Hopkins - HP BR75 .H65 1710

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M~~~i(>I,IJ>i<J¥~~);!)!~~~~ ~~1 ~~ For the P AROCHIA L LI BRARY · ~~ NORTON &: LENCHWICK, n ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ P. CASSY, VICA R.

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T H E VVORKS Of the Right Reverend and Learned Ezekiel Hopkins, Late Lord Bilhop of London-Derry in IRELAND~ Collected into one Vohune: C ONTAININ G: I. T he ,Vanity of the World. II. A P~actical Expofition on the Ten Commandments. Ill An Expofition on the Lord's Prayer; with a Catechifl:i cal f xplication thereof by way of Quefiion and An!wer. lV. Several St rmons and Difcourfes on divers Important Subject s. · W ith an Alphabetical TAB LE to the Whole. 3rbt 3rbitb ~tlttiou. L 0 N D 0 N: Primed for lonathan Robinfon, Awn/han1 and ]olm Churchill, John Taylor, John Wyat and Da11iel Mrdwinter, in Se. Paut's Ci hl rch-Ya rd, and Pater- Nofler-Row. l\l.DCC.X.

I . I l I I .I I I~ r 1 I<

THE T . HE Writings ofihi< Right Reverend Prelate .have foundfo General Acceptance both among the Cler~;y and. .Laity, that no1il Encourngement u gi'Ven to put them altogether tnto ofJe enttre Volttme; 1ne Author, tbo' be was a Perfon ofGreat Natural Parts and Excellent Learning, ;•et was endowed with fo Qreat Nfodejiy and Humility, and hadjitch <'eYJ mean tind low Thoughts ofHzmfelf and /m own Performances, that the J<Vorld, while be lived, had very ltttle K.JZOIVl~dge ,of hzm from the Pre{f; he havzng pub- /i(bed nothing but 1vhat he wao conjlrained to, either bJ the rejlleft Importunity of Friends, or the Commands of thofe who rvere fome time hii Srtperiours. What JVM pubtifbed bj himfelf the Reader JVi!lfind placed at the beginning of thu Volume, and confifls of that incomparable Trar!! Entituled, The Vanity of the World. A Sermon preach'd at the Funera of the Honourable Algernoon Grevil, Efq; which in the Opinion ofvery gofJd Judges Uequal with, if not exceeds, rpe mojl celebrated Pieces th~t have been Printed on Funeral Occafions. And his Sermon Preached at Chnfl:-Church Dublm, whtth, as u menttoned afterwards, oicafioned hu being promoted to a confiderable Station in the Church in the KJngdorn of Ireland. 1ne other Pieces contained in thu Volume were all publifbed fince hi; Death. And tho' it cannot be exper!ed that what u Pofl:humous fbottld in every Sentence and l'.•Jfage thereof be as Exa[/ and Accurate as if the Author had put hu lajl Hand to it, yet the(e_ bifco~rfes are I'Vrttt~n tn a St')_'le and rvrtf, an. Exa£l:nefs Pecultar to /;;, Lordihip ; whtch, bJ compmng them JVtth what he publifbed hzmfelf, beyond a!/ Controverjie denote them1to be his own. Ptlt for farther Satisfar!ion that the World u not impofed upon, , nor an1 lnju.flice done to the Author's Memory bj the Printinr, of theft Difcourjis ; it ""} not onlj be j:t id that there .re many Perfons jet alive who withgreat Delight and Benefit heard him prwh all the Sermom that have been p~blijbed under his Lordfbip's Name, And who, if_ Ouafton be, can and will attejl that they .are Genuine: But the Reader is herebJ a]fured that the greatijl part of them 1vere b; hu Permiflion, at ·jhe defire, and for the fake of fome Parttcular Frtends, Tranferibed from his own Mantt{cripts, and Correr!ed bJ him• . . The rejl were taken from hu Mouth by the Pen of a Ready ·w nter, wzth great Exar!ne{s, mfomqch that they bemg commztted to his Lordfbip's Revie1v after they 1vere tranfcribed, he cottld not but commend t!Je Writer's Dexterity, and permitted him to keep them upon this Condition (which Jve ma; prejitme were the Terms upon wluch he roer granted a Cop] of any of hu Difiourjes) That nothing m,iglit be Printed while he L ived. Which Expre/]lon, by the way may be interpreted a tacit Allowance for the Printing ofthem ~fter he"'"' Dead; Now having, I hope, fatiljied the Reader that thiji Dijcourfes are his n•hofe Name they bear, there needs nothzng, tn thu Place, to be fard m Commendation of them; their OJVrt E.xcellenry and Eloquence will Praife them bejl. Let that jit/fice then to recommend them t~ hU ferious Perrtflt.l ( T}'hicb Ufoid concerning. another "· Grw Man's Works) vzz. That they are Ammated thl'Oughout w1tli fuch ' z>,J." a Genuine Spirit ofTrue Piety and Goodnefs, that furdy he mufl: be either"'· "i" a perfea!y Good, or a prodigiou!ly,Bad Man, that Reads them over with-~.";, tn- 'lUt being the better for them. As lotfon.

