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T E LIVES OF THE PURITANS: CONTAINING A. BIOGRAPHICAL ACCOUNT OF THOSE DIVINES WHO DISTINGUISHED THEMSELVES IN THE CAUSE Gr Illeligiouo Litiertp, FROM THE REFORMATION UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH, TO THE ACT OF UNIFORMITY, IN 1662. BY BENJAMIN BROOK. IN THREE VOLUMES. VOL. III. Ile, being dead, yet speaketh.-HEBREWS. Many of the Puritans were men of great erudition, deep views of religion, and unquestionable piety; and their writings contain a mine of wealth, in which any one, who will submit to some degree of labour, will find himself well rewarded for his pains.-WILBERFORC E. Lontion: PRINTED FOR JAMES BLACK, YORK-STREET, COVENT-GARDUN. 1813.

CONTENTS OF VOL. III. PAGE PAGI. John Dod 1 1 Thomas Shepard 103 s Samuel Crook 107 Thomas Lydiat 6 Z William Twisse 12 j Francis Woodcock........ 109 Jeremiah Burroughs 18 Edward Symonds .... - .. 110 Francis Cornwell 25 Andrew Wyke 112 Thomas Collier 27 Henry Tozer its. Philip Tandy 30 Christopher Love 115 Thomas Moore 31 t s Peter Saxton 139 John Durance ib. t George Walker 140 John Batchelor 32 s John Vicars 143 John Greene 34 t s Patrick Young........... 145 John Price 37 2 Daniel Rogers 149 Mr, Symonds 38 s John Cotton 151 Joseph Symonds 39 WilliamLyford 161 Henry Burton 40 .Z. John Lathorp 163 Henry Wilkinson 59 i William Gouge 165 Thomas Coleman 60 i Thomas Hill 170 Ephraim Paget, ....... ... 62 i Thomas Wilson. 173 Thomas Rooker 64 t Nathaniel Ward 182 John Saltmarsh 70 t i Robert Abbot ib. Herbert Palmer 75 Z John Spilsbury .......... 183 Robert Balsom 79 : Cuthbert Sydenham 184 Thomas Edwards 82 i William Erbery 185 John White 88 t Jeremiah Whitaker .. .... 190 Peter Smart... ....... . . 90 , William Strong 196 Richard Blackerby 96 'i Thomas Gataker, jun. .... 200 Thomas Temple .... 100 Z Samuel Bolton 223 John Wilkinson. 101 John Murcot 224 John Geree .... .. ..... .. 102 Joshua Hoyle . 226

vi CONTENTS. PAGE Andrew Perne 227 Alexander Gross 228 John Graile . 229 Richard Vines 230 Hugh Robinson 235 John Angel 236 Ralph Robinson ...... 237 Nathaniel Rogers 238 Jeronn Turner 241 `Stephen Marshall ib. Timothy Armitage......., 254 Giles Workman 255 Thomas Young ib. John Pendarves 256 John Gifford 257 Richard Capel 259 James Noyes.... 261 Edward Bright 262 Robert Peck . . 263 Stephen Geree 265 Edward Corbel 266 James Cranford 268 Thomas Blake 269 John Janeway 271 John Langley 289 John Gumbleden 291 John Frost ib. Hugh Evans . 293 Obadiah Sedgwick 295 William Sandbrooke 297 John Beverly .... 298 WilliamCarter.... 299 John Harris........ 300 Thomas Goodwin . . ib. Robert Harris ..... 303 Christopher Feake 308 Ralph Partridge.. 311 Sydrach Sympson 312 Robert Dingley 314 John Arrowsmith.... 315 Peter Bulkly 318 PAGE Samuel Jacomb 319 Thomas Cawton 320 Henry Dunster 323 Charles Merle 324 John Rogers 326 Morgan Lloyd ...... 329 Edward Barber 830 John Cause ..... 332 Ezekiel Rogers.... 341 William Styles . . . . .. . 345 Peter Sterry 347 Edward Gee . . , 349 Hugh Peters 350 John Dury ....... 369 Henry Whitfield 373 Adoniram Byfield 374 Constantine Jessop 375 Henry Denne 376 Francis Taylor . 380 Evan Bows 381 Walter Cradock 382 William Jeffery ...... 386 Christopher Blackwood 389 William Taylor.... 390 John James 391 Praise-God Barebone 399 John Ley ............ 403 John Simpson 405 John Biddle 411 Benjamin Cox ib. John Norton ........ 419 Samuel Newman 422 Samuel Stone 423 Thomas Patient 425 WilliamThompson........ 426 Samuel Oates............. 427 John Wilson ........ ..... 431 Abraham Cheare ......... 435 Richard Mather 440 Zechariah Symes . . .... 446, John Davenport ib.

CONTENTS. vii PAGE PAGE Charles Chauncey 451 t William Fleming.......... ib. John Allen 456 James Goswell ib. Thomas Grantham ........ ib. John Hopkins 510 Thomas Lamb 461 Thomas Farrar ib. Oliver Bowles ............ 466 2 John Ozenbridge ... ib. John Fisk 46S i Mr. Harsnet.... ib. Thomas Parker.... 469 Nicholas Williamson 511 Peter Hobart 471 2 Mr. Gibson.... ib. Samuel Whiting .... 472 1 Mr. Horrocks ... ib. John Wheelwright 473 Sampson Sheffield ib. Roger Williams 477 Richard Gardiner......... 512 John Sherman 482 Mr. Kendal .... ib. Thomas Cobbet 483 Ezekiel Culverwell ib. John Elliot 484 Mr. Bernhere ...... ...... 513 Hanserd Knollys 491 George Newton ib. John Ward 500 John Allison ... lb. William Bourne 514 ADDENDA. William Smythurst ib. Mr. Allen..... ........... 502 1 Mr. Aderster ib. Mr. Broklesby ib. Mr. B. Bridger ib. Mr. Evans ib. Thomas Newhouse.. ...... 515 Mr. Fits 503 Thomas Edmunds ib. ti Hugh Boothe ib. Stephen Goughe ib. Thomas Greshop 504 516 t Robert Cleaver James Rosier lb. 2 Robert Mandevill ib. Dr. Penny ib. John Wilkinson ib. Mr. Sparrow .517 ib. t John Morton Mr. Walsh 505 Mr. Hubbard ib. Mr. Fulwer ib. 2 John Yates ib. Mr. Lowth ib. t John Frewen 518 John Brown lb. Z Bright ib. David Thickpenny 506 Mr. Udney ib. Edward Chapman lb. Samuel Blacklock 519 Ralph Lever 507 Mr. Bradstreet ib. William Drewet ib. i Mr. Crowder 520 John Nash ib. Samuel Skelton ib. Mr. Evans 508 t Humphrey Barnet ib. Richard Prowd M ib. r. Brodet 521 John Hooke ib. Richard Denton .... ib. Joseph Nicholls 509 ' John Vincent ib. John Harrison............ ....... lb. John Trask ....,.... ib.

