ofChrifr,or the Doctrine .cfTruth concerning it. . · It woul-d be a tedious work, and it may be not of much profit unto them who ate utterly unacquainted with things fo long paft and gone,. wherein they feem to have no.concernment, to give aSpecimen of the feve-- .:ral HerefJes wheteby attempts were 1nade againil this~ Rock and Found~tion of the Church ; unto thofe who· have enquired into the Records of Antiquity, it would: be altogether ufelefs.. For almofr every-page of them at firfl: view prefents the Readers with _an account of fome one or more of the1n. Yet do I eil:eem it ufeful that the very ordinary fort of Chrifhans ihould· at leafl:: in genera~ be acqpainted with \iVhat hath pafled in this.. great contefr about the Perfon of Chrifl: from the begin– ing~ For there are nvo things relating thereunto,where– ~ their Faith is greatly concer~ed ~ £or firfl:, there ~s ; e.v~ j

f ' /' · f.be · Preface~ evidence given therein unto the Truth of thofe PJ:~:; dietions of the Scripture wherein this fatal Apoftacy from the ,Truth, and oppofition unto the Lord Ch~ift, are foretold ': And fecondly, an eminent Inftance ofhis Power and Fa~thfulnefs iri the difa.ppointLnent and con- · quefl: of the Gates ofHell, in the management of this oppofition. B:ut they have been all reckoned up, and. digefl:ed into · methods of tinie and tnatter, by many Learned men ofold, and of late, fo that I iliall not in, this occaftonal Difcourfe, reprefent them unto the Rea.. der again. Only I fhall give a brief Account of the· waies and means whereby they who retained the Profef– :fion of the Truth, contended for it unto a conquefl: over: the perniciousHerefies v;here\Vithit.was oppofed.. The Defence ofthe 'Truth from the beginning, was left in charge unto, and tnanaged by the Guides and Rulers of the Church in their feveral capacities. And by the Scripture it was that they difcharged their Duty:,' confirm.ed with Apoftolical 'fradition confonant there– unto. This was left in charge _unto them by the great Apoflle, AB. 20. 28, 29, 3o, 3 1. 1 Tim.6. I 3, I 4·· 1 Tim. 2. I,2,I5,23,24.chap.4.1,2,J,4· And wherein any of them failed in this Duty, they were reproved b~ifl:: himfelf, ~Y· 2. 14,1 ) , 2 o. Nor were privat{} Believers in their phces and capacities, either utiable for this Du– ty, or exempt from it, but difcharged themfelves faith-– fully therein, according unto coJ!lmanclment gi~en,_ untJil)

The Prcfa.ce.• · unto thetn, I Joh.t. 1 o, 17. clJap.4.1, 1, 3. 1 ]oh. 8·9· All true Believers ·in their feveral frations,by mutual watch– fulnefs, preaching or vvriting, according unto their calls and abilities, effectually ufed the outward means for the prefervation · and propagation of the· Faith of the Church. And "the fame means are frill fufficient unto– the fame ends, were they attended unto vvith confciet~ce and diligence. The pretended Defence of Truth vvith Arts and Anns ·of another kind, hath been the bane of Religion, and loft the Peace ofChriftians b~yond reco– very. And it tnay beobferved,tharwhilfl: this way alone for the prefervation of the Truth \Vas in.Gfl:ed on and purfued, that although innumerable Herefies arofe one after another, and fometimes many together, yet they never made any great progrefs, nor arrived unto any_ .h1ch confii1:ency, as to make a fiated oppofition unto the Truth, · but the Err ours then1felves and their Au– thors \vere as vagrant Meteors, ·which appeared for a · little \vhile, and vanifhed away. Afterwards it \Vas not f.o, when other \vaies and means for the fuppreffion of Herefies v;ere judged convenient and needful. _ For in procefS of cin1e, when the Po\ver ofthe ~man Ernpire gave countenance and proteCtion unto Chri– fhan Religion, ctnother \Vay \Vas fixed on for this end, namely, the ufe of fuch Alfemblies of Bifbops and o– thers as they called general Counccls, armed \Vith a mixt Po\Y~r, partly Civil, and partly Ecclefiafl:icAl, yvid~ . refpect

