16 INTRODIICTION. ¶° effectually caused both the Romans and Italians to recede from obedience to the emperor."' This was, in truth, an act of rebellion against the emperor, inpre- tence ofjurisdiction over him; for how otherwise could he justify or colour the fact? " So," as Baronius reflects, " he left to posterity a worthy example" (forsooth!) " that heretical princes should not be suffered to reign in the church of Christ, if, being warned, they were found pertinacious in error."' And no wonder he then was so bold, seeingthe pope hadobtained so much respect in those parts of the world, that (as he told the Emperor Leo Isaurus) " all the kingdoms of the west held St Peter as an earthlygod: "$ of which he might be able to seduce some to uphold him in his rebellious practices. This is the highest source, as I take it, to which this extravagant doctrine can be driven; for that single passage of Pope Felix III., though much more ancient, will not amount to it: " It is certain that, in causes relating to God, it is the safest course for you, that, according to his institution, ye endeavour to submit the will of the king to the priests,"4 &c. For while the emperor retained any considerable authority in Italy, the popes were better advised than to vent such notions; and while they themselves retained any measure of pious or prudent modesty, they were not disposed to it. And we may observe divers popes near that time in word and practice thwarting that practice; for instance, Pope Gelasius, a vehement stickler for papal authority, says to the Emperor Anastasius, " I, as being a Roman born, love, wor- ship, reverence thee as the Roman prince."' And he says that "the prelates of religion (knowing the empire conferred on him by divine Providence) obeyed his laws."' And otherwhere he dis- courses, that " Christ had distinguished by their proper acts and dig- nities the offices of ecclesiastical and civil power,"7 that one should 1 Turn Romanos turn Italos ad ejus obedientia recedere penitus fecit.Baron., anno 730, § 4. 2 Sic dignum posteris reliquit exemplum, ne in ecclesia Christi regnare sinerentur hæretici principes, si agape moniti, in errore persistere obstinato animo invenirentur. Baron., ibid. 3 "O, al mrmoar ßavrxciar *is 3úvcros áç $tóv I riycrov ëxovo,.- -Greg. II. Ep. i.; Bin., torn. T. p. 608. 4 Certum est, rebus vestrishoc essesalutare, ut, cum decausis Dei agitur, juxta ipsius constitutionem, regiam voluntatem sacerdotibus Christi studeatis subdere, nonprmferre, &c. P. Felix. III. (anno 483), Dist. x. cap. 3. Te, sicut Romanus natus, Romanum principem amo, colo, suspicio.P. Gelas. L, Ep. viii. (ad. Anast. Imp.) - cognoseentes imperium tibi superna dispositione collatum, legibus tuis ipsi quogiie parent religionis antistites.Ibid. 7 Christus, dispensatione magnifica temperans, sic actionibuspropriis dignitatibusque distinctis officia potestatis utriusque discrevit, &c.