The P R E F .A C E. As for the Right Reverend Amhor hjmfelj; his liVorks •vi// praife him, a;td therefore nothing either ~eeds or can he fai(-'more to his Advantage. As hefought not the Praifes Of lvfen zn domg hu Majler s Work when Lwmg; fo n01v he is Dead heiJ .IJove their Praifes, and douhtiefs , he ha; received the Euge_of agood and. fattbful Servant. Indeed tt cannot he e:xpefled that all that cali •be Jaid of him cortld be contairted 1vithi!f the·narYOiv Lim'its 'of a Preface, neither 'js_,_ it1Ptting eVtt4 to attempt his .charae1.er, concerning whom.eJti.J.er n9t aLjttle or No~Hing at aU ought to be {atd. It were IJeartily to be wifhed, for the Hono11.r af we/{ M~Orname~nt~ of the Church of England, that the,Piffure <f thi; Groat Man '~"s drawn at its F:dl Len(th byfome Jkilful Hand; andriJe .,are not yet without Ho}b fhaf fome 01' other o{hu Friends who kn"v him befl, •vi/ljl_ill Ereff {u'cfo aMormment to his Memory. But wlulfl that ;, done, let m re!( farujed with that Idea of him which the Perufal of his lifTritings will afford :a; · and be thankful' to a Good Friend for ihiJ . ;. ••]MP following Memorial of him, •vhich JVM fpoken by a Right Revermd * Prelate, n01v' emlun. in Ireland, (a ~?..re at Admirer, . Fo!loJVer and dear .Brother of the Deceafed) in the' cl~(e. of that excellent Sermor. he Preachrd at his Funeral in the Church of St..Mary Aldermanbury, London, •vhere he w.u Interred on. J'!ne 24. x6go. tt•on Col. j. Vo I, 2, j, 4· From JVhich JVords having Jjoken ofChrifl's and our Re}trret1ion, be proceeds, faying, . ... This was the Doetrine of the Apoitles, and the Faitll of the Primitive Chriftians : And that t his Faith did animate them again it the Fears o~ Death, and enable them to meet that King of Terrors wi,th Undaunted Ref'?lutions; and it is this which ft i\1 Buoys up the finkingSpirits of Believers ; it was this which comforted this Reverend and Learned Prelate, whofe l;'nnerals we now· folemnize.,. This fupporte~. him in' hi s !ale Trotl· bles and Affiiaions, in his greateft Pains and lharpeft Agonies. He often difcourfed with me on this Subjea. He fixed his Thoughts upon the Glonous Refurrefrion, and fet his AffcClions on the things above ; and with .the Joyful Hope and Expeaation of them he was enabled to beac theTorments of his Body with great Patience, and wonderful Magnanimity ; and was not in the leaft terrified with the Thoughts of Deatf1. It was not ~~.e,:;:vv ·pfd~e~mz.1~v to him; he fpoke of it "'i thout Concern, and triumphed over all its Terrors, and welcomed it as a Joyful Meffenger, calling him to his Dormitory till the Refurreaion. And he died full of this Fa~th, and did, 'with 'job, fay, Though his Body were deftroyed with Worms, it fhould rife aga in to a BleOed Immortality, and in the fameFie!h he ll1ould fee God ; and· through the Merits and Interceflion of Chriil: he doubted not to Partake of the Things above. . But you expea I ll1ould fay more of him; and, indeed, he highly deferves it, and much, very much, is due to theMemory of fuch an excellent Prelate ; who, for Learning and Piety, for Wifdom and Courage, for Humility and Meelmefs, for Charity and Hofpitality, was one of the preateft Ornaments of the Church ~nd Nation .wherem he lived : But unJcfs ·I had his own Eloquence, I fhould not attempt rt. A forrowful Heart, a thick Pencil, and a trembling Hand, will but overll1ade and darken the Lines of fo fuir a Piece ; and therefore I muft beg of you, who knew him in Oxford, in Hackney, in Exeter, and.in this City, where he was lo much followed, applauded, and admired , to fer him in his true Light to the \Vorld, and give him that great Charaaer which he fo juftly deferved, ·wt1ile I only mention the great Ho.nour,and Veneration we had for him inJref'and, in which Kingdom he.foon made liimfelf famous, and for a Learned and Elegant Sermon, which I heard him Preach at his firft coming,

The P K E F A C E. ing (and which was aften~·ard Printed) I f.~w him Embraced by the "rd,teft Prelates, and courted to fray in that Country, and was foon after ~1adc Dean, and then Biil1op of Rapl,oe, and afterward, mol! defervedly, rranflated to Uerry. In the firfi of which Bifhopricks (as I am informed) he fpent about a Thouf.~nd Pounds in Buildings and othe~· Improvements: And, in the !aft, be was at a very greatExpence to Beauti!ie and Adorn Ius Cathedral, and in FurniD1ing it with Organs. and Maffie Plate; and, in both, he was a great Precedent of Piety and Holinefs. He was a burning and a fhining Light. He knew that p.6v@,.l.; .,.,;ore;,.,;:; ?d-)1Jv1@.. .,-~>,@. 1(9-l P-• rl1@.., and did tl1erefore preach loudly by example. His Aa1ons were Inftru&ive Sermons, and Ius StrJa L1fe and U nblameable Converfatwn had !'rCat Inl1uence on all about him. Af his Table he was pioufly pleafant and religiouOy ingenious, and doubly feafted all who did eat with him; for he had a clc'u- Head and folid Judgment, a ~uick Fan~y and a flowing Wit, and was every-way accompliDJed for Addrcfs and tor D1fcourfe, and was fo Courteous and Affilble, fo Gentle and fo Obliging, fo Inftruaive and Communicative, that all who converfed with him, loved and admired him; and though he kept a very 1 'oble anJ Hofpitable Houfe, yet was it fumous for Regularity and Order. And in the midft of the greateft Plenty, Gravity and Sobriety were moif lhicl:lv obfcrved. It was indeed a Temple and an Oratory, for in it Pr:1\crs and Prailes, Catechifing and Reading the Scripture, were newr om.itted. He conltantly expounded it to his Family, explained fome part of 1he Ld[ons, and made D1ort, but rare Obfervations upon them ; and beoclc the PublickPrayers, he was very often at his Private Devotions, and fpeilt much time in Divine Meditations. Thus did he behave him[elf in his Houfe; thus did he infirua his Family, and bring hiS Children up ln the Nurture and Admonition of the Lord. And, if you tollow him to the Pulpit, you'll find him there conftantly, once a S11nday, while his Health permitted it; and fmely all who heard him will f.,y, his Sermons were Learned and Eloquent; Pious and MethoQi_ca1, and, as· his 1lfotto was, Aut fleavitate aut vi, he, either by fweet Difcourfes and charming Exhortations, · or by ft1·ength of Reafon and powerful Arguments, drew many to Cluift. He never omitted that Duty, but preached in his Throne when he was not able to afcend the Pulpit: And, for l1is Excellency in that Noble Faculty, he was celebrated by all Men. Ho was followed and admired in all Places where he lived, and was jufily ellecmed one of the beft Preachers ofour Age. And his Difcourfes always fmelt of the 1 .amp ; they were very elaborate and well digefted. He had a Noble Library, and delighted in it,. and was, as Tertu!liart fays of J,·.eneus, Omni11m Do[/rmarttm curiojij]i'mus e.xplorator. l-Ie was a good Linguift, and excelled in Polemick and Cafuiftical Divinity. Many flocked to him to have their Doubts refolved; and he gave Light and Comfort to clouded and affiiaed Confciences; and was admirably accomplifl1ed with many other Parts of ufeful Learning. And, if you corroder him as aBi!hop, you will own, that God had blelfed him with Wifdom and Sagacity, with Zeal and Courage, \V'itli Temper and Moderation, and all other necclfary Virtues for a Governor and Ruler in the Church; and furely none was more careful ofhisDiocefs, being conftantly refident, and bringing in learned and ingenious Men into all Livings in his Gift and Patronage: And was a mol! tender and indulgent, yet UriCl: and vigilant Ruler ofhis Clergy. He always treated them as Brethren and Friends, with all kindnefs and refpea, and would fpare B no