..The Prcfact. refpeet unto ~the Authority of the Emperours~ and that J urifdittion in the Church vvhich began then to be fidt talked of. This way \Vas begun in the Councel of Nice, wherein although there was a determination of the .Do6hine concerning the Perfon of Chrifl: then in agi· tation, and oppofed, as unto his Divine Nature therein, according unto- the Truth, yet fundry evils and incon– veniences enfued thereon. For thencefotth the Faith of ChriO:ians 'began greatly· to be refolved into the Autho– rity of1nefl', and as 1nuch, if not tnore \V eight to be laid on what was decre"ed by the Fathers there aifembled, than on what was dearly taught in the Scriptures. Be– i'ides, being neceffitated as they thought, to explain their conceptions of the Divine Nature of Chrifl:, in words either not ufed in the Scripture, or \vhofe fignification unto that purpofe was not determined therein, occafion was given unto -endlefs contentions about thetn. The _Grttcians themfelves could not for a long k:afon--agree a– mong thetnfelves vvhether ~ula- and u'r.rf~·a.cn~ \Vere of the fatne fignification or no, both ofthetn denoting eifence and fi1bfl:ance ; or whether they differed in their fignifi– cation; or if they did, vvherein' that di~erence lay, At~;a:s najiM at fid1: affirmed them to be the fame, Vrat. 5. con. Arian. ~nd Epifl. ad African. :Bafil denied tbetn fo to be, or -that they \yere ufed unto the fame purpofe,in the Coun– t.el of Nice, i!pift. 78. 'The like difference inJn:ediately feJ.l out between the Gr.ecians and Latim, about Hyp,oftafis C and

The Preface. and rpe,rfona. For the Latins rendred Hypofhrlis by Sub.: ftantia, and rPerjoHa by 7rePrJVYmv. Here~fJerom cotnplains io his £.piftle to DamajiH, that they required of him in th~Eafl: to confefs tres HypoStafes, and he would only ac- - lnovvledg~ tre~ Perjonao, Epifl. 71. : And Auflin gives an ' account of the fatne difference, de Trinitate, li-f;..p -c.ap. 8;,9· Athana(iuo endeavoured the compofing of this difference, and in a goodmea~1re effelt:ed it, as Gregory of Na,<;j_an:l zgn affirms in his Oration concerning his praife. It was done by him in a Syned at Alexandria in the fidl: year ofJulians rJ\.a~n., On this occaGon h1any contelts1arofe even among thetn who all pleaded their Acjherenc~ imto -the Dothine of the Councel ofNice. _:And as~ the "fi1bde Arians made incredible advantage hereof at fidl, pre– tending that they oppofed not the Dei_ty ofChrifl, · but only the expreilion ofit by o'p.9~01~; fo.afteJ;_Wards d~ey countenanced themfelves in coining words and-terms to texprefs their minds with,whichutterly rejeCted it.Hence \Vere their op.g:~01@-.,E-np~01@-,<t '~ ~x ovtTh;v, and the like natnes ofbhfphemy, about which the contefts were fierce and €ridlefs.: And, there \Vere yet farther evils that enft1ed: ,her·eon. For the curious_ and Serpentine wits ofmen,find:– ing themfelves by this tneans fet at liberry to think · and' difcourfe of thofe Myfl:eries of the Bleffed- Trinity, and' the Perfon of Chriil:, .without n1uch regard.unto plait1 Divine Tefl:in1onies, in iuch waies \vher~in cunnninR and fophiftry did much bea_r fvvay, began to m~ltiply- - ' - fi1cn

• Tke Preface. ~ h1~p ne - , ctirious nd falfe notions ab~nt rhe1n, efp ;i– allYi ab ut the lattqr, as caufed nevv diil:urbantes, and thofe oflarge exter t and long continuance. For their fuppreffion, .Coutl:cels were.called one on the neck of another,_ \V0ereon commonly ne\V occafions of differen.. . ces did ari{e, and mofl: of them managed with great fcandal unto Chrifl:ian Religion. For men began much to forego the Primitive waies of oppofing En·ours:, and extinguifhing _Herefies, betaking thernfelves unto their lnterefr, the nmnber ofth;eir Party, and prevalency with the prefent.Emperors. And although it fo fell out, as in that at Conflanti11opfe, the firfl: ,at Ephefiu, and that at C!Jal– cedon, that the Truth for the fubfl:ance of it did prevail, {for in many others it happened quite othervvife) yet did they alwaies give occafions unto ne\V divifions, anin10"". fides,_ and even. n1~1tual hatreds, a1nong the principal Leaders of the Chrifl:ian People. And great contefts _there were an1ong f01ne of them \Vho pretended to be– lieve the fame Truth, whether fttch OJ." fi1ch a Councel Ih~uld. be received, that is plainly whether the Church lbould\efolve its Faith into their Authority. The il:rifes of t~is ·n4ture about the firfl:' Ephejine Councel, and that ·. at CbalcedO.n,;-' not to tnention ·them wherein the Arians ~prevailed, take.upa good part of the Ecclefiafl:ical fl:ory ofthofe daies ~ And it cannot be denied hut that 'fome ofrh~ principal Perfons and Affen1blies vvho adhered · unto the Truth, did in .the heat of oppolition unto the · ·Her.efies