1/111 CONTENTS. PAGE PALL Adam Blackman 522 it Edmund Small ib. Thomas Warren ib. Mr. Smith t ib. William Herrington ib. i John Spencer ib. Nicholas Beard .... ...... 523 Hannibal Gammon 530 William Green ib. Mr. Wainwright ib. William Powell ib. John Sims ib. William Kent 524 John Foxcroft ...... 531 Mr. Davenish ib. Ralph Marsden ib. Mr. Barret ib. Nicholas Darton ib. Mr. Salisbury .... 525 Henry Roborough ib. Mr. Jeffryes ib. Abraham Peirson 532 i Henry Page 526 Rowel Vaughan ib. Ralph Smith ib. Robert Maton ib. Ephraim Hewet .... ...... ib. i Peter Prudden 533 Dr. Jenningson ......... ib. i Robert Booth .. .. ib. John Jemmet ....... ..... 527 , Walter Rosewell 534 John Stoughton ib. i Thomas Ball ib. Mr. Burchell .... t ib. , Stanley Gower ib. Thomas Scott .... ....... 528 i Henry Flint 535 William Madstard ib. i James Sicklemore ib. Mr. Cooper 529 APPENDIX 537 CONTENTS OF THE NOTES. A curious anecdote of Bishops Neale and Andrevvs 2 The occasion of. he civil war 3 Account of the famous John Selden 9 Archbishop Usher tamely submitted to Archbishop Laud 15 Bodies dug up after the restoration 16 Account of the Earl of Warwick 18 A popish book dedicated to Archbishop Laud 42 Mrs. Burton committed toprison 44 Warrant for apprehending H. Burton lb. to the warden of the Fleet 45 A curious anecdote of Bastwick's litany ......... . ... ib. Sentence against Bastwick and Prvnne 47 Clarendon'scharacter of Archbishop Laud 49 The paring of H. Burton's ears 50 The people at Coventry and Chester prosecuted 51

CONTENTS. Account of William Prynne the portrait of Archbishop Laud and A curious anecdote of Archlishop Abbot Committee of religion offensive to Laud Account of the innovations of Dr. Cosins Mrs. Smart's letter to her husband Sir Edward Lukenor a friend to the nonconformists Anecdotes of Bishop Neile Mr. Gibbons beheaded on Tower-hill Dr. Grey's opinionof C. Love . Soldiers threatening to shoot Dr. Manton A curious anecdote of George Walker. Dr. Grey's frivolous reasoning Account of the Alexandrian manuscript The false accusation of John Cotton The Mayor of Arundel prosecuted Dr. Tuck's severe usage .. Bishop Kennet's character of the tryers Account of the assembly'sannotations ma.,:acrc in Ireland Earl of Essex Anecdote of Dr. Heylin and Bishop Williams Dr. Grey's insinuation of S. Marshall . Account of Lady Brown's piety ---- the fifth monarchy-men - William Janeway Warrant for apprehending Thomas Cawton Account of Castell's Lexicon Heptaglotton the monthly lectures in Yorkshire -- Archbishop Matthews - Sir Henry Vane Anecdote of Bishop Montaigne Account of Thomas Peters Walter's plot s------ Mrs. Peters Bishop Bedell favoured the union of protestants King Charles's schismatical remark Warrant to the keeper of Newgate Oliver Cromwell an enemy to persecution Two anecdotes of Oliver Cromwell , Account of the infamous Titus Oates VOL. III. ix PAGE 57, 1. Burton... -. 58 75 89 91 93 96 104 135, 137 138 140 142 148 154 155 177 196 211 226 233 248 249 251 257 279 321 322 342 343 348 350 353 356 369 370 383 392 416 ib. 427

CONTENTS.- PAGE Public disputations on religion to be discountenanced 430 Archbishop Neile taught the people to pray for the dead 440 Dr. Merrick threatened by Archbishop Laud ....... 453 Anecdotes of two persecuted brothers .... 467 Mrs. Hutchinson banished and murdered ......... 476 The amazing length of Indian words 488 Granger's censure of two bookson controversy , ....... 500 Account of the author's MS. authorities 539, 540

THE LIVES OF THE PURITANS. JOHN Don, A.M.-This celebrated divine was born at Shotwich in Cheshire, about the year 1549, was the youngest of seventeen children, and educated in Jesus college, Cambridge; where he continued nearly sixteen years, and was chosen fellow of the house. During his abode in the university, he became thoroughly convinced of his sins, betook himself to deep humiliation, and earnestly sought the blessings of pardon and peace through Jesus Christ; which, to his unspeakable comfort, he at last obtained. While at Cambridge ' he was particularly intimate with. Drs. Fulke, Chadderton, Whitaker, and others, who held their weekly meetings for prayer and expounding the scriptures. In the year 1615, a divine of the same name, and no doubt the same person, was elected proctor of the university.. Having received an invitation to become pastor at Hanwell in Oxfordshire, he left the university; and entered upon the stated exercises of the christian ministry. In this situation he preached frequently, catechized the youth, and united with others in wweekly lecture at Banbury. His labours at Hanwell were numerous, and most extensively useful. It is observed, that hundreds of souls were at this place converted under his ministry.+ He was about thirty years old when he' first settled at Hanwell, and remained there about twenty years, where he had twelve children by his first wife, the daughter of Dr. Nicholas Bound. After her death he took a second wife, and was married by his old friend Dr. William Gouge. Mr. Dod's great popularity and usefulness in 'the above situation, roused the envy of several neighbouring ministers, who, though they seldom preached themselves, would not Fuller's itist. of Camb. p. 139. + Clark's Lives annexed to his Martyrologie, p. 168, 169. VOL. 111.