The P 'R. E F J1 C E. ho pains eo proteCt them in their Rights; and ufed all his intereft to promote rhem as rhe)' deferved. In a word, he was every way qualified anc! adorned for that great Charge; and by conftant Preaching, a wife Government, and an even and ftcady Hand; by a winning Temper, an humble Courage and prudent Moderation, he gained upon Dilfenters, and brought many into the Communion of our Church, having fully convinced them, that her DoCl:rinc was Pure and Primitive, Orthodox and Apoftolical: And did, upon all occafions, fhew himfelf a wife, a learned, and a pious Bifhop. He every way filled his Chair, and \vas an Honour to his See, and may defervedly be enrolled in the Catalogue of his learned Predecelfors; for with fuch has that See been blelfed ever fince the Reformation. And undoubtedly his Death will be extreamly lamented in that Country· and fure I am the Poor wi.ll have great reafon to bewail it; for to them h~ wa• exceeding generous and charitable, and gave great Sums, every Year amongft them, befldes the Tenth of his Revenues, which he conftantly laid by for fuch ufes; and did alfo allow good Yearly Penfions to Students in the Univerflty, to Minifters Widows, and other diftrelfed Pcrfons, and did put Children to Trades, and largely contribute to the Building and Repairing of fame Churches, and defigned greater things, ifGod had (pared him to return. But, alas! he is gon, and our poor unferled Church has an extraordinary lofs in him: ;Tis a fharpStrokc, an additional Judgment, to lofe him now. But to Gods Holy Wt!l we muft fubm1t, as he willingly and chearfully did, wh~n Death apl'roacl1ed: He refigncd all with great Chrift1an <;::ourage, and d1fcourfed Philofoph!Cally and Drvmely of rhc Vanity and Uncertainty of all Sublunary Thing~ and fctlcd all his Defires up-- on the Things above; and, not long before h1s death, l1e difcourfed of the Neccffity and Sincerity of Repentance and Uniform Obedience in fuel\ a manner, and inveighed with fuch an Holy Zeal, againll: the Sins of thefeNarions, as might mak~ the greareft Debauchees o_f our Age quake and tremble to have heard !urn. And then, WJth reflei:bng on lumfelf, he did with great Griefand Sorrow, with Sigh_s and Tear'? bewailthe leafl: Fail: tires of his L1fe, andfpent Ius Laft D_ays m Self.esarrunauon, mRepentance, and Prayer, and w1th great Devouon receJVed the Holy Sacrament, i.ft which he found much Joy and Comfort, and had fuch Inward Peace and Antepafts of Blifs, that he longed to be d11folved and to be with Chrift, and did very often beg of God to take hun: And, on Thurfday !aft, his Prayer was heard, and God, in his Mercy, took him out of the Troublesof this Life, and called lum up amongft the Blelfed, and changed liis Fa• .cling Mitre into a Crown ofEternal Glory. What then remains, but that we imitate his Virtue, honour his Memo.. ry, and commit his Body to his Dormiro1y, there to llee~ till the Refurre8:ion, when he and all who have been dil1gent and mduft~wus, pamful ancli laborious in the Mini!hy, and have been Precedents ?f PJety and Holinefs,. of Jufrice and Integrity, will meet thm l'locks w1th Joy and Comfort and for turning them to Righteoufnefs, Jball fhinc as Stars for ever ~nd1 ever? Which God grant we l!lllf all do, &r. . The

The Several Subjects contained in this Volume. i. TH E Vanity of the World, Qn Eccl. r. 2. Page r Two Sermons, (r.) Preached at the Funeral of Algernoon Grevill, Efq; on Eccl. 9· )· • 22 (2.) Preached at Chrift-Church in Dublin, Jan. p. I669. on I Pet. 2. q, I~ 37 II. Anbpojition on ·theCommandments, S• JYith Two Sermons, on John 7· '9· 216 And Gal. 3. I o. 2~6 HI. A Prailical Expojitwn on the Lord's Prayer, 23 I IV. Several Difiouifes on Several lmportdnt Subjefls; viz. (1.) TheF~IIyofSinners, onProv.I4·9· H7 (2.) Trtte Happinefs, on Revel. 22. 14. Hl (3.) The Refstrreaion of Chrijl, on Acts 2. 24. 3 SI (4.) Brotherly Admonition, on Levit. rg. '7· 357 (s-) Dreadfulnefs ofGod's Wrath, on Heb. 10· JO, p. 367 (6.) Man's Mortality, on Heb. 9· 27. 381 (7.) DMger of Little Sim, on Mat. )· r 9· 389 (8.) Abjlainingfrom all Appearance of Evil, I Thef. )· 22• 404 (g.) Prejumptuous Sins, on Pfal. rg. q. 4'4 (ro.) Forgivenefs of Sin, on Ifa.4l· 25. 4B (r r.) Rege~~eration, on John l· ) · 472 (rz.) Alf.[ufficiency of Chrijl to Save, on Heb. 7· 2$· )r8 (r l·) HeavenlyTreajims, on Mat. 6. 21, 22, HS (r4.) NativityofChrijl, on Luke 2. q, '4· 57o (IS·) Bleffednefs of dying in the Lord, on Revel. '4· I r )79 (16.) Pra{fical Chrijlianity, on Phi]. 2. 12, 'l· )86 (q.) Serving God with Revmnce and Godly Fear, on Heb. 12. 28, 29. 639 (18.) On Confcience, Aas 24. r6. · 66o (19.) l'erfeverance in Prayer, on r Thef. S· '7· · 674 ( zo.) God's Omniprefence, on Pfal. IJ9· 7, 8, g, Jo, 684 ( z r.) Divine Providence, on Mat. ro. 29, 30. 693 (22.) 7J{e of the Holy Scriptttres, on Col. l· r6, 70) (23.) The Almojl Chrijlian, on Acts 26. z8. 720 (2~) Mortification, on Rom. 8. q. 849 T HE