The l)reface. Herefies of other n1en, fall into unju£b.fia51e excefs the1nfelves. \Y/e 1nay take an In£l:ance hereof with refpecr u~to the Neftorian I-Ierefie, condetnned _in the fid1: Ephejian Councel" and aftenvards in.that at Chalcedon. Cyrillus of. Alexandria, •a tnan learned and vehement, defigned by alltneans to be unto it, what his Predecdfor Athanajiu-s had been to the Arian. But he fell into fi.tch exceffes in his undertakings, as gave great occafion unto farther tu– tnults, For it is evident that he diftinguifheth not be– t\veen u' m'la(m, and cpuO't5, and therefore affirn1s, that the Divine ~!ord and Hlllnanity had p.laJI cptiO'tJi, one nature on0'· So he dotb plainly in Epifl. ad Succejfum; .they are ionorant,faith he, (Jn '>C!f-7, d.An8Eto:.Ji ~~ p.-i~ cpr1Gt> -rfJ )l_cf'Yts <noupo . X4ip..i1J!n. Hence Eutyches the Archimandrite took occafion to r ui1into a contrary extre-am, being a no lefs fierce ene– iny to NeJlorius than Cyrillu:; \vas. For to oppofe him \Vho divided the Perfon of Chrift into nvo; he confounded his N atutes into one, his delirant folly being confirmed l!y that goodly Affembly the f~cond at Epl;efus. Befides, it is confeffed that Cyrillus' through the vehe1nency of his fpirit, hatredunto 2'V~efloriu.s, and following the conduct of hie O'N n niind in nice and fl1ble expreffions of the g reat ~v1y fie~·y ofthe Perfon of Chrift, did utter many things exceeding the bounds of fobriety prdcribed unto us by the Apofl:le, ~m. 1 2. ~. if not thofe of 'Truth ic. felf. Hence it is co1ne to pafs:> that 1nany Learned men begin

The Preface. · ..begin to think and \Vrite that CyriUus was in the wrong ~~.and Neflorius by his 1neans condemned undefervedly However it iscertain to me, that the Dottrine condemn . ed at Ephefus and Chalcedon as the Doetrine of Niflrwius, \Vas defl:ruchve of the true Perfon of Chrifl: ; and that Cyril, though he miffed it in fundry expreffions, yet aim– ed at the declaration and confirmation of the Truth ; 4S he was long fince_vindicated by Theorianus, 'Dialog. con. Armenios. However; fuch was the watchful care of Chrifl: over the Church as unto the prefervation of this facred fun-. damental Truth, concerning his Divit~e Perfon, and the Union ofhis Natures therein,retaining their difl:inetPro--– perties and Operations, that notwithfl:anding all the fa– Ction and diforder that were in thofe PritnitiveCoMncels,' and fcandalous cohtefl:s of many of the members of them; not\vithfl:anding the Qetermination contrary unto it in great ·and numerous Councels, the Faith of it was prefervecl entire in the hearts of all _that truly believed, and triumphed over the Gates ofHell. I have mentioned thefe fe\V things \vhich belong un-' to the Promife and PrediCtion of our bleffed Saviour, Matth. 16. 18. ·the place infifl:ed on, to fl1e\V that the Church without any difadvantage to the Truth, may be preferved V\7 ithout fi1ch general Affemblies, which in the following Ages proved the moft pernicious Engines for the corruption of the Faith,Woril1ip andManners of c lt. • (

The Preface. ~t· Yea frpm t¥ beginniri~ they yvere fo. far from be~ tng the only way of prefervmg T ruth,that It was almofl: confl:andy prejudiced by the Addition oftheir Authori• ty unto the confirmation of it. Nor was there any .one of them ·wherein the Myfl:ery of Iniquity did not j\vork unto the laying of fome rubbifh in the foundation of that fatal Apofl:acy, \Vhich aftenvards openly enfued. The Lord Chrifl: himfelf hath taken it upon him, to build his Church on this Rock of- his Perfon, · by trpe Faith of it and in it. He fends his Holy Spirit to bearte· fl:itnony unto him, in all the bleffed effe6ts of his Power and Grace. He COJ:1tinueth his \'Vord with the faithful Minifl:ry ofit, to rev~al, declare, make knovvn, and vin... dicate this facred Truth unto the conviction of gain.. fayers.. He keeps up that Faith in him, that Love unto him, in the hearts of all his Elett, as fhall not be pre.. vailed againfl:. Wherefore although the oppofitions un.. to this facred Truth, this_fundamental Article of the . Church and Chrifl:ian Religion, concerning his Divine , Perfon,its conLtitution anq ufe, as the Humane Nature _ conjoyned fubfl:antially unto it, and fubfifl:eth in it, are in this lafl: Age encreafed ; although they are tnanaged under fo-great a variety of forms,.as that they are ' not re'" ducible unto any l-Ieads of Oder; although they are pro· 1noted \Vith tnore , fubtilty and fpecious pretences than in former Ages ; yet if we are not wanting unto our Duty,\Vith the Aids of Grace propofed unto us, we fball - - fin~~