2 LIVES OF THE PURITANS. allow their people to go and hear him; and for the singular crime of multitudes flocking to his ministry, he was several times questioned in the bishops' courts.. In addition to this, being exercised with some other trials, he was induced to consult Mr. Greenham, his excellent father-in-law. This reverend divine, after hearing his complaints, said, " Son, son, when affliction lieth heavy, sin lieth light;" and gave Mr. Dod such suitable advice, that he had abundant cause to bless God for it, and found it of excellent use all the rest of his days. However, he was at length suspended from his ministry at Hanwell by Dr. Bridges, bishop of Oxford. Being chiven from his affectionate and beloved people, he preached a short time at Fenny Compton in. Warwickshire, then accepted an invitation to Canons Ashby in Northamptonshire. In the latter situationhe was treated with peculiar kindness by Sir Erasmus Dryden, a gentleman of great learning and piety ; but he did not continue long without molestation. For, upon the complaint of Bishop Neile,+ he was silenced by the archbishop.# Though this excellent divine was cast aside,. he did not remain idle. When his efforts of public usefulness were set aside, he went about from house to house, giving private instructions ; and by his pious discourse and holy deport-, ment, he was nearly as useful as when he enjoyed his public ministry.§ He was particularly desirous of a more pure reformation. of the church, and therefore united with his brethren in subscribing the " Book of Discipline.1 He continued under the above suspension several years. But on the accession of King James, Sir Richard Knightly procured him his liberty ; and he renewed his ministerial labours at Fausley in Northamptonshire, where he continued, in great reputation and usefulness, all the rest 'of his days. Clark's Lives annexed to Martyrologie, p. 170. 1- Bishop Belle of Durham and Bishop Andrews of Winchester, attend- ing upon King James, had the following conversation with him: His majesty, always intent upon his prerogative, asked the bishops, " My lords, cannot I take my subjects' money when I want it, without all this formality in parliament?" The Bishop of Durham readily answered, God forbid, sir, but you should ; you are the breath of our nostrils." Upon this the king turned, and said to the Bishop of Winchester, " Well, my lord, what say you ?" " Sir," replied the bishop, " I have no skill to judge of parliamentary cases." The king answered, "'No put offs, my lord ; answer me presently." " Then, sir," said he, " I think it lawful for you to take my brother Neife's money, for he offers it." This pleasantry afforded great entertainment' to the company.-Biog. Briton. vol. i. p. 185. Edit. 1778. Clark's Lives annexed to Martyrologie, p. 170. Fuller's Worthies, part i. p. 181. 41 Neal's Puritans, vol. i. p. 422.

DOD. 3 Here, also, he felt the iron rod of the prelates ; and, as in the three former situations, he was for a time suspended from his public ministry.° Mr. Dod was a pattern of patience. He bore his numerous trials with great meekness of spirit and holy resignation to the will of God. He used to say, " Sanctified afflictions are spiritual promotions." In the sixty-third year of his age, he laboured under extreme bodily affliction, and was brought to the very brink of the grave : but when the physician, who gave a check to his complaint, told him he had then some hope of his recovery, the good old man replied, " You think to comfort me by what you say ; but you make me sad. It is the same as if you had told one who had been sorely weather-beaten at sea, and was expect- ing to enter the desired haven, that he must return to sea, to be tossed by fresh winds and waves." Having a comfort- able assurance of heaven, he was desirous to leave the world, and to " be with Christ." And as he enjoyed much divine consolation in his own mind ; so, in numerous remark- able instances, he administered the same to others. This venerable divine used to say, " I have no reason to complain of any crosses, because they are the bitter fruit of my sin. Nothing shall hurt us but sin ; and that shall not hurt us, if we can repent of it. And nothing can do us good but the love and favour of God in Christ; and that we shall have if we seek it in good earnest. Afflictions are God's potions, which we may sweeten by faith and prayer; but we often make them bitter, by putting into God's cup the ill ingredients of impatience and unbelief. There is no affliction so small but we shall sink under it, if God uphold us not : and there is no sin so great but we shall commit it, if God restrain us not. A man who bath the spirit of prayer bath more than if he hath all the world. And no man is in a bad condition, but he who bath a hard heart and cannot pray." During the civil wars,+ when some of the king's party came to his house, and threatened to, take away his life, this heavenly divine, with holy confidence replied, " If you do, you will send me to heaven, where I long to be ; but you Fuller's Worthies part i. p. 181. -1 The first ill blood between King Charles and his subjects, which afterwards led to all the horrors of civil war, was occasioned by the severe proceedings in the high commission court, and thecruel censures in the star-chamber ; in both of which the court clergy were allowed too much power.-Biog. Briton. vol. i.p. 572.

4 LIVES OF THE ITRITAI\IS. can do nothing except God give you leave." When they broke open his chests and cupboards, and carried away what they pleased, his only complaint was, The Lord gave, and the Lord hath taken away; blessed be the name of the Lord. When they came a second time, he was confined to his bed by sickness ; but though they cut away the curtains from his bed, and took the pillow-cases from under his head,he uttered not a murmuring word.. Coming a third time, and having taken most of the linen and household stuff, and brought them into the room in which the good old man sat warming himself by the fire ; he, during their absence to search for more, took a pair of sheets, and put them under the cushion on which he sat, greatly pleasing himself, after they were. gone, that he had plundered the plunderers, and, by a lawful robbery, saved so much of his own property.t Mr. Dod was exceedingly beloved, though not without his enemies. These,. _ out of malice, stigmatized him Faith and Repentance; because he was constantly recommending these two things. He was a person of great moderation ; and when he was questioned about subscription and the cere- monies, he was always equally ready to give his opinion, and cautious in giving his advice. He urged all who desired his opinion upon these points, totake heed against being influenced by the example or arguments of others, but to look to God and his holy word for direction. He used to ask them _ whether they could suffer in that cause alone, if all others were dead. Though he was a strict nonconformist, and bore his sham of sufferings, in the cause, he was of a most liberal spirit, and loved all who loved Christ. As old age and afflictions came upon him, he usually compared himself to Sampson when his hair was cut; saying, " I rise in the morning as Sampson did, and think I will go forth as at other times ; but, alas ! I soon find an alteration I must stoop to old age, which hath clipt my hair, and taken away my strength. But I am not afraid to look death in the face. I can say, death, where is thy sting? Death cannot hurt me. To a wicked man death is unwelcome; but to a child of God, who bath laboured and suffered much, death is welcome, that he may rest from his labours." During his last sickness he was exercised with most grievous pains, but was eminently supported and comforted in the exercise of faith and patience. He wrestled hard with Satan, and at last overcame. He longed to be with Christ, andhis desire was Clark's Lives, p. 174, 175. 1- B'ullet's Church Hid. b. xi. p. 220.