To the Right W orlhipful ~ir Robert .Vyner, S I il, Knight and B.aronet. Vv Ere you one of that for.t of Men, who value themfelve; by t!Je Bag, or the Acre; it might po/!ib!y be thought rather an Affront, than a Dedication, to prefix yottr Name to this Treatife. For (ince it is purpofely intended to beat down the Price of the World, and to e"- pofe its admired Vanities to pablic/.: contempt, thofe fordid Spirits, who have no other rvorth to commend them, but 1vhat Ufummed up in their yearly Revenues, would tnterprel jitch an Addrefs, not Jo much a Tender of RejfeCI and Service, 4S a DeJign to undo and beggar them. Brtt, S1r, toyotl, wJ~om ~od kath doubly bleft wich a large Fjl-ate, and a l~trger Hear], I doubt •ot bm th~s Puce 1vt!l be very acceptable; if upon no other account, yet at leaf! ,u the perufol of tt may be helpful to you tojlrip off, and as tt n·ere, to fequejler a!lyorer worldly Advantages, that you may the bet..:. tfr take an rjlimate ofyour feif according to yattr native and genuine f;flortb, both as :t JVan, and as aChrijfian. · 1 am not Jo n111ch a Cynick, d4 to plead for af{eC/ed Poverty, and a difdainfrd rejee!in(l the Gifts of Divine Providence. Stuf/ a morofe and fowr Pride, I judge Jvortf!Jtobe chaflis'd, not only with the cenfore ofVanitybbarlmpiety. We need not Jbelter our jelves under any Mona{lick Vow; · nor fly to eferts and Solitudes, to hide us from the .AI/urements of the 'fVorld: ThU i~ to run away from that Enem1 whom 1ve ought to conquer. Certainly Re.ligion a~l01~s ~the pofJe!JiOn of earthly Comforts; only it r~gulates the ufe, an~[orbtds the mordm~te love of them. We may prize them tU ( ~forts, bllt not as 'lreafures: -(lnd whrle Jlle ~mploy a. due part of ottr .Abundance m the n:orks of agenerot/J Chartty, and true Ptef], '"e may 1l'ell look t~pon ll'lrat i< left, an Salary that Godgives'" for beingfaithfirl Stewards ofthe rejl. Thu.J to ufe the M1orld for the Interejls of Heave.n, to make tts Enjf!Jments tributary to God'; Glory, ~it Uto com;ert lfnd profllyte zt ; and turn that into an OjferiJ'g, which others make an Idol. By thU we give E.6rth aTranjlation; and in a nobler Jenfe than the neov Syjlem of Ajlronomy teacheth, advance it to be a Star, and aCelejlial Body. And b] tbu Method, we chan~;e thofe Helps that Vice had td make it felf prodigiotu and infamotu, into the moft jerviceable lnjlruments that Vertue ca11 have· to make it felf con.fPicuotu and exemplary. For Wealth and Honour in a vertuous PerJOn, are like the well-Jetting of aGem; 1vhich, though it makes it not more precious, makes ;tit moreJParkling. Bfft, Sir, I forget myjilf, andinjleadof 11•riting a Letter, am writing aTreatife. I jba/1 make no otlier Apology for it, bfft that the Book being dejigned againjl Vamty, I would not have the Dedication of itfuilty of that common and notoriom One, to be .f/1'd only wjeh Complements. An 1 hope )Off will not think it any thing of that jlrain, when 1 fhall tij[tJre you that my Prayers to God for JOtt are, That JOlt mayjli/1 enjoy all Advantages of doing good here on Earth, and hereafter receive thr Reward oj it in Heaven. Yam· mofi 4umble, and mofi obliged, Servant, Czon, Ftb. 1• . 1661. E Z E K. H 0 P KIN S. THE

THE Ecclefiall:es I. 2. Vanity of Vanities, foith th1 Preacher, Vanity of Vanities; all is Vanity. I TB:E Preacher here mentioned, is no lefs a Perfon than Solomon: and this whole Book is no othct than his Rec:tntation Sermon. The Text he prcach'd on, is the fame that I have chofen; and it contains the true and feverc Judgment he p~ft upon all things under the Sun. Certainly, he , who had (a) Riches M plmtifuJ M the jl-ones of the ftreet, and (b) Wifdom M large M rhc (a) r Kin!l f~tnd of the Sea, could want no Advantages, either to try Experiments, or draw Con- 8. ~1· . clufions from them. And yet, when he had (c) employed both in the critical feJrch (b) tK,,gs of true Happinefs and Contentment, and h:td dilleeted and ranfacked the ,.,.·hole (~)9£ultj. World to find it, he returns difappointed of his Hopes, and tired with his Purfhit, r. 16, 1 7 . and begins the fad Narrative of his long Wandrings and Errors, with Vanity of Van£tits, all £s Vanity. . The whole Verfc is loaden withEmphafes: And it is firft obfervable, That hcdoth '· not glide into it by any fmooth conncxion of Scnfe or Sentences, but on a fi1dden breaks upon us, with a Ii1rprizing abntptnefs, Vanity of Vanirits. \Vhich fhews .:i Mind fo full of Matter, that it could not attend the Circumfrance of a Prologue to 11fhcr it in. Again; It is all exprcJl: in the Abfrract. It fttfficed not to ccnfi1rc all things to be 2. Vain, but they are Vanity it felf. And this Abftract bath another hcapt upon it, Va11iryo[ Vanitits. Now this refle&i- 3· on of the fame word upon it fclf, is always ufed to fignifie the height and grcatnefs of the thing expreft, a1 King of Kings, and lArd of Lords, den0tcs the highcft King, and the moft abfohttc Lord. So Oerc, Y aniry of V anirits intimates to us the moft exceeding Superlative Vanity imaginable. . Again? This is not only once pronounced, btit doubled and repeated: partly the + more to confirm this Truth to our belief; and thus Pharoah's Dream was* doubled: •Gtn,i ;2. and partly the more to imprint it upon our Confideration. Yanity of Vanities, Vanity of Vanitits tdl is Vanity. . But tho' this be expreft in mort general and comprehenfive terms, yet it muft not be taken in the ntmoft latitude, as if there were nothing at all offolid and real good extant. It is enough if we nndcrfl:and the words in a fenfe reftra ined to the fubjctl matter whereof he here treats. Forth~ wife Man * himfelf exempts the Ftar a.nd •Eu!tf 1i, Str'Uice ofGad, from that Yaniry under wh1ch he had concluded all other things. God 1 j. and Religion have in them a folid and fubftantial Good; the one as our utmoft End and Happinefs, the other as the belt proportioned Means to attain it. \Vhen therefore he pronounceth all to be Vanity, it muft be meant of all world ly and earthly things; for he fpeaks only of thcfe. And_if.,Ve iriquire whlt rhcfe worldly Things arc, that have this cenfiirc of Vanity fo vehemently paft upon thcm 1 ?t· ']~hn hath drawn up a full and true InVentory of all the Goods that are to be founct .Ill thls great Houfc of the Univerfe, 1 John 1. 16. All that i& in the World, i1 the Luft of the Fltj11, thr Ltljf of tht Eye, and the Pride of Lift. The lujfs of the Flrjh1 arc the Pleafiues of the World; whtch are all of them fttited togratifiethc fcnfual and fl.cfuly part of Man. Tl1f Lufts of rht E)•r, arc Riches; fo called, becaufe the ir greateft C frrv i ccablcnc~