The Preface. :6nally triumph in this caufe, .and tranfmit this facred Truth inviolate unto them that fucceed us in the Pro~. feffionofit. \-. , . Chap. 3. ·This Perfon ofChri£1:, vvhich is the fou~da.:. tion whereon the Church is built, whereuntoall forts of oppoGtions are endeavoured and deligned, is the mo£1: ineffable effea ofDivine Goodnefs and Wifdom, where– ofwe treat in the next place.But herein when I fpeak of the conftitution of the-Perfon ofChri£1:, I intend not his . Perfon abfolutely as he is the Etern;tl Son ofGod.I-Ie was truly, really, cotnpleatly a Divine Perfon from eternity; which is included in the notion of his being the Son, and ·fo difl:intt from the Father, which is his cornpleat Perfo~ nality. His being fo was not a voluntary cont'rivance or effea of Divine Wifdom and Goodnefs,his et~rnal Gene– ration being a neceffary internal ACl: of the Divine Na~ ture in the Perfon o( the Father. ' Of the eternal Generation ofthe Divine Perfon ofthe Son, the fober Writers of the Antient Church, did con:– ftantly affirm that it was finnly to bebelieved,but as un.. to the manner of it not to be enquired into. Scrutator Majeflatis abforbetur aGloria, was their R.ule. And the cu– rious Difputes ofAlexanderandArius about it, gave occa– fion unto that many-headed Monfter of the ArianHereft which aftenvards enfi.1ed. For when once men·of fubtle heads,and unfanCl:ified hearts,gave up themfelves to en.. quire into things infinitely above their underftanding and

The Preface. and capacity, being vainly puffed up in their B.efhly minds, they fell into endleis Divifions among them– felves,agreeing only in an oppofition unto the ,.fruth. But thofe who co'ntented themfelves to be \Vife unto fo– briety,repreifed' this impious boldnefs. rr 0 this purpofe fpeaks LaElantius, lib.4.de -vera Sapient. Qy_omotlo igitur procre:: a'lJit ~ Nee fciri a quoquampoffunt nee narrari opera Di11ina; fed tamenJaate litertt docent ilium 1)ei filium, 'Dei ejJeJermonem, How therefore did tbe Father beget the Son? TIJefe 'Divine Works can be known ofnone,. declaredby none. r:But the holy Writings . teach z.vherein it.is determined, that he is tbe Son ofGod, that he is theWord ofGod. And Ambrofe de fide ad Gratianum. Qt!_terrJ abs te,quando aut quomodo putes filium ejJe generaturum? mihi enim impofobile eft fcire generationisJecretum. Mens deficit, 1Jox filet;non mea tantumfed& Angelorum;fupra poteflatesfupraAn1: gelos,fupra Cherubims,jupra Jenfum,fupra omnem fenfum. ---Tu quoque manum ori admo11e; Jcrutari non .licet fuperna myfleria. Licetfcire quod natusfit, non licet dijcutere quomodo natusfit; illud negare mihi non licet, hoc qu.erere mttus eft. Nam Ji Paulus ea qu.e audi1Jit, raptiJA iu tertium ct£lum, inejfabilia dicit, quomodo ·nos exprimere pojJumus patern.e generationis arcanum, quod nee fcntire-potuimus nee audire? QEid te irta @;eflionum tormenta deleRant ? - · J enquire ofyou 1Vhen and how the Son w,1s begotten ? !m:: 7 poflble it is to me to kn~~v tl:e myfiery of this Generation. My mindfoiletl,, my rvoice isfilent, ,and not only mine, but of t!Je An::. gels; It is above Principalities, above Angels, abo-ve th{Cheru::. bims

The Preface. '· bims,aboJJe tl;e Seraphims, aboiJe all undorftanding. Lay thyl;and ou thy mouth; it is not la"'Wful tofearch into tlJefe l;eavenly myfle~ ries. It u la1Vful to know that.he wcU born; that it is not lawful for me t9 deny ; this I am afraid to enquire into. Far if Paul when he "'WcU tak~ninto tl;e third I-lea1Jen, affrms that the things tvhich /;e heard could not be uttered ; how can we exprefs the my– fiery ofthe Divine Generation, which 1ve can neither apprehend. nor hear. Why do fuch torme.nting Queftions dd!ght thee! Ephraim Syrus wrote a Book to, this purpofe, againfi: the1n.who would _f€arch out the Nature of the Son of God. Among many other things to the fame purpofe · are his words, cap. 2. Inftelix profeEto, mifer, atque impuden" t!JSimus eft, qui fcrutari cupit opiftcemJuum. Millia millium, & centies millies millena millia Angelorum& Archangelo~mn, cum borrore gloriftcant, & trementes adorant; & homines luui, pleni peccatis, de di-vinitate intrepide dijferunt ? Non illorum ex{ior- . refcit t?rpus, non contremefcit animus; fed fecuri & garruli, de Chriftd Dei filio, qui pr.o me indigno peccatore paj]its eft, deque_ ipjius utraque generatione kquuntur; nee faltetn quod in luce cte;:;. cutiunt, Jentiunt. He i:1 un!;appy, mijerable, and mofl impudent, 1vho deftres to examine &fearch eut his Maker. Thoufands of tboufands, and hundreds of thoujands of millions of Angels and Archangels, do glorifie him1vith dread, and adore him Thith trem:: bling; and jhall di11ty men full offins, dijjmte ofthe Veity 1Vit!J– O.ut fiar? Horrour dot!; notJhake their bodies, their minds do not tremble, but being fecure and prating, t!Jey,Jj7eak. of the Son of , Docl, 1vhoJujferedj01~ m~ unworthy Jinner, and ofboth his Nati0 -vitics

