8 INTRODU(PrION. matters, if he may strike princes, whether he do it by a downright blow or slantingly. § IV. That such an universal and absolute power has been claimed by divers popes successively, for many ages, is apparent from their most solemn declarations and notorious practices ; whereof (beginning from later times, and risingupwards toward the source of this doctrine) we shall represent some. The bull of Pope Sixtus V. (anno 1585) against "the two sons of wrath," Henry, king of Navarre, and the Prince of Condé, begins thus : " The authority given to St Peter and his successors, by the immense power oftheeternal King, excellethall thepowers of earthly kings andprinces, it passeth uncontrollable sentenceupon them all; and if it find any of them resisting God's ordinance, it takethmore severe vengeance of them, casting them down from their thrones, though never so puissant, and tumbling them down to the lowest parts of the earth, as the ministers of aspiring Lucifer."' And then he proceeds to thunder against them, " We deprive them and their posterity for ever of their dominions and kingdoms;" and, accord- ingly, he deprives those princes of their kingdoms and dominions, absolves their subjects from their oaths of allegiance, and forbids them to pay any obedience to them : " By the authority of these presents, we do absolve and set free all persons, as well jointly as severally, from any such oath, and from all duty whatsoever in re- gard of dominion, fealty, and obedience; and do charge and forbid all and every of them that they do not dare to obey them, or any of their admonitions, laws, and commands."' Pope Pius V. (one of the holiest popes of the last stamp, who hardly has escaped canonization until now') begins his bull against our Queen Elizabeth inthese words (anno1570) : " He that reigneth onhigh, to whom isgiven all powerin heaven and in earth, bath com- mitted the one holy catholic and apostolic church, out of which there isno salvation, to one alone onearth, namely, toPeter, prince of the apostles, and to the Romanpontiff, successorof Peter, to be governed with a plenitude of power: this one he hath constituted prince over all nations and all kingdoms, that he might pluck up, destroy, dis- Ab immensa nterni Regis potentia B. Petro ejusque successoribus tradita aucto- ritas omnes terrenorum regumet principum supereminet potestates Inconcussa pro- fert in omnes judicia Et si quos ordinationi Dei resistentes invenit, severiore hos vindicta ulciscitur, et, quamvispotentiores, de solio dejiciens, veluti superbientis Luci- feri ministros, ad infima term deturbatos prosternit, &c. Dominiis, regnis, &c., nos illos illorumque posteros privamus in perpetuum, &c. a A juramento hujusmodi, ac omni prorsus dominii, fidelitatis et obsequii debito, illos omnes tam universe quam singulatim auctoritate prnsentium absolvimus et liberamus ; prmcipimusque et interdicimuseis universis et singulis, ne illis eorumquemonitis, legi- bus et mandatis audeant obedire.Bulla Sixt% V. contra Henr. Navarr. R., 4-c. $ Pius V.Quem mirum est in albo sanctorum nondum relatumesse.Briet. Chrs anno 1572.