DOD. 5 granted. His last words were, I desire to be dissolved and to be with Christ. He finished his course, and received the crown of righteousness, in the year 1645, aged ninety-six years, when his remains were interred in Fausley church.. Dr. Lloyd gives the following account of this venerable divine :-" Mr. Dod," says he, " had no delight in con- tradiction, nor could he find in his heart to disturb the peace of the church. He was so far from it, that, as I have frequently heard from his grandchild and others, when some thought their dissents ground enough for a war, he declared himself against it, and confirmed others in their allegiance he professed to the last a just hatred of that horrid rebellion.". The celebrated Archbishop Usher had the highest opinion of him, and said, " Whatever some affirm of Mr. Dod's strictness, and scrupling some ceremonies, I desire that when I die my soul may rest with his." Wood styles him " a learned and godly divine."-t. Fuller denominates him " patient, humble, meek, and charitable ; an excellent scholar, especially in Latin and Hebrew, and exceedingly profitable in conversation. He was a good ohynsist, to extract gold out of other men's lead; and however loose were the premises ofother men's discourse, piety was always his unforced conclusion."$ He is classed among the learned writers of Jesus college, Cambridge.§ Echard calls him " a learned decalogist, an exquisite Hebrician, and a most pious and hospitable divine ;" and says, " he was highly valued by all good men." 11 Granger observes, ai that in learning he was excelled by few, and in unaffected piety by none. Nothing was ever objected to this meek and humble man but his being a puritan." His sayings have been often printed, and are still to be seen pasted on the walls of cottages. An old woman in his neighbourhood, he adds, told Mtn, " that she would have gonedistracted for the loss of her husband, if she had been without Mr. Dod's sayings in her house."1 It is recorded of Mr. Dod, that one evening, being late in his study, his mind was strongly impressed, though he could assign no reason for it, to visit a gentleman of his acquaint- ance, at a very unseasonable hour. Not knowing the design of Providence, he obeyed and went. When he came to the house, after knocking a few times at the door, the gentleman himself came, and inquired whether he wanted him upon any Biog. Britau. vol. vii. p. 4269. + Wood's Athena, vol. i, p. 758. Fuller's Worthies, part i, p. 181.-Church Hist. b. xi. p. 220. § Fuller's Hist. of Cam. p. 86. 11 Echard's Hist, of Eng.vol. ii. p. 545. 4 Granger's Biog. Hist. vol, i, p. 370.

6 LIVES OF THE PURITANS. particular business. Mr. Dod having answered in the negative, and signified that he could not rest till he had seen him, the gentleman replied, " 0, sir, you are sent of God at this very hour; for I was just now going to destroy myself," and immediately pulled the halter out of his pocket, by which he had intended to commit the horrid deed. Thus the mischief was prevented.. It is observed of Mr. Dod, that a person being once enraged at his close and awakening doctrine, picked a quarrel with him, smote him in the face, and dashed out two of his teeth. This meek and lowly servant of Christ, without taking the least offence, spit out the teeth and blood into his hand, and said, " See here, you have knocked out two of my teeth, without any just provocation ; but on condition I might do your soul good, I would give you leave to dash out all the rest."-i- Thus Mr. Dod wasnot overcome of evil, but overcome evil with good. Mr. Timothy Dod, ejected in 1662, was his son, and imitated the amiable virtues of his excellent father.# Old Mr. Dod was commonly called the Decalogist, because he and Mr. Robert Cleaver, another puritan minister, published " An Exposition of the Ten Commandments," 1635. They also published " The Patrimony of Christian Children ; and were authors of " Ten Sermons to fit Men for the Worthy Receiving of the Lord's Supper." Mr. Dod, it is said, was the author of that singular and well-known little Sermon on the word MALT. Bishop Wilkins passes a high encomium upon his sermons, with those of other learned divines.§ THOMAS LYDIAT, A. M.-This celebrated scholar was born at Alkrington, or Okerton, near Banbury, in Oxford- shire, early in the year 1572, and educated first at Winchester school, then at New College, Oxford, where he was chosen fellow. A dispOsition to learning distinguished him from childhood, in consequence of which his parents, who lived in wealthy circumstances, designed him for a scholar, and placed him at the university under the tuition of Dr. (after- wards Sir Henry) Marten. He signalized himself by intense application to his studies, and became almost a prodigy in good literature, especially in logic, mathematics, astronomy, Flavel's Works, vol. iv. p. 399. Edit. 1797. + Ibid. vol. v. p. 470. t Palmer's Noncon. Mem. vol. iii. p. 30. Discourse ou Preaching, p. 82, 83.