The Preface. 'llities or Generations ; at lea.ft they are not fe1ijible ho-w blind tl)ey are in the Light. To the fame purpofe fpeaks Eufe« bius at large, Demon~ Ervart.lib. 5. cap. 2. Leo well adds hereunto the confideratiori ofhis Incar– nation; in thofe excellent words, Serm~ 9· de Nativitat. f2.!!_ia in ChrijloJefu ftlio Dei, non [alum ad 'Dirvirzam ejfenti;:tm', fed etiam ad humanamfpeEtat naturam, quod diCtum eft per Pro"' phetam; Generationem ejus quis enarrabit ? Utramque enim - fub.flantiam in unam conrveniffe perfonam, nijifides credat,Jermo non ex_plicat ; & ideo> materia nunquam deficit Laudu; quiamm"' quam jufficit copia Laudatoris. GaudiamuJ igitur quod adeloquen~ dum tantum mifericordite facramentum impct,res Jumus ; & · cum folutu noflrte altitudinem promere non 1Jaleamus, fentiamus nobis bonum ejfe quod .-vincimnr. Nemo enim ad cognitionem veritatis· m~tgis propinquat, ~uam qui intelligit, in rtbus Divinis, etiamfi multum proftciat, Jemper Jibi Juperejfe quod quterat. See alfo Fulg.lib. 2 ~ adThrafimund• . , But .I~ fpeak of the Perfon ofCh1 iff as unto·the A£fmnP'" tion of the fubflantial AdjunCt of the Humane Nature,, 1:10t to be a part,. whereof his Perfon is con1pofed, but as·· unto its fubfiih~nce therein by vertue of a fubfl:antiai Union. Some of the Antients, I confefs, fpeak freely of the Co;npojition of the Perfon ofChrifl in and by the nvo Natures, the Divine.and·Humane. That the Son·ofGod after his Incarnation had <:>ne Nature compofed of the Deity and Hwnanity, \vas the _Herefy of .dpolinarius. Eu:.. tid;es,_ the Monotbelites, or Monoplryjites condemned by alL But.

The Preface. B~t that his tnofl: fimple Divine Nature, and the Hu-· mane, compofed properly of foul and body, did com-– pofe his one Perfon, or that it was con1pofed of them; they confl:antly affirmed : Tov Ge~ p;un'T~Jv 'iJ _ dv9&}7TW~, ~~ · , , ,., N CJ. . , :ll f'\J B' c N , e , ~ "l'UU~ ')'~q>a.S atJ'}''XHNl CfJCx-JMV CIX. 'n. 'TnS Y.._g. 'nf'..!jJj et V eJP71T!'TYI'i~ TI~ r..8w5 fx~~s ~ it ~'6lov /coy;v' 'iJ Ox ~ mcpnvo'TI!~, ex ee~ ~ cpt1crtv_ J/;;, faith Cyril ofAlexandria. A ScmBis PatribtU adu::: natione ex 1Jiruinitate & Humanitate Chriflus Dominus nofler. compojitus prtedicatur.. Pet. 1Jiacon. lib. de Incarnat. & Grat. Lhrifli, adFulgentium. And the,Union \vhich they intend– ed by this cmnpofition they called ~vwcrlv cpucrtx3w, becaufe it was ofdivers natures ; and ~vwcrtv ,~~ aJv.~cr''''· an Union by Cornpofition. But becaufe there neither was, nor can be any con1~ · poficion proper!y fo called oft~e Divine and Hmnane Natures, and that the Son of God \Vas a perfett Perfon before his Incarnation, wherein he remained what he was, and was made \vhat he was not; the expreflion bath been forfaken and avoided;. the Union being bet– ter expreffed by the Affi1mption of a fubfl:antial Ad– juntt, or the Humane Nature into perfonal fubfiftence with the Son ofGod, as fhall be afterwards explained.. rfhis they conftantly adtnire as the tnoG: ineffable·effect: ofDivine Wifdmn and Grace ; 'o ct~px~ ~px~nu, o r..rf– .,@-. 'lnX..xJve'Tru, o' do~'T@.,. oei-Tw.,; c:Zva.-q;ns -¥r..a.cpd''Tru, o' dXeP– v@-. dp~'Tru, ou't~ es~ . ut~ dv8pJ7r~ Jlv!:'Tru, faith Gregory N,tzjanzsn , Orat. 1 2. in admiration of this niyftery. Hereby I •