2 The Vanityof the World. ferviceablenefs is only to make a glittering and dazling fhew. Which fcnfe &loman approves, Ecclcf. 5· I I. What good is there to the Orrme;s thereof, (ave the beholding them with their Eye I? 'J1,e Pride of Life is Honour and Digmty, that flatulent and airy Notion, that puffi up Mens Pride and Vain-glory, and makes them look upon their Infcriours, as tho' they were not their Fellow Creatures. This is all that the World can lhew, Picafurcs, RiChe{, Honours; and. this is that All concerning which the wife Man pronounceth that it is Vanity. . ~ For thefe things, tho' they make a fair and gaudy fhe""' yet it is all but fhcw and appearance. As Bubbles blown into the Air, will reprefent great variety of Orient and Glittering Colours, not (as fome Ii.tppofe) that.Jltcre...ar.e_any .ftJch really there, but only they appear fo to us, through a falfe reflex ion of Light cart upon them: fo truly this VVorld, this Earth on which we lhre, is nothing elfe but a great Bnbble blown up by the Breath of God in thcmidft of the Air where it now h:1ngs. It fparkles with ten thoufand Glories; not that they are fo in themfclves, but only they feem fo tp us thro, the falfe Light, by whic,h we look upon them. If we come tografp it, like a thin Film, it breaks, and leaves nothing but \V"ind and Difappointment in T~c't our Hands: as Hiftorics report of the Fruits th;l.t grow near the Dead SCa, where flift.;ib. 5. once Sodom and Gomorrah frood, they appear very fair and bcatttiful to t1lC Eye, but Fu111lfm rx· if they be crulh'd, turn ftraight to Smoak and Allies. ;~~!~;:m/t The Subje~ which I have propound~ toDifcourfe ~f, is the Vanity of this\Vorld, ,~~.,' ' and of all thmgs here below; that bemg hereof convmced, we may defifl: ourvai11 ;:,~~:,. pu~fuit of vain Objects, and may fet our AlfeCl:ions on thofo things which are Abtn~e, Solin. Jo· yth!Ch arc the alone valuable, becaufe the only permanent and Ibhlc Good. Whence f~ph. An· is it tha~ we are become fo degenerate, that we, who haYe immort.tl and heaven-born nq. !. ~ ·c. Souls, fhould flake them down to thefe pcrifhing lnjoyments? \V hence is it, that S· we, who fuould foaraloftnnto God, and were to that end fitted with the Aeet Wings of Meditation and Affec:tions, to cut through the Heavens in an infl:ant, and to appear there before the Throne of the Great God, that we Ihould lie here groveling in the thick Clay and Muck of this V\Torld, as if the Serpent's Cm"fe were become ours, Gen. 3•Ii· to creep upon our Bellies, and ~o lick up the Duft of the Eanh? Do we not lb:vncfnlly degrade our felves, when we ftoop to admire what is fo.vaftly below us, and barter away our precious Souls, Souls more worth than ten thoufand Worlds, only to gain fome fmall part of one? Certainly the God of this World hath blinded Mens Eyes, and cart a ftrange milt before them, that they cannot difcern, what is mort evident and obvious, C\'Cn the inftability and vanity of all fi.1blunary Enjoymcnts. That I may therefore contribute fomewhat to fcatter this Mift, I !ball endeavour to reprcfent to you the nativeand genuine Vanity that is in all earthly things, free from that deceitful Varnifl1, which the Devil ufi.1all.y puts upon them; and fo to deform, aud wound th:tt great Sorcerer, that his Charms may have no more Power to prevail over you. Now, that we may rightly prOceed in this, I fhall premifethcfe two or three things. 1. Firft, There is noth ing in the World v:~in in refpeB: of its natural Being. What focver God hath made, is, in its kind, good. And fo the great Creator pronounced of them, \vhen he took a fi.trvey of all the \Vorks of his han~s, Gen. t. 3t.God[tr.rJ e1.1cry thing that he had m#e, and behold ir w.u 1.1ery good. There IS a mofl: harmonious Order and Beauty in all the Creation, and every part of it. And therefore Solomon mufl: not be here fo interpreted, as if he difparaged the Works of God in pronouncing them all Vanity. Certainly he cloth not libel his Creator, nor upbraid him, as tho' he had filled the World only with vain Toys and Trifles. If '"·e regard the wonderful Artifice andWifdom that fhines forth in the Frame of Nature, we cannot have fo unworthy a Thought either of the World it felf, or of God who made it. t 1am. 1 View the Sun (next unto ·f· Go~l) the great Fath~r of LightJ: view the numerou!t. · Alfembly of the Stars; ohferve then· Influences, their Courfes, and Mea£hres. Is it a vain or impertinent thing, to fprcad forth the Heavens, and to beat out a Path for '7· every one of thefe to walk in: The Air, that thin and. fi.Jbtilc Veil that God hath fpread over thCFace of Nature; the Earth;- that God hath pois'd in the midfl: of the Air, and the whole Univerfe in the ~idft of a vaft and houndlefs Nothing: The great Se:~, whofe proud Waves God binds in with a Girdle of Sand; and checks its rage by a Body almoft as unfcttled and rolling as it felf: The v:~rious kinds of Creatures that God governs by a wonderful Oeconomy; the great family of brute Bcafts, · which God brings up and educates without Diforder; but efpecially Man, the Lord and