LYDIAT. 7 the learned languages, and divinity. His desire to enter upon the ministerial function was opposed by a defective memory and an imperfection of utterance ; and, as the statutes of the college required him, after a certain time, to enter upon those studies more immediately connected with the clerical profession, or resign his fellowship, he chose the latter, and, retired to a small patrimonial property at his native place. He there, during seven years, employed himself in completing literary designs which he had formed while resident at the university ; and he first made himself known to the learned world by publishing, in 1605, a work entitled, " Tractatus de variis Annorum Forrnis." Of this he published a defence, in 1607, against the arrogant censures of Joseph Scanger ' and he ventured directly to attack that proud dictator of literature in his " Emendatio Temporum ab Initio Mundi hue usque Compendio facta, ,contra Scaligerum et alios," 1609: This learned work was dedicated to Henry, Prince of Wales, who appointed him his chronologer and cosmographer, and would no doubt have been a liberal patron to him, as he was to men of science in general, had not his auspicious commencements been cut short by an untimely death. At the above period, Dr. Usher, afterwards the celebrated archbishop, being on a visit to England, became acquainted with Mr. Lydiat, whom he persuaded to accompany him to Ireland, where he procured him apartments in Dublin college. A community of studies was doubtless the prin- cipal inducement for. Usher to desire his company; and it is highly probable that he derived assistance from him. in his own chronological labours.* Mr. Lydiat is said to have continued about two years in Ireland, though the time cannot be exactly ascertained. It appears, however, from letters in Parr's Collection ' that he was in Ireland in 1610, and that he was returned to England in August, 1611. From the same authority we also learn, that there had been a design of settling him in the public school at Armagh. He had many friends, among whom were the lord deputy, and the chancellor of Ireland, whojointly promised to dogreat things for him ; but were prevented by his coming to England, and returning no more to that coulitry.t. There is a circumstance connected with Mr. Lydiat's visit to Ireland which is involved in considerable obscurity. It is asserted in the notes to the life of Usher,t that soon after A ikin's Lives of Selden and Usher,11. 402. Wood's Athena; Oxon. vol. ii. p.46. .f. Biog. Briton. vol. vi. p. 4067.

LYDIAT. 9 this want of civility, Selden would certainly have shevvn a in i greater and more pious mind forgiving t.. Mr. Lydiat, soon after he was restored to liberty, pre- sented a petition to King Charles, requesting his protection and patronage in an intended voyage to the East, for the purpose of collecting valuable manuscripts. The project displayed his zeal for the service of learning, but the ensuing political troubles prevented any attention being paid to his application. Though he was a man of low stature, and rather insignificant in appearance, he was a person of a great mind and of uncommon learning. He puzzled the learned Christopher Clavius, the whole college of mathema- ticians, and even that Goliah of literature, Joseph Scaliger himself; who, when he found himself 'outstripped, scorn- fully stigmatized Mr. Lydiat with being a beggarly, beardless priest. He was, nevertheless, highly esteemed by the most learned men at home and abroad. Sir Thomas Chaloner and other celebrated scholars, with those mentioned above, were among his familiar acquaintance. The virtuosi beyond sea were pleased to rank him with the celebrated Lord Mr. John Selden was sometimes styled " the great dictator of learning of the English nation," whom Grotius, his antagonist, calls " the glory of his country ;" and Sir Matthew Hale, "a resolved and serious christian." He was a man of as extensive and profound erudition as any of his time ; and was thoroughly skilled in every thing relating to his own profession of the law ; but the principal bent of his studies was to sacred and profane antiquity. The greater part of his works are on uncommon subjects. Like a man of genius, he was not content with walking in the beaten track of learning, but was concerned to strike out new paths, and enlarge the territories of science. Towards the close of life, he owned, that, out of the numberleis volumes he had read and digested, nothing stuck so close to his heart, or gave him such solid satisfaction, as the single passage of Paul in his epistle to Titus, ii. 11-14. He died in the year 1654; when the celebrated Archbishop Usher preached his funeral sermon, and, without scruple, declared " that he himself was scarcely worthy to carry his books after him." Mr. Selden was author of many learned publications, among whichwas The History of Tithes ;" for which, in 1618, he was convened before the high commission, and required tosubscribe a degrading recanta- tion. Afterwards, at an audience of King James, at the time when Montague was preparing a confutation of this 'worts, the worthless And arbitrary monarch sternly forbade him to snake any reply, saying, " If you or any of your friends shall write against this confutation, I will throw you into prison." He was a valuable memberof the long parlia- ment, and one of the lay members who sate with the assembly of divines. In their debates he spoke admirably, and confuted divers of them in their own learning. Sometimes, when they cited a text of scriptur.e to prove their assertion, he would tell them, " Perhaps in your little pocket Bibles with gilt leaves," 'which they would often pull out and read, " the translation may be thus, but the Greek or Hebrew signifiesthus and thus ;" and so would silence them.-Granger's Biog. Hist. vol. ii. p. 4/kin's Lives of Selden and Usher, p. 26, 287.-Eclectie Reyiete, vol. viii. p. 204.-Whitleckes Mem. p. 71. Edit. 1732.

10 LIVES OF THE PURITANS. Bacon and Mr. Joseph Mede; and when they found that he had no higher preferment, they said that Englishmen did riot deserve such great scholars, since they made so little of them. " Though they have wronged his memory,* says Fuller, " who have represented him as an anabaptist; yet he was disaffected to the discipline and ceremonies of the church; "* on which account he is, withjustice, classed among the puritans. Mr. Lydiat, though opposed to the ecclesiastical dis- cipline and ceremonies, was a man of loyal principles, and discovered his zeal in the royal cause ; for which, upon the commencement of the civil war, he was a considerable sufferer from the parliament's army. His own statement to Sir William Compton, governor of Banbury castle, affirms that his rectory was four times pillaged, and himself reduced to so great a want of common necessaries, that he could not change his linen for a quarter of a year, without borrowing a shirt. He was also twice carried away to prison, and was cruelly used by the soldiers for refusing their demands of money, for defending his books and papers, and for his bold speeches in favour of the royal cause. From this and other circumstances, it appears that his manners were not con- ciliating, and that, to a scholar's ignorance of the world, he joined the bluntness of an independent character. Of his confident and sanguine disposition, a judgment may be formed from a passage in one of his letters to Usher. After expressing a hope that his learned friend would in 'the end assent to the truth of what he had delivered concerning the beginning and conclusion of Daniel's seventy weeks, and all the dependencies thereon, he says, " For certainly, how weak soever I, the restorer and publisher thereof, am, yet it is strong and will prevail; and, notwithstanding mink obscure estate, in due time the clouds and mists of errors being dis- persed and vanished, it will shine forth as bright as the clear sun at noon-tide. "+ This learned man finished his painful life, and died ill indigence and obscurity at Okerton, April 3, 1646, aged seventy-four years.t. Though he obtained considerable repu- tation among learned men at home and abroad ; yet his fame is so far obliterated, even in his own country, that it is probable few ,English readers have known to whom Dr. Johnson refers in his " Vanity of Human Wishes," * Fuller's Worthies, part ii. p. 138. Aikin's Lives of Selden and Usher, p. 401. Wood's Athena; Oxon. vol. ii. p. 40-48.