The Preface. Hereby God communicates all things unto us from his own glorious Fulnefs, the near approaches whereof we are not able to bear. So is it illufi:rated by Bufebius, 1Je– monft. Brvang. lib. 4· cap. 5, &c. ~'TW QcpwTos n?cf<f, p.!~ iJ JJ.~Ttl a ' , "' ' ~~ ' • ' - ~'r ' ,, 'r ' IJfO(JpOi\11, 0 1 U..'d '>fj ~ 'D CWTO 'Y$-'Tr:I.JJ<M;,ti fJ-~V _a.czeg,, ipWT8"-:;et' j Qcp~"Ap.~s, dcpnv 6 ~pp.cx.!vt-t, '7Ilxfvt-t 6 ~v, xJ1~t-t 6 cp.~rrrx:, x. /\., ---d ""'* et ' ~ C__.f. I a.., \ ,. f c.__ .) ' e \ I ")''dJI ws <v 'I:MJFJ<VHTt-t AO')!'d, xcx.,.; t-t5 ae_p.vof\FCV W.JT05 ecx.uTOJI '7lttfLipU'nS <J fi':::, \ ' e I •n I "' I ' t\! .-SRC' n I -~ N 'nAI~ 01iJI ctV fW7ITil5 0?11 yt.5 !"ZTJAtiT€UOVro, 11o~V~ ·•~ 0?11 T ')117~ p.~Vct5 rlv dJ'Jdcpa:e_9v 'lrdv'TWV <roM.n~JI ep...JJ~v ~fL~, ~ ct'¥~vd6e;t£X. rW'.t riJ ipOT~S- 7fe_9(J(20A" 8-J~X.ip::J-rxpn<ropAVWI'. rfhe fenfe Of Which \V.ords with fon1e that follow in the fame place is unto this pnrpofe. By the beams of the Sun, Light, and Life, \ and Heat, unto the procreation, fufrentation, refrefh1 ment and cherifhing of all things are co1nmunicated. ~ut if the Sun it felf fhould come down unto the Earth, nothing could bear its heat and lufhe ; our eyes would not be enlightened, but darkened by its glory, and all , things be f\:vallowed J.:ip and confumed by its greatnefs; whereas through rh,~ beams of it every thing is en_lightened and kindly r~frefi1ed. So is it \Vith this eternal beam or brightnef\ ofthe Fathers Glory. We cannot bear the · im1nedia te approach of the Divine Being, but through hitn as incarnate are all things conununicated unto us, in a \vay fuited unto our reception and corn- . prehenfion. - So is it admired by Leo, Serm. 3. de Nati~it. Natura. Humana in Creatoris Jccietltfem aj]i-tmpta eft, non ut ille Ha::. bitator, &-- itle ejjet habitaculum; fed ut natur.e alterte fie mijce::;

·. The Preface. mifceretur altera, ut quam~isalia fit qtlie fitflipitur, alia rveto qutt fufcepit, in tantam tamen unitatem convmiret ut;·iujq;tli~ verftta-s, &- tmtM idemq; fit ftlieu, qui fi, &' fieu,ulum quod rverus eft homo, Patre .dicit minorem, & ftctmdttm qtwd ""tJe;; nu eft J)eus Patri Je p;:ofttetur ~qualem. Humane Na .. ture .i5 af]Umed into the fociety of the C1-eator, not that he jhould be the Inhabitant, and that the habitation (that is, by an inhabitation rn the effeCts ofhis Po\Ver and Grace, . for otherwife the fulnefs of .the Godhead dwelt in him bodily) but that one Nature jhould be fo mingled (that . is, conjoyned ) "J,vitlJ ·the other ; that althouglJ tl;at be of one kind which ajfumeth, and that of another which is afJumed; yet the diverftty of them bot!J jhould concur in foch an Unity or Union, as that it is one and the fame Son, who (u he 1va-s atrue man, faid that he JVM lefs than the Father, or the Father was greater than he ; (o M)~ wa-s true God, pro== fejfeth himfelf equal unto the Fatl;er. See alfo Auguft. de fide, .ad Pet. 'Diacon. cap. I 7· Juflinianus Imperator Fpifl. ad Hormi(dam, fi\r!m.e Epijcop. And the Myfl:ery is well exprdfed by Maxentius, Bib::: lioth. Patr. par. prima. Non conjundimus naturarum diver::: Jitatem; rveruntamen Chriftum non ut tu ajferis 1Jeum fo– llum, fed Deum foRum Chriflum confitemur. 0!:_ia non cum pauper ej]et, di'Ves faBus.ert, fed cum dives ejfet, pau– per fa8us eft, ut nos dirvites faceret ; neq; enim cum eJJet in forma ferrvi, formam 'Dei accepit; fed cum ejfet in forma Dei, formam ferrvi , accepit; ftmiliter etiam me, (um e!fet - d caro,

