INTRODUCTION. 23 without a protestation and promise under their hand of an absolute conformity to the ceremonies. No less than eight protestations were also required to be made and subscribed by all who should be admitted to any office or cure in the church.. Though the archbishop and his brethren at first met with some difficulties in carrying them into effect, (the queen refusing to sanction them,) yet afterwards, pre- suming upon her majesty's favour, they succeeded according to their wishes.t Upon the approach of these severities, Mr. Whittingham wrote a long and pressing letter to the Earl of Leicester, warmly urging him to interpose with the queen, to hinder their execution; In the conclusion of this most pathetic epistle, he says, " I need not appeal to the word of God, to the history of the primitive church, and to the just judgments of God poured out upon the nations for lack of true reformation. Judge ye 'betwixt us and our enemies. And if we seek the glory of God alone, the enjoyment of true christian liberty, the overthrow of all idolatry and superstition, and to win souls to Christ; I beseech your honour to pity our case, and use your utmost endeavours to secure our liberty."t Many. of the clergy in both the universities,, and in the country, but especially in the city of London, refused to wear the square cap, the tippet, and the surplice. " And it is marvellous," says Me. Strype, howmuch these habits were abhorred by many honest, well-meaning men ; who styled them. antichristiau ceremonies, and by no means fit to be used in a true christian churcl."4 But Archbishop Parker and other high commissioners being resolved to reduce the church to one uniform order, cited many of the clergy before them, admonishing sonic, and threatening others. Among those who appeared, were Dr. Sampson, dean of Christ-church, Oxford, and Dr. Humphrey,, presi- dent of Magdalen college, in the same university. They were divines of -great renown throughout the kingdom, for learning, piety, and zeal for the reformation, but were cast into prison for nonconformity.ii The famous Mr. Whitehead, with several others, was cited at the same st Sparrow's Coliec. p. 123-128. 1- Strype's Parker, p. 151-181. t See Art. Whittingham. § Strype's Parker, p. 151. It is proper here to observe, that throughout the Introduction, no authority will be given where the same things are treated more at large in the body of the work. Therefore, in order to examine the evidence of what the author has asserted, as well as a more circumstantial detail of facts, the reader, in all such instances, is directed to the respective articles.