Tbe Vanity of.the ,WorTd. .and Chiof of the World, that knot that God hath tied between Heaven and Earth, that Sacred Band of Time wjrh Eternity: If we confider the Frame and Compofure of all thcfc things in themfelves, or their ufefulncfs and fubferviency unto us, we .{hall be fo far fi:om branding them with Vanity, that unlefs our C?ntemplations lead us from natural things to the Great God who formed them, we tmght rather fear left their beauty and Excellency Ihould inviegle us, as it did the Heathen, to look no .further for a Deity, but worlhip t hem as Gods. . . Secondly· There is nothing va in in refpeCl: of God the Creator. He makes hts Ends 11. Ollt 0f all;' for they all glorifie him according.t o their feveral R~nks an~ qrdct:s; and to rational :md confideratc Men, ar e moft evident Demonftrat1ons of hts mfimte Be- '"'Ex.o~ :j ~li'OIGU' ._9-,\;' '7rfiJM 'TOV (~':m 'T; l'j.MH .;',J d,· (!,(UV0~tiJVWeJ'7A.!7.p.{jd~OY'Tf(·. ?Jf~~ }2 -;"1J' I',!J.Atv cil'.ii, 1'.£(.~ 41r£Tv~ )lv~nt.l. Plut. de plaM cith PhiJor. c. 6. ing, Wifdom, and Power. In which fenfe the Apo.frle tells us, Rom. I. 20. 7-hc invijible things of God arc clearLy feen, bemg undt~{food by the things which are made, even his Etemal Power and Godhead. G1Jd bath compofed two Books by the dil igent ftudy of which we may attain to the knowledgeofHimfelf; the Book of the Crea.tures,,and the Book of the Scriptures. The Book of the Creatures IS wntten jn thofc great Letters of Heaven and Earth, the Air and Sea, and by thefe we may fpell ont fomewhat of God . He made them for our Inlhufrion, as well :1s for our Service. The leaft and vileft of them read us LeChtresof hisGlorious Attributes; nor is it any Abfurdity to. fay, That as they :Ire all the Words of his Mouth, fo they Jre all the Works of his Hand. Indeed, this Knowled;;e that the . Creatures give us of the Creatot, cannot fi1fficc to make us h:tppy, tho it may be ftlfficicnt to 111:1ke us * incxcufable. \iVe could never have collcfred from them thofe ~ Rom. '. mfitcriousDifcoveries of God which the Scriptures exhihit,and which arc fo nccelfa- :w, 11 • ry to our eternal Blifs. For what Signature is there fbmpt upon any of the Creatures of a Trinity in Unity; of the Eternal Generation, or Temporal Incarnation of the Son of God? What Creature could have informed 11s of our firft Fall, and Guilt contraB:ed by it? Or where can we find the Copy of the Covenant of Works, or of Grace printed upon any of the Creatures? All the great Sages of the World, tho) they were Nature's SecretaQes, and ranfackt its abftrnfefl: Secrets, yet all their l.earning and Knowledge could never difcovcr that Sacred Myftery of a Crucified Saviour. Thd"c arc Trut~s which Nature .and Reafon arc fa far from finding out, · that they can fcarce + recetve them when dtfcovcred. And therefore God hath ma-t 1 Cor· nifellcd them to us by the Light and Revelation of the Holy Scriptures. But yet fo 1. I+ much of God-as belongs to thofc two great Titles of Creator and Governor of the World, our Reafon may collett from created and vilible Things, running up their Confcqncnces, till they are all refolved into the firft Caufe and Origine of all. Thirdly, Therefore, All the Vanity that is in worldly things, is only in rcfpeB: of the fin and folly of Man, for thofe things arc faid to be Vain, which neither do, nor can perform what we expeB: from them. Our great Expc&ttion is Happinefs and onr great Folly is that we think to obtain it by the enjoyments of this VVorld. 'This makes Men pnrfuc Plcafi1rcs, hoard up Richesl court Honours and Preferments bccaufe they look with an over-weening conce it on thefe things, as fi1ch as can :nake them truly Hapl?Y: Whereas to feek for H~pJ?inefs among thefe worldly things, is hut to fe~k the l~vmg among the dead: yea, It ts but to fearch f~r Happinefs among thofe th111gs wluch arc the very Root and Occafion of all our M1fery. They are all of them leaky and broken Ciftcrns, and cannot hold this living Water. (a) This is it which mJkes them charged with Vanity, ~ccaufc in our perverted Fancy, we look 11pon them as ftablc, permanent, and fattsfuCt:ory, fix them as our Jour neys End which ought on ly to be ufed by us in our Paffage, and expeB: much more from the~ (.t) Ta.'e· ~1:n th~y can yi:ld,: An~ fo ind~cd the,V~nity i.s not ~o ~uch theirs as ours. . ~t;:9: T a.v9f4'mv.:uf ..f.v~H JIH'TtU c..v -rrJ 71tV7tt t»U.§eML7'i ~~a.CHv 1.!J.l t:t~6«p~. ll.pit. •pud L•ert. Jn 'Vit11 £pic~tri. There arc fame things (as (b) St. .Aufon and the (c) Schools ftom him do well di- (b) A•t· fh~gmfJ:t) wh1ch mull bt onl.Y enjoyed, other. thmgs that muft be only ufed. To (d) tkfl.Chrift. enJoy, IS to cleave to an Objet! by Love for 1ts own fake; and this belongs only tot. 1 ' · 3· God. What we (e) ufe, we refer to the obtaining of what we defire to enjoy; And £c:~.~~;: 4u~"·'· ll.q• 11· 16: D-.rrtmd I. t.d.1.q. ~ Arim.d. 1. 4· ).Ar-t.~. Altij{./. }· :r11£1. Jo, (d) Fruitfl•mfrulifui Ttl nrbnm proptlf' jirpfam. Aug. th£1, Cbri.fl.l. J• c.+ (e) Uti 11/dttnq~twl fn ujum 'IJmtrit 11d id q111d11m"' ~tintndutJt rtfme.ld.rbid. ' this

4 'the Vanityoj theWorld. f) Ut thi~ bet~ngs to the Crcat~1res . So that we ought to(/) ufc the Crearures, that we ~~~m eftm· !llaY ~rr1vc at the Creator: We may fervc our feh•es of them, but we muft alone en~ h61 mund~ JOY lum. IU/J frtttnd;,~n, u~ t'nviji!Jili• Dei ptr 'e• iJu.t jAE1~t]unt, inttllig• n:ttr, h#• efl, ut,, temporalibul .tttrrJII !llfillntln'. AuA:. mJ. Now that which makes the whole World become Vanity, is when we break this order of l!fe and Fruition; when we fet up any particular created Good as our End and Happmefs, which ought only to be nfed as a means to attain it. All things in t~e World are in themfelvcs good; but when we propound .them as the grcateft and h1gheft Good that we expea fatisfa8:ion from, this turns them all into Vanity; and fo every thing befides God, becomes nothing. And thus we have a brief account whence proceeds this Vanity of the \Vorld, not from the nature of tli.ings, but from thofe vain hopes and expeCtations we build upon them, for that happinefs which they cannot afford. It remains therefore to difplay before you this Vanity of thc\Vorld1 in fome more remarkable particulars: Whereof take thefe follow in~ Inftanccs. I. Firft, The Vanity of the World appears in this, That all its Glory and Splendor, depends ~eCrly upon Opinion and Fancy. lt is not fo much what things are, as what we account them, that makes themGood or Evil: And what can be v:1incr than that Q~,Uit.lmapiui}ltrimlidtmiiP'· llf"ilil pntium tjl, ttmtttm t~pud hli"lfl'lll'lflio.Na,.,lltiflt~ptr• fu .. f~ilt gt>l11U'4: mrjl,.nt. Plin. lil i :1.. d~ Gtm. Bmuni drlmmti,nM'fl•, t.b. r. which borrows its worth fr-om fo v.1in and fickle a thing as our Eftimation? And therefore we find the things of the World rated divcrfly, according to the efteem that !\·fen have of them. What were Gold :md Silver, had not Mens F:mcy ftampt upnn them .:tn excellency far beyond their Dltural nfefnlncfs? This great Idol of the World was of no v:1luc among thofe b:1rbarous Nations, ·where abundance made it vile. They preferred Gb.fs :md Beads before it, and made that their T reafhre, which we make our Scorn. They dcfpife our Rithes, and we theirs; and t rue Reafon will tell us, th:1t both the one and the other arc in thcmfe\vcs alike dcfpicablc; and it is only Fancy that puts fi1ch an immodeft and extravagant price upon them, far above their natu ral worth. Should the whole World confpirc together tiJ depofe Gold and Silver from that fovcrcignty they have ufi1rped over us, they might for ever lie hid' in the Bowels of the Earth, e'er their true ufefulncfs would entice any to the pains and hazard of digging them out into the Light. Indeed the whole ufe of what we fo much dote upon, is mcerly fantaftical ; and to make our felvcs needy, we have invented an artificial kind of Riches; which are no more neccff.1.ry to the Service of Sober Nature, th:1n Jewels and Bracelets • JEFar. were to that Plane-t ree which * Xtr.ws fo ridicnlouOy :tdo~nc~. And.altho' we e.:t1. :~..c. l<t · gerly pnrft1c thefc things, and count our felves poor and md1gcnt Withotlt them ; yet poffihly right Rcafon will dictate, _That they arc no more nc~d~11 to us, than to brute or fcnOefs Creatures; and that Jt would be altogether as nd1cnlous for a Man to be deck'd with them, as for a Beaft or Plant; werc...it but as uncommon. Thefe precious trifles, when they arc hung about tis, make no more either to the wJrmth • ~ , , or defence of the Body than if they were hung UPIJn a Tree they 7 ,.,;;r:;:,";;'~~i'::•Jji; could make its Le~vcs more verdant, or. its lhade more r~fr,elhing. -:1w£M,,. ~,..-u-,1 v !v1tt.u.~vr.~; * Doth any Man ltc the fofter, becaufe h1s Bed-pofl:s arc g1~t. Doth -r~· J X.f'-~~~r ·~ni ;u~v it.Nr his Meat and Drink rclifh the better, becanfc ferv'd up m Gold? .,, t.4AMv (Tlt~'IJ¥fv; !1 ~· Is his Houfc more convenient, becaufe better carved or painted? r;;;::,;,w 'f otzt:l:'r";:~ t~~ Orar~ hisCiooths more fit? becaufemorcfa lhionablethananot~er's? Xftl.n:;~ , Mi ~· ,,..,211nfvf~v And tf they :1re not neceil~ry to thefc natural U(cs, :tll that IS left ~t11.1V&:r :HJrum tiJlir~ ;n:!f~~· t hem is but Fancy and Opmwn. Indeed, Mankmd couzen them· ,.g,;~v ; Lucian. Cynicu ~ . fc\ves by compact; and by fctting a value upon thi ngs thatarcrarc, have made many think themfelves poor, whereas God and Nat~re made all equally wealthy had they not artificially impoverilh'd themfclves. It IS nothing but Con· ceit tha; makes the diftCrence between the richeft and the meaneft, if both enjoy Nccelfaries. For what are all their fuperftnous Riches, but a Load that Mens Covetoufnefs lays upon them? they are but like * Roman Slaves, that were wont to carry heavy burthens of Bread upon their B:1cks, whereof others eat as large a !hare as they. \\Thatfoevcr is more than barely to fatisfie the Cravings of Nature, is of no other ufe but only to ·i· look upon. Thy Lands, thy Houfes, ,._-Ut fi rttit~!am panU, '!Jt · nlflts inttr, tt~u.flt fortC vthlll hlJINtro, nihiU p/U4 lletlpiM qu•m 'ijutnilptrti#'it. Hor.Stat. r. t Ecd~(. 5· 11 . and fair Eftatc, are but Pictures of things. The pooreft that fees them, enjoys as much