LYDIAT. 11 where, as a warning against the enthusiastical expectations of the young scholar, he says,. If dreams yet flatter, once again attend; Hear Lydiat's life, and Galilio's end. Wood says, " he was a man possessed of some excellen- cies ; yet he set too high a value on his own performances, and for many years spent an idle and obscure life."+ Echard denominates him " a man of a great soul and incomparable learning, particularly in mathematics, antiquities, languages and divinity ;" and adds, " that he was admired by the greatest scholars of the age."# Kennet styles him " that master of astronomy and mathematics, who, besides his admired works in print, left twenty-two volumes of manu- scripts, as rarities, in the hands of Dr. John Lamphire."§ Mr. Lydiat's remains were interred by the side of his father and mother in the chancel of Okerton church, where a monumental inscription was afterwards erected, of which the following is a translation :11 Sacred to the MEMORY., of THOMAS LYDIAT, rector of Okerton, an accomplisheddivine and mathematician, whose tomb was erected at the expense of New College, Oxford, in memory of so great ascholar. He was born in 1572, and died in 1646. His Woaxs.-1. Tractatus de variis annorum formis, 1605.- 2. Prelectio Astronomica de natura, coeli & conditionibus, element°. rum, 1605.-3. Disquisitio physiologica de origine fontium, 1605.- 4. Defentio tractatus de variis annorum formis contra Josephi Scaligeri objectionem, 1607.-5. Examen Canonum Chronologise IsagogIcorum, 1C97.-16. Explicatio teinporum ad initio mundi hue usque, compendio facta, contra Scaligerum& alMs. 1609.-7. Ex- plicatio & additamentum argumentorum in libello emendationis tem- porurn compendio facts, de nativitate Christi & ministerio in ttrris, 1613.-8. Solis & Luna; periodos, sen annus magma, 1620,-9. De anni solaris mensura Epistola Astronomica, ad Hen. Savilium, 1620.-10. Nutnerus aureus melioribus lapillis insignitus factusq; Gemmeus, &c., 1621.-11. Canones Chronologici, nec non series summorum maoistratourn & triumpborom Romanorum, 1675.- 1.2. Letters to Archbishop Usher, printed in his Life, 1686. Aikin's Lives, p. 408. + Wood's Mist. et Antiq. 1. ii. p. 149. Echard's Hist. of Eng. vol. ii. p. 565. Kennet's Chronicle, p. 764. Wood's Mist. et Antiq. 1. ii. p. 149.

I2 LIVES OF THE PURITANS. WILLIAM TWISSE, D. D.-This illustrious 'divine was born at Spenham-Land, near Newbury, in Berkshire, about the year 1575, and educated first at Winchester school, then in NewCollege, Oxford, where he was chosen fellow. He spent sixteen years at the university ; and, by a most intense application, obtained an extraordinary knowledge of logic, philosophy, and divinity. His profound erudition appeared Ili his public lectures and learned disputations, but especially in correcting the works of the celebrated Bradwardine, then published by Sir Henry Savile. He took his various degrees with universal applause. He was an admired and popular preacher, and greatly followed both by the collegians and townsmen. He continued in his beloved pursuits at the university, till his brilliant talents and profound literature excited very public attention. His uncommon fame reached the court of King James, who chose him to be chaplain to Lady Elizabeth, then about to leave her native country and go to the Palatine. He cheerfully complied with the appointment, and accom- panied the pious young princess to the foreign court; and, to moderate her grief, and administer comfort to her troubled mind, upon her painful separation from her friends, he expounded some portion of scripture to her every day. He dwelt much upon the great uncertainty of life, and the importance of a suitable preparation for death; and, from his appropriate instructions and admonitions, she derived that signal advantage by which she was enabled to endure the greatest adversity with undaunted courage. This amiable princess was exercised with many trials very soon after her arrival. For, presently after she was crowned Queen of Bohemia, she was forced to flee from the country and to live an exile all the rest of her days. She bore these tribu- lations with christian magnanimity. This is represented as the effect of the doctor's excellent instructions, who taught her, That Divine providence orclereth all the estates and conditions of all men, according to his own good pleasure, and for the eternal advantage of his people :" as, Rom, viii. 28. " We know that all things work together for good, to them that love God, to them who are the called according to his purpose.". He did not, however, continuevery long at the court of the Palatine, but was called back to England. His return was the occasion of deep regret both to the prince and princess, which was particularly expressed at the Clark's Lives, last vol. part i. p. 13,14.

TWISSE. 13 time of his departure. Upon his arrival in his native country, he took his final leave of the court, and devoted himself to those profound studies by which he published to the world those learned works which will be the admiration of learned and pious men to the latest posterity. Dr. Twisse, about the same time, became curate of Newbury, near the place of his birth ; where, by his ex- emplary life and useful preaching, he gained a most dis- tinguished reputation. In this retired situation, which was exactly suited to his wishes, he lived in great peace and comfort; and being secluded from the world, his time was wholly devoted to his studies and the spiritual advantage of his flock. He never sought after worldly riches, or aspired after ecclesiastical preferment, but modestly refused them when they were offered. He, indeed, often congratulated him- self that he was in so low a condition, and so little exposed to the alluring temptations. He often professed how greatly be was indebted to divine goodness, for having placed him in so mean and obscure a place, where he was preserved from aspiring after worldly preferment. No man ever sought more industriously to obtain ecclesiastical promotion than he sought to avoid it. Hence, when he was offered the provostship of Winchester college, and warmly entreated to ,.accept it, he as warmly contended against it, though it was a post of considerable pecuniary interest. He preferred his studies, and the ministry of the word, to any idle or honour- able post; and worldly interest had but little influence on his mind. Also, when the Bishop of Winchester laid a prebend at his feet, he politely thanked his lordship, but modestly declined accepting it. The Earl of Warwick promised to confer upon him a more valuable living than that of Newbury, Which at first he agreed to accept,. pro- vided the people of his charge could be furnished with a suitable pastor. He accordingly waited upon the Arch- bishop of Canterbury, requesting his favourable approbation, and was kindly received. His lordship granted all that he requested, and observed, that he would make mention of him to the king as a pious and learned divine, and nopuritan. Dr. Twisse was, however, sagacious enough to see the snares that were laid for him ; and therefore, w;ithout making any further application, he returned to Newbury, resolving not to exchange his curacy for any other situation.. Also the states of Friesland invited him to the professor's chair in the university of Franeker ; and he was pressed to accept a pro- fessor's place at Oxford ; but he refused them both. He

