APOSTOLIC CHURCHES, WHY SO CALLED. 719 political rights with Acacius, bishop of Cesarea, as presiding in an apostolical see."' So Alexandria was deemed, because St Mark was supposed by the appointment of St Peter to sit there. So were Corinth, Thessalonica, Philippi, called by Tertullian (Tertull. de Præscr. xxxvi.), because St Paul founded them, and fur- nished them with pastors; in which respect peculiarly the bishops of those places were called successors of the apostles. So Constantinople assumed the title of an apostolical church, pro- bably because, according to tradition, St Andrew founded that church, although Pope Leo I. would not allow it that appellation.' Upon the same account might Rome at first be calledan apostoli- cal see, although afterward the Roman bishops rather pretended to that denomination upon account of St Peter being bishop there; and the like 'may be said of Antioch.' 9. It is observable that the author of theApostolical Constitutions, reciting the first bishops constituted in several churches, does not reckon any of the apostles; particularly not Peter, nor Paul, nor John.Const. Apost. vii. 46.* 10. Again, any apostle, wherever he resided, by virtueof his apos- tolical office, without any other designation or assumption of a more special power, was qualified to preside there, exercising a superin- tendency comprehensive of all episcopal functions; so that it was needless that he should take upon himself the character or style of a bishop. This, besides the tenor of ancient doctrine, appears from the de- meanour of St John, who never was reckoned " bishop of Ephesus," nor could be, without displacing Timothy, who bySt Paul was con- stituted bishop there, or succeeding in his room yet he, abiding at ' mpi p wrpavrot/m/xmv ólxaimv le6vro grpóç 'Axáxrov ró, Kalvapaiaç, w'g ámç,-,Xl,,i Spóvou ñyoGp,noe. Sozom. iv. 25. 2 'A,ravmaXixoü r,ó,011 Spávav xamaopeveïç. Syn. Chale., Act. x. p. 379, and p. 284. " Thou despisest this apostolical throne. " 'E0' W xa) arp;To+ iarioxoa'ov móv JEiav Emáxuv xamavmñoa;, iv ézxxnoia í3v lzvïoe xpmmaç viTel 17reEama. Niceph. ii. 39. " Foras- much as having appointed holy Stachys the first bishop in the church which he first settled there." Nondedignetur regiam civitatem, quamapostolicam nonpotest facere sedem, &c. P. Leo L, Ep. liv. " Let him not disdain the royal city, whichhe cannot make an apostolic see." 3 Memento quia apostolicam sedem regis, &c.Greg. M., Ep. iv. 87. " Remember you rule an apostolic see." * The learned differ as to the author and origin of the " Constitutions," but are now agreed that this supposititious work, falsely bearing thename of the apostles, was compiled, or at least altered, probably by Arian hands, in the fourth century. Budded Isagoge, pars ii.; Weisman. Introd. i. 79; Mosheim's Ins. Eccl. Hist. (Reid'sed.), p. 37. These "Constitutions" are considered useful, however, with the notes of Cotelier, in determining various points of practice in the church during the third, fourth, and fifth centuries. En. 'Aaro ,u ávfou T, vS1,u pcfixpl vVv x` i,rív,v,vre, yfivovm0 ,rávmEÇ iv 'Eq'fivvv xslporoveíAnoay. Syn. Chal., Act. ii.; 2 Tim. i. 6. "From holy Timothy till now there have been twenty-seven bishops, and all ordained at Ephesus." Johanne autem permanente spud eos, &c. Iren. iii. 3.