The Preface. caro, IJerbum eft JrtBum; fed cum ejfet Verbum, caro fa~ Bum eft. We do not confound the di<V frfity ·of the ·Na:: tures, howbeit we belieiJe not --what you affirm, that Chrifl: "'WM made - God, but we belie<Ve tlJat God w.u . made Chri.ft. For he' wa-s not made rich tvhen· he was poor; but being riclJ, he lvM made poor, that he might make us ricl:,. He did not take tlJe form of God, tvl:;en he· "'WM in the form of · aJerr-vant ; but being in the form of God, he took on him · the form of a· fer1Jant. In like manner, lJe was not made tl:e vVord when he was flejh; but being the Word; he was made Jlejh. And Hierom fpeaking. of the effe& of this Myftery,' Comment. in EZ!kiel, ~ap. 46. Ne miretur LeEtor fi idem tb'"" principes eft & Sacerdos, & rvitulus, & aries, & ·ag:: nus ; cum in Scripturis SanRis pro r-varietate cartfarum lega::: mus eum 'Dominum, & Deum, & hominem, & Propbetam, & •virgam, & radicem, (::-- ftorem, & principem,_ & ~" gem juflum, 6..... Juflitiam, Apoftolum, & Epijcopum, (Bra::: ciJi.um, Ser1nan, .Angelum, Paflorem, Filium, & Unigenitum, 6'"" Primogenitum, Oftium,, Viam, Sagittam, .Sapientiam, & ' multaalia. Let not t];e·~ader 1vonder if he find one and · the fame· to be the·-Prince and Priejl', the (Bullock, (J{_amb and Lamb; for in the Scripture on r-variety of caufes, ~Ve find .him called Lord, God, and Man, the Prophet,' a (](od, and the rf\9ot, the Flo1ver; .Prince, Judge, aud (]\!gl:Jteous l(jng; 1Qg1Jteoufoefs, ·the Apoftle and (Btjhop, the Arm and Ser·-vant of God,_the Angel, the Shepherd, tbe Son-, the only _, begotten,

The Preface. , begotten, the ftrft· begotten, the Door, the Way, tbe Arro"'W, Wijdom, andJundry other things. And Ennodius hath as -it were tur~ed this paifage ofIlierom into verfe. Corda domat, qui cunaa 1Jidet, quem cunaa trem~fcunt; Fonr, rvia, dextra, lapis, vitulus, Leo, Iucifer, Agnus; Janr-ta, fpes, 1Jirtus, 1Jerbum,Japientia, 1Jates. Oflia, 1Jirgultum,pa.ftor, molf, rete, calumba, Flamma,gigM, aquila, jf(mfus, patientia, /ner1Jus, l:'tlius, excelfus, 'Dominus, 'Deus; omnia Chriflus. In natalem Pap.e Epiphanii. Q!!_od homo eft, effe ChrifltYS rvoluit; ut & homo pofot e.ffe quod ChrifltYS eft, faith Cyprian. de Vanitat.Jud.e. And, quodeft ChrifttYS erimtYS Chrifliani, fi Chriflum fuerimus Jecuti, ibid. And he explains his tui/~ in this expre.ffion by way of admiration, Serm. de· Bleomofyn. Chriflus hominis filius ej[e rvoluit, ut nos filios 'Dei faceret; humilia.-vit [e, ut po"' pulum qui prius jacebat, erigeret; 1Julncratus eft ut rvulnera noflra fanaret. · , Chap. 4· That he \vas·the Foundation of all the ho– ly Counfels of God, with refpeQ: unto the Vocation, SanCtification, J ufl:ification, and eternal Salvationof the Church, is in the next plqce at large declared. And · he ·was fo ·on a threefold a~count. (I.) Of the ineffable · mm:·;_~dDelight of the Father and the Son in thofe Coun– _fels from ~11 eternity. (1.} As the o!1ly vvayand 1neans of

·Tbe Preface. . of the accomplifhment of all thofe Counfels, and the communication of their effeCts unto the eternal Glory of God. ( 3.) As he \Vas in his own Perfon as inc.ar.. nate, the Idrea and exemplar in the tnind of God of ·all that Grace and Glory in the Ch~rch, which was defign– ed unto it, in thofe eternal Counfels. As the caufe of all good unto us he is on this account acknowledged by the Antients. OJT~ yV'v oc /\ay~, dxpf'i@. iJ ~ 11) ,.,.-d/\CJ.A -np;~, ilv y~ ~v G~:w; 'iJ ~ €0 Tb. Nu'v J ~'Pdvn dv::1pw7rot5, duTo\ ffif. o i\o?fl5, <: , '' 0 ' , '' l"'\ , 1 c: N ,, , ,.... 0 f1.9V05 a-p..cpw ~1:05 T€ 'fj. a-v::regJ'7nl5, a-1IUY"TWV nfJ.J.V (;(.,1'1105 a-'Yi-::JCJJ v, f~ith Clemens, Adhort. ad Gentes. He therefore is the TVord, the cauje of old of our 13ei7~, for he wa-s .in God, and the caufe of our U7e//::being. :But nouJ he hatl; appeared unto men, the fame etemal Word, who alone is both God and man, aJ·:d unto us t!Je caufe of all that isgood. As he was in God the caufe ofp~1r Being and Well,being from eternity ; he vvas the foundation of the Divine Counfels in the \Vay explained ; and in his Incarnation, the execution of them all was committed unto him, that through hitn all altual good, all the fruits of thofe Counfels might be conununicated unto us. . ' Chap. 5. l-Ie is alfo declared in the next place, as he is the Image and great R.eprefentative ofGod, even the Father, unto the Church. On what various accounts he is io called , is fully declared in the difcourfe it felf. In his Divine Perfon, as he was the only begotten of the - Father,