The Vanity of the World. much of them as thy felf: Yea, and if Men could be contented with Rcafon, ~11 that they behold with their Eyes, is as much theirs as it is the Owners. . . And indeed if we Jtrip all thefe admired Nothings to their nak~d Prmctples, we fh:.~ll find them as b:tfc and ford id as the nwancft of thofe things wh1ch _we fpurn and def])ifc· enly Art or Nature put new flmpes upon them, and fancy a pnce upon thofc fhapes.' * What arc Gold and Silver, but diverfified Earth, hard , , 0 , · , ~ and fuining Clay? ~he very place wh~re they arc ln:cd, thc~ntrails S~t~11 .._ 1:~",;~,!~~:~~7;~ of the E:~.rth upbr:uds us for accountmg the1.11 prec1ous. 1 he beft ;.itt r,;;e.~.t3tt.'1f4 .:U~o.:rity M[itll( and richcftPerfumes, 'vhat are they but the clammy fweatofTrccs, J\JtJ,v.fh.. Oilw~ hi =P or the mucous froth of Beall:s? The fofteft Silks arc but theExcre- ~.Aov :t ~iov71o1liiv1 ~0~~ AtiY ment of :1 vile Worm. The moft :a;y and ,gene_rous Wines,. arc <j(:;::J;.;~'?'/i:~:aP~ nothing elfe but Puddle-Water ftram d thro a Vme. Onr ch01ceft 7 LuJ Jl-riM•d.Vdu-mv r,g_.'Jo:J "q11 Delicates arc but Dirt, cook'd and ferv'd u_p to us in various Forms. ~7~11 i)CeJ«¥U;.' ri n,u.,tJH7:;u The very fame things which we contemn under one fh:1pc we ad- -r/el;ufit'v. M. ?nto· de£e.;ptO. mire in another, and with this, Fancy and Cuftom have confj_1ir'd -~;'vs".r.f~o·!~.i~ ~~-,:::~~-; together to cheat us. ;"11 ~,1JJI&J ~, 11 .0m,O~o.-,'"J~ "-· a@- iJ ;-rri,.,,, ';""l"(;e; t y'iih 7J td.r~y, ~ J.md9tJ.!U ~ ;tfu~~, ~ .t~1vr®-, ~'T~Ji<:t, ,; i.:7J;~ "7~» -;;>jrtVa. Id· [, 9· s. JO· 6. Think, 0 waddling! when thou cafteft thy gteedy Eyes upon thy Riches, think, here are Bags that only Fancy hath fill'd with Treafurc, which elfe were fill'd with Dirt. Here are Trifles that only Fancy hath call~d]ewels, which clfe were no better than common Pebbles. And Ihall I lay the Foundation of my Content and Happi... nefs upon a Fancy, a thing more light and wavering tlun the very Air? Nay, confider, That a diUemper'd Fancy can eafily alter a Man's Condition, and pllt what fhape it pleafeth upon it. If a black and fi11len Melancholy fcizeth the Spirits, it will make him complai n of Poverty in the midft of his abundance; of pain and fickncfs, i11 the midft of his Health and Strength. 'Tis true, thefe arc but the Ef!Cfrs of a diftorted Fancy; but tho' his Sicknefs and Poverty be no~ real, . yet the torment of them is. It is all one, as to our difquiet, whether we be indeed unhappy; .. T / or only* imagine our felves fo. .:.s<~ ~;~ .iv9r~~~ ~ 7i :;;;e;.r,t..UI.1t:t. dMJ. -ro' 'liel r ~yp.d"Tf.<)~ Jb'"y[.VJ.7f/... Epillet. Enchir.c. ro. & diffirt. /, 3· e. 19~ Again; If the Fancy be more merrily perverted, !height they arc nothing lcfs than Kings, or Emperors, i a their own Conceit. A Straw is as majeftick as a Sceptre; they will fpc:tk of their Rags as magnificently as if they were Robes: and look upon all that come near tht: rry as their Subjetl:s orServants. They make every Stone a Gem, c.very Cottage a Palace ; :Ill they fe~ is their own, and all their own is moft excellent. Now what think you, are thcfe things vain, or no? I doubt not but you v:ill coodude them moft extreamly vain ; and yet they ferve their turns as well, and bring them in as much folace and contentment, as if they were really what they ima- t A: '' ginc them. Thns-{- Thra[ylllu noted down all the Ships that arrived at the Port of 1. i· ~: 3~~­ .Athem, think ing them, &nd their Merchandize ~o be all his own. And when cured of that pleafant madnefs, * confeft, That he ne- ~ "EAtJ.tv Mllli""n ,j,e:iyp ver in his who\e Life enjoyed lo much content, as in that conceited '71i\1~'71iv, ~ ".o~ ;fn i!J\:r~ !':ti Wealth thofeShips br?ught him. An~ in_decd for my pan,I.know ;~ti'~J~:~f:.uJ,.~~J~bid: not whether thcfe thmgs are more vam m the Fancy, or 111 the " · Reality. Such is the exceeding Vanity of all th ings in the \Vorld, that were it not for the Etern.1l Concernments of the Soul, which cannot be fo well regarded under a fi.1fpenfion or diftrattion of Reafon,I fhould make no difficulty to account and prove them the happicll: Men on Earth. . I_f then there be !o great a Power. in Fa_ncy,. how vain ~ltlfl: all thofc things be Wluc~ you purfuc With e~ger~efs and_nnpatre!~cc, fincc a vam :Fancy without them, can giVe you as muc~ fat1sfaC:hon, as 1f you enJoy'd them all? And a vain Fancy.can, on the other hand1 m the greateft abundance of them, make your lives as wearifome and vexatious, as d you enjoyed nothing. That is the firft Dcmonfrration. , SecondLy) The Vanity of the World appears in its deceitfulnefs and treachery. It u. is not orily Vanity,1but a lying Vanity, an~ betrays both our Hopes, and our Souls. l~ bet:ays our Hopes~ and leaves us nothing but difappointment, whenitpromifeth S:msfa~.bon an<l Happmefs. What fr~nge Confidences do we build upon the falfc ~attenesof the World? In our profpenty we fing a Requiem to our felves, and arc · ready to fay> Our Mountain U fo ftrong, that it j1Ja/l never be moved: But within a whiic ~fa!. 30 ' D God ' 1 '

