EXTRAVAGANT EULOGIES OF THE FATHERS. 95 of the city in all men's judgment: "1 does he mean that he exercised jurisdictionover the city? Tertullus calls St Paul IIpomoaroirriv, " a ringleader of the sect of the Nazarenes," Acts xxiv. 5; and St Basil calls Eustathius Sebas- tenus, " Foremanof the sectof the Pneumatomachi."a Did Tertullus mean that St Paul had universal jurisdiction over Christians? or St Basil that Eustathius was sovereign of those heretics? So neither did " Prince of the apostles," or any equivalent term, in the sense of those who assigned it to St Peter, import authority over the apostles; but eminency among them inworth, in merit, in apostolical performances, or at most in order of precedence. Such words are to be interpreted by the state of things, not the state of things to be inferredfrom them; and in understanding them we should observe the rule of Tertullian: "I had rather you would apply yourself to the sense of the thing than to the sound of the word."3 4. Accordingly, the Fathers sometimes explain those eulogies, sig- nifying them to import the special gifts and virtues of St Peter, wherein he excelled; soEusebius calls St Peter "The most excellent and great apostle, who for his virtue was prolocutor of the rest"4 5. This answer is thoroughly confirmed from hence, that even those who give these titles to St Peter, yet expressly affirm other apostles in power and dignity equal to him. Who gives higher eulogies to him than St Chrysostom? yet he asserts all the apostles to be supreme, and " equal in dignity;" and particularly, he often affirms St Paul to be k6ripov, equal in honour to St Peter, as we before showed. The like we declared of St Je- rome, St Cyril, &c. ; and as for St Cyprian, who allowed a primacy to St Peter, nothing can be more evident than that he took the other apostles to be " equal to him in power and honour." The like wemay conceive of St Augustine, who, having carefully perused those writings of St Cyprian, and frequently alleging them, never contra- dicts that his sentiment Even PopeGregory himself acknowledges St Peter not to have been properly the head, but only " the first member of the universal church, all being members of the church under one head."' Quern omnium judicio longe principem esse civitatis videbat, principem orbis term virum, &c. Cic.pro Domo sua. 2 npamaomámnv mñs mwv vrvsuwavo¡eáxav aipioeas. Bas., Ep. 18siv. s Malo te ad sensum rei pare ad sonumvocabuli exerceas.Tert. adv. Prax., cap. iii. Oú yáp ai xlf's'r v Omv vrapaIparsrav' la-AA paXXov ,i Qúoas más xigus c:s iaum+7v s).xavoa pasmaßáxxau.Athan. Orat. iii. adv. Ar., p. 373. " For words do not take away the nature of things, but the nature rather changes the words, and draws them to itself." 4 Euseb. Hist., ii. 14. s Certe Petrus apostolus primum membrum S. et universelle ecclesiaa, .... sub uno capite omnes membra sunt ecclesise.Greg. L, Ep. iv. 38.