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SECTION

III.

7

by

the

fitness of

things, to

follow

the rules

of strict virtue con-

stantly.

But,

on

the other hand,

self love and

nature,

with

their

strong

sensibilities

represented

to

him

the

constant and intense

toil,

the

uneasy

fatigue and

pain

of contradicting the

dictates

of

his

nature

and his appetite of

pleasure

;

and

that

he

never

would

have

'one

easy

day

in

the

course

of strict virtue.

I-Iis

reason balanced these things

together, and

finally

resolved,

that

both his own rational. powers,

and the

fitness

of

things,

required

that

Philedon

should

pursue

his

highest

happiness, and

that

was to

indulge

his

sensual inclinations

in

the highest

degree;

for

this wasthe

ultimate happiness he could expect

:

And

as soon

as

.

he

found diseases, or pains, or poverty

come upon

him,

he

might

finish them all

at

once

by a

dagger,

or

by opium,

and

thus enter

into

eternal

ease

and

indolence. Now

in

this

case

all

his obligations to

personal virtue,

as

well as

to

self

-

preservation,

seem to be

out

-

reasoned and overcome by

the

dictates

of

self-

felicitation.

And there

are yet plainer

instances

of

such

contradictions

between single and

social

duties,

viz.

Famelico, a strong man,

lies

starving

;

and he

sees his

weaker and

hungry neighbour with

only

one piece

of

bread

in his

hand

;

reason dictates

that the

strong

man should not rob his neighbour of

his

property, es-

pecially where this property

is his

very

life

:

And yet reason,

self

-love and

nature, join

to

dictate

that

Famelico

should save his

own

life,

and procure his

own ease

from the pain

of hunger

;

which he can

do no

otherwise

but

by

taking

away

the bread, and

perhaps

life

from his neighbour.

Again, Naufragus

is

just

drowning

;

but he

sees his

neighbour supported by a little

plank,

which

is

just

big enough to save

one

man's

life

;

reason

and

virtue

dictate

that, though

he be

stronger,

he should not

drown

his neighbour,

by

taking

away

the

plank

:

Yet

his reason

and

nature

seem to

dictate also,

that Naufragus

should save himself,

though it

be by

taking the

plank away

from his

weaker neigh-

bour,

and

leave him to be drowned.

Yet

again, reason dictates

that Irus

should pay

what

he

has borrowed, and

that at

the

pro-

mised time

;

and

yet,

perhaps, this payment takes

away

all

his

subsistence, and exposes

him to

extreme hunger

and death

;

and

then both reason

and nature at the

same time dictate,

that Irus

should save himself from death, or secure himself from

pinching

hunger, whatever

his neighbour

loses

or

suffers.

Or

suppose, in a common shipwreck,

a drowning

man

sees

another

near him,

who has

three

or four

such

planks

as

would

each of

them

save a

life

:

Reason dictates he should

preserve

his

life,

though it

be by

plundering

his

neighbour of

one

of

them,

if

that

neighbour refuse to lend or give it

him

:

And yet

reason

seems

to

dictate too,

that

he should not

take

away his

neigh-

'miles property

by force.

The

'same may be said

concerning

n3