14 LIVES OF THE PURITANS. was more concerned for his beloved studies, and minis- terial usefulness, than for all the splendour and emolument of a university. Upon the publication of the Book of Sports, our learned divine refused to read it, and ventured to declare his opinion decidedly against it : he, nevertheless, escaped better than many of his brethren, who, for so doing, were suspended from their ministry, driven out of the kingdom, or cast into prison. He was a person of great moderation, yet as decidedly against the use of the superstitiousceremonies as the encouragement of profane sports.. His refusal to read the book did not pass unnoticed at court ; but when King James heard of it, he commanded the bishops not, to molest him. His majesty, indeed, very well knew, that, though Dr. Twisse lived in low circumstances, and in an obscure situation, his fame was so great in all the reformed churches, that their lordships could do nothing against him which would not be a public reproach to themselves. It was, after all, no small disparagement to them, and to the church to which they belonged, that so eminently pious and learned a divine should live without preferment. The celebrated Dr. Prideaux said, " The bishops do very little consult their own credit, in not preferring Dr. Twisse, though against his wishes, to some splendid ecclesiastical dignity; by which, though they despair of drawing him to their party, they might take off, or mollify, the popular envy, and not hear themselves exposed to scorn by the curate of Newbury." During, the civil wars, Prince Rupert, coming to Newbury, entertained our divine very courteously, and made him many honourable promises, if he would turn against the parlia- ment, write in defence of the royal cause, and live among the king's party : but Dr. Twisse very wisely and politely de- clined the royal invitation.+ Ho obtained uncommon celebrity from the books which he published, especially upon points of controversy. Here his talents and erudition were employed upon his favourite subjects without restraint, and with extraordinary success. Among his antagonists were Dr.Thomas Jackson, Mr. Henry Mason, and Dr. Thomas Godwin, who was a person of great learning, especially in antiquities ; but is said to have been more fit to instruct grammarians than to contend with a logician like Dr. Twisse. He next encountered Mr. John Goodwin, the celebrated advocate for Arminianism, whom Mode's Works, p. 895, 846. Clark's Lives, last vol. part i. p. 14-17.

TWISSE. 15 he is said to have refuted with great learning and judgment. His next contest was with Mr. John Cotton, a divine whom he highly esteemed, and whom he treated with great gen- tleness. He learnedly refuted Dr. Potter's " Survey of the New Platform of Predestination.". He treated Dr. Heylin according to his deserts, in defence of .the morality of the sabbath. He also successfully contended with the famous Arminius and others in defence of the doctrines of grace. His answers to Dr. ,. and Arminius, and his " Riches of God's Love," when first published, were all suppressed by the arbitrary appointment of Bishop Laud.+ In the year 1640, Dr. Twisse was chosen one of the sub-committee, to assist the committee of accoMmodation appointed by the house of lords to consider the innovations introduced into the church, and to promote a more pure re- formation.$ In the year 1643, he was nominated, by an order of the parliament, prolocutor to the assembly of divines. On account of his great modesty, he repeatedly declined the appointment, but was at length prevailed upon to accept the office. The learned assembly was opened July 1, 1643, when Dr. Twisse preached to both houses of parliament, in Henry the seventh's chapel. " In his sermon;" says Fuller, " he exhorted his learned auditory to a faithful discharge of their duty, and to promote the glory of God and the honour of his church ; but he was sorry that they wanted the royal assent. He hoped, however, that in due time it might be obtained, and that a happy union would 'be procured between the king and parliament."4 Dr. Twisse, on account of his age and manifold in-. firmities, was not able to attend upon the concerns of the assembly ; but, in a few months, was taken ill, falling down in the pulpit to rise no more. He had been long grieved to behold the disagreement between the king and the par- liament, which, he said, would prove fatal to both ; and he often wished that the fire of contention might be Toplady's Historic Proof, vol. i. p. 68. .1. About the same 'time, Dr. George Downham, bishop of Derry in Ireland, published a book against the Arminians; upon which, Bishop Laud procured the suppression of all the copies sent to England ; and, not satisfied with this, he caused a letter to be sent to Archbishop Usher, com- manding the same proceeding against the book in Ireland. The pious and learned primate tamely yielded to the superior power of this arbitrary prelate ; issued his warrant for the seizure of all the remaining copies of Downham's work ; and signified that he should " take order that nothing should be hereafter published contrary to his majesty's sacred direction."-- Pun.' s Cant. Doome, p. 171, 172. - 2. Kingdom's MS. Collec. p. 200. § Fuller's Church Hist. b. xi. p. 199.

16 LIVES OF THE PURITAN'S. extinguished, though it were at the price of his own blood.° When he fell down in the pulpit, he was carried to his lodgings and laid upon his bed, where he languished about a twelvemonth. Duringhis long illness, multitudes ofpersons resorted to him, who witnessed his exemplary faith and patience. In the civil wars, he had been driven from his curacy and the people of his charge, at Newbury, and deprived of all his property, by the royal forces ; so that, in the time of his sickness, when certain persons were deputed from the assembly to visit him, they reported, " that he was very sick, and in great straits." The parliament, having taken his case into consideration, passed an order, Decem- ber 4, 1645, for one hundred pounds to be given him out of the public treasury.t Nearly the last words that Dr.Twisse uttered, were, " I shall at length have leisure enough to follow my studies to all eternity ;" and died July 20, 1646, aged seventy-one years. The whole house of commons, and the assembly of divines, paid their last respects to his me- mory by following, in one sorrowful procession, his mortal remains to the grave ; when Dr. Robert Harris preached his funeral sermon from Joshua, i. 2., Moses my servant is dead. He was buried in Westminster abbey, where his body quietly rested till the restoration, when the humane, the liberal, and the enlightened Charles ordered his bones to be dug up, together with the bodies of many other persons, eminent in church and state, and thrown into a pit digged on purpose in St. Margaret's church-yard.t The Clark's Lives, p. 17. f Whitlocke's Mem. p. 189. t. One of those illustrious persons, whose body suffered this shameful indignity, was the valiant Admiral Blake, whose name was a terror to the enemiesof Britain ; who raised the naval reputation of his country to a higher pitch than any of his predecessors, and whose services to the English nation will be a monument of his renown as durable as time. The following is a list of some of the persons towhose bodies this malevolencewas offered, on the 12th and 14th of September, 1661. Others would probably have shared the same fate; but the thing was so indecent, and drew no general an odium on the government, that a stop was put to any further pro- ceedings Elizabeth Cromwell, mother of William Stroud, esq. M. P. Oliver, lord protector, Humphrey Mackworth, colonel, Elizabeth Claypole, her daughter, Dennis Bond, esq. Robert Blake, admiral, Thomas May, esq. the historian, . John Pym, esq. M. P. John Mildrum, colonel, Dr. Isaac Dorislaus, Colonel Boscawen, Sir William Constable, colonel, Doctor William Twisse, prolocutor, Edward Popham, admiral, Stephen Marshall, presby. divine, Richard Dean, admiral, William Strong, indepen. divine. Granger's Biog. Hist. vol. iii. p. 80.-Wood's '.4thetun Oxon. vot p. 826.

