92 INTRODUCTION. " punishment of those who do not in all thingsconform to - " the public order about ceremonies, may be mitigated.- ' " That all the saints' days, festivals, and holidays, bearing " the name of a creature, may be abrogated."-This paper was subscribed by one provost, five deans, twelve arch- deacons, and fourteen proctors, many of whom were eminent for learning and ability ; but their requests were rejected.. In the above convocation, there was a great difference of sentiment among the learned reformers, which occasioned many warm debates upon points of great importance, especially upon this, " Whether it was most proper to retain the outward appearance of things, as near as possible to what had been practised in times of popery." While the one partymaintained the affirmative,the other asserted, that this outward resemblance of the ifomish church, would encourage the people in their former practices, nourish in them the old root ofpopery, and make them a more easy prey to their popish adversaries. Therefore they recommended that every thing might be removed as far as possible from - the church of Rome.+ In the conclusion, the contrary party prevailed : and the bishops, conceiving themselves empowered by the canons of this convocation, began to exercise their authority by requiring the clergy of their respective dioceses to subscribe to the liturgy, the ceremo- nies, and the discipline of the church; when such as refused, were branded with the odious name of PURITANS. This was a term of reproach given them by their enemies, because they wished to serve and worship God with greater purity thanwas allowed and established in the church of England$ All were stigmatized by this name, who distin- guished themselves in the cause of religious liberty, and who could not in all points conform to the ecclesiastical establishment. In the year 1564, Archbishop Parker, with the assistance of several of the bishops, published the Advertisements; with a view to secure a due conformity among ecclesiastical persons. By the first of these advertisements, all preachers throughout the province of Canterbury were at once disqua- lified ; and by the last, they were required tosubscribe, and promise not to preach or expound the scriptures, without a license from the bishop, which could not be obtained Strype's Annals, p. 298. vol. ii. Attica. p. 15. + Burnet's Hist. of Refor. vol. iii. p. 302. ".1. Fuller's Church Hist. b. ix, p. '76.