The Preface. Father frol.}'l eternity, he is the dfential Image of the Father, by the Generation of his Perfon, and the Corn.. munication of the Divine Nature unto hitn therein. As he is incarnate, he is both in his O\Vn entire Perfon God and Man, and in the AdminiA:ration of his Office, the ~mage or Reprefentative of the Nature and Will of God unto t1s, as is fully proved. So fpeaks Clem. Alex– andrin. Admonit. ad Gentes ; ;, pvev ~ ~ Ge~ 8~v o icoyos w~, ~ U11's ~ Jl~ yynozos, d~8os ?ciyos, cpw7~s drx/rumv cpws, 8U:JI S -r{; i;.oy~ odY~pwms. The Image of God is his own Word, the na:: .tural Son of the (Eternal) Mind, the Di<Vine Word, the or!gi:: nal L!ght ofLight ; and the Image of tl;e Word is man. And the fame Author aoain P~dao-Ofl. 1re)rmnrov ~ 8e~ o ?coyos, ~ V 66 • rJJ cpw71~et:rv.,t o Geds iJ yvwpf,e7cu. 1he Word is tlJeface, the countel}ance, th·e reprejentation of God, in tvhom he is brought to light and made known. As he is in his Divine Perfon h~s eternal effential Image, fo in his Incarnation, as · the Teacher of 1nen, he is the · Reprefentative hnage of God unto the Church, as is afterwards declared. So alfq Hierom expreffeth his mind herein, Comment. in Pfal. 66 . .Illuminet <Vultum fuum fuper nos; Dei facies qute. eft ~ utique Imago e;us. · 'Dicit enim Apoftolus irnd{!;i~ nem Patris effi filium; ergo imagine Jua nos illuminet; hoc eft, imaginem f uam ftlium illuminet Juper nos ; ut ipfe nos illuminet; Lux enim Patris Lux fiLii eft. Let him caufe 1Jis face to jhine upon UJ ; or 1ift up the light of his coUJ1e< . renance upon us. What is tl::e face of God, e)Jen bis Im1r,e? E For

The Prefaee. . . For tbe Apoflle Jay!, that the Son is the bnage of tl;~ Fa~ ther. J;Vherefore let him Jhine on us with l;is Image ; tl;at is, caufe his Son, zv!Jic!J .is" his' Image, to jhine upon us, tb)at he may illun2inate us.; for the .Light of the Father cmd of the Son are the fame. ·. Chrifl: being the . Image of God, the face of God, in him is God repreiented unto us, and through him a,re aU faving.benefits com~ . rnunicated unto them that believe~ Eufebius ·alfo fpeaks often unto this purpofe; as. 'Demon. B-uangel. lib. 4· cap. 2. . co:nv· ci,J'TWs of xpnOJ.fvo} ~ "'), IV C_ \ I ~ \ ' I C "}\ N ) ..,n01'1.0')!11Y'nS, rJCOV ·')tVWTllJ.' t.!.JJTOV ~OCIVOUOZV' (()) lXII rrw; et vex, - ' ' ' I C_l I :1 "' N I \ ' I ~e!P}~, 'fj ocmeJVO'f1TI! rJC07l1TOS p.9VOV fV dJJ'"ITIJ cpeeJVTct.. 'T11V EtX-(()VOC, J'i ilv ~ ~dv 11) rre ~..u-rdv ~ /l.e')t~' rf 7reJ5 rrd 7rfW'TCv ~op.glwt:nws Aism: Wherefore tl1e holy Oracles fpeaking tl;eologically, or teaching Di:vine things_, do ·rig!Jtly call him God begotten .(of tl;e Father} as l;e 1Pho alone hears. in himfe{f the Image of the ineffable and inconcei1Jable Deity& Wherefore he both u,. and is called God, becaufe af his being the charaEter, ftmili;; tude or Image of him "PJho is the fttft. The Divine Perfo~ nality of Chrifl: conflils in this, that the whole Di– vine Nature being communicated unto, hin1 by eter– nal Generation, he is the Image of God, even the Fad ther, by \Vhom he is reprefentedunto, us. See the fame: Book, chap. 7· to the fame purpofe. A1fo De Ecclefiaft~· Theol. contra· 11arcell. lib. 2 • cap. 1 7. Clemens abounds much in the affinnation of this rrut~ concerning the. Pe!fon ~f ChriJl,. and we may. ye;