TWISSE. 17 refined barbarity and contemptible meanness of these pro- ceedings, might have been expected amongst untutored savages, rather than from a monarch bred up in all the refinements of the English court. Though Dr. Twisse died in necessitous circumstances, the parliament, after his death, voted a thousand pounds to be given to his children, out of the public treasury;* but, on account of the national confusions, it is doubtful whether it was ever paid. Mr. Clark says, " he was much admired for his great learning, subtle wit, exact judgment, great integrity, pleasing behaviour, and his exemplary modesty, piety, humility and self-denial."+ Fuller denominates him, a divine of great abilities, learning, piety, and moderation.t Wood says, his plain preaching was esteemed good; his solid disputations were accounted better; but his pious life was reckoned best of all." The most learned of his adver- saries confessed that there was nothing extant more accurate and full upon the Arminian controversy, than what is con- tained in his works. All writers against Arminianism have made honourable mention of his works, and have acknow- ledged him to have been the mightiest man in those contro- versies that the age produced.§ He was succeeded at New- bury by Mr. Benjamin Woodbridge, who was afterwards ejected in His WORKS.-1. A Discovery of Dr. Jackson's Vanities, 1631.- 2. Vindicise Potestatis et Providentiw Dei, 1632. -3. Dis- sertatioScientia Media tribus libris absoluta, 1639.-4. Dissertiones, 1639.-5. Of the Morality of the Fourth Commandment, 1641.- 6.A Treatiseof Reprobation, in Answer to Mr. John Cotton, 1646. -- 7. Animadvertiones ad Jacobi Arminii Collat. cum Frank. Junk, et Joh. Arnold Corvin, 1649.-8. De Predestinatione et Gratis, 1649.- 9. The Doubting Conscience Resolved, 1652.-10. The Riches of God's Love unto the Vessels of Mercy, consistent with his absolute hatred or reprobation of the Vessels of Wrath, 1653.-11. Two Tracts in Answer to Dr. H. (Hammond) 1653.-12. The Synod of Dort and Ares reduced to Practice, with an Answer.-13. The Scriptures Sufficiency to determine all matters of Faith.-14. The Christian Sabbath defended against the crying Evil of these Times of the Antisabbatarians of our Age.-15. Fifteen Letters, published in Mede's Works.-He also left numerous manuscripts behind him. Whitlocke'sMem. p. 121. t Clark's Lives, p. 13, 14, 18. Fuller's Worthies, part i. p. 96. § Wood's Athena Oxon. vol. ii. p. 40, 41. fl Palmer's Noncon. Mem. vol. i. p. 290. VOL. In

18 LIVES OF THE PURITANS. JEnumt An BURROUGHS, A. M. - This very amiable divine was born in the year 1599, and educated at Cambridge, but was obliged to quit the university, and afterwards the kingdom, on account of nonconformity. After he had finished his studies at the university, he entered upon the ministerial work, and was chosen colleague to Mr. Edmund Calamy at Bury St. Edmunds.. In the year 1631, he became rector of Titshall, in the county of Norfolk ; but upon the publication of Bishop Wren's articles and injunctions, in 1636, he was suspended and deprived of his livings He sheltered himself for some time under the hospitable roof of the Earl of Warwick ;$ but, on account of the intolerant and oppressive proceedings of the ecclesias- tical rulers, the noble earl at length found it was impossible to protect him any longer; and shortly after, to escape the fire of persecution, he fled to Holland, and settled at Rotterdam, where he was chosen teacher to the congrega- tional church, of which Mr. William Bridge was pastor.i After his suspension, he is charged with attempting to bribe the bishop's chancellor, by an offer of forty pounds ; and going beyond seas, and returning disguised in a soldier's habit, with many libellous pamphlets, when, it is said, the sentence of deprivation was pronounced against him for nonresidence.f Of this circumstance, however, Mr. Edwards gives a very different account. He says, " that Mr Burroughs, for some speeches spokenagainst the Scotchwar, in company not to be trusted, for fear fled in all haste to Rotterdam ;" at which he very much stumbled.2 Mr. Burroughs, inhis animadversion upon this misrepresentation, observes as follows : " Had Mr. Edwards been willing to have conferred with me about thi'., as I desired, before he printed, I should have so fully satisfied him about my goingout of the kingdom, thathe could never have stumbled, nor have caused others to stumble. How does he know there were speeches delivered, for fear of which I fled ? It may be there was only an accusation. In his bold assertion there is held forth to the world, at least ' some indiscretion in me, that I should speak words of a high Calamy's Account, vol. ii. p. 5. Blomefield's Mist. of Norfolk, vol. i. p. 138. t This noble person was a great friend 'and patron of the persecuted puritans, and one of their constant hearers. He was not content with only hearing long sermons in the congregation, but would have them repeated in his own ,house.--Granger's Biog. Hist. vol. ii, p. 116. Edwards's Antapologia, p. 18, 19. o Wren's Parentalia, p. 95. I Edwards's Antapologia, p. 16.