6 The Vanity of the World. .God bath 1haken it, like that of Sinai, and wrap'd it about with Clouds and thick Darknefs. 1. It betrays the Soul to Guilt and eternal Condemnation. For ufually the World intangles it in ftrong, tho' fec.ret and infenfible Snares, and infinuates into the Heart that love of it felf, which is inconfiftent with the love of God. The World is the Dcvil's Factor, and drives on the Defigns of Hell. The Apoftle bath told us, t T im. 6. 9· Thel th4t will b~ rich, fall into temptation, and a Jnare, and many fooliff, and lmrrful lujfs, whtch drown m!n in deftru£l-ion and pe-rdition. And becaufc of the fhbfervicn cy of world!y enjoyments to Mens Lufts, it is almoft as. impoffible a thing t<? n~oderate our AffeCbons towards them, or to bound our Appetites and Delires, as It IS to a!fw:~.gc the thirft of a Dropfie by drinking, or to keep that Fire from encreafing, into whkh +Luke Ji· we are frill cafi:ing neW" Fuel. And therefore our Saviour hath pronounced it as *hard ,. 5 . for a rich Man to tnttr into Heaven, at/or a CAmel to go thro' the Eye of a Needle. t M-at."J-6, AsJudtu gave a fign to the Officers that came with him to apprehcndjeiits,-f-Whom~ ,.s. foe1.Jer I foal! kifi, the [11me U he, hold him faft: The fame fign doth the World give the · Devil. Whomfoever I fhall carefs and favour, whomfoever I fua\1 he<Ip honour and tiches on, whomfoever I ihall embrace and kifs, the fame is he, hold him fait Such a darling of the World is too often fait bound in the filken Bands ofVoluptuoufnefs, and configncd over to be fail: bound in Chains of mail"y Darknefs. Ill. . As an things in the World :~re lying Vanities, foare they all vexatious. They :~re mfamous to a Proverb, Vncertain ComfortJ, but moft certain CroffeJ· And therefore the wife Man concludes them all to be, not only V aniry, but Ve.t:ation of Spirit. . There is a fotlr-fold Vexatioufnefs in all worldly things. I. There is a great deal of turmoil and trouble in getting them ;nothing can be acqui- . red without it. The Sweat of .Adam's Brows bath ftream'd down along upon ours, "" Gen. l• and the Curfc together with it, * that in farrow we fhould eat of that which Toil 1S• and Labour hath providedfor us. Men rife early,and go to b~d late, and eat the Bread of carefulnefs; and fuch is either their Curfe, or their Folly, that they make their qvesuncomfortable, only to get the Comforts of Life. 1. Whether they get them or no, y\::t frill they arc. difappointed in their Hopes. + If t _Ex. his they cannot compafs their Defigns, then they are tormented,. becaufe they fall fuort trif!ttu•{- of what they Iabot1red for; if they do compafs them, yet frill they are tormented, !:~r;';~j~- becaufe what they laboured fot, falls fhort of what they cxpeB:ed from it. The truth ,,flit tJut Is, The World is much better in fhew than fubftance: And thofe very things we ad~ fumff~~~ mire before we enjoy them, yet afterward we find much lefs in them than we exped:~ pNdtt. St- ed. As he that fees a falling Star ihoot thro' the Air, and draw after it a long train ~ec. ~ of Light, runs to the place; and thinking to get fome bright and glittering thing, ,IJ,.qll:. catches up nothing but a filthy Jelly; fuch is the difappointment we find in o.ur pur. fuit after the enjoyments of this VVorld: They make a glorious Jhew at a difta.nce, but when we come near them, we find our Hopes deluded, and nothing upon the place but a vile Slime. 3• Thirdly; They are all Vexation while we enjoy them. Be it what it will that we poilHs of the World, it is but by fits at moft, that we take any great pleafure in it: And then, what between Cares and defigns to fecure the continu- • 'H y) u~oJ>e} me1 i~~v ance of it, and fears oflofingit, the comfort of enjoying it is wholly ~~'1.!"- !~0<?~-ntn~ eOPo.' fwallowed up. * For ftrong AffeB:ions begetting fi:rong Fears, do :;;;t~o;'~::~~vc~'J,e1: always lefiCn the d~ligh.t of prefent Enjoyn~cnts. This is ~he un~ /jtUov dumr t;"O'"' ~ ...... fct..'lf"H.· llappmefs of all tlungs m the World, that 1f we fct any pnce and ~~/.w. Plut. de tra1~quil. value upon them, we lofe rttuch of the fweetncfs of them, by fe:1r~ jng to lofe them. 4· rr Fourthly· They arc all Vexatious, as in their Enjoyment, fo efpecially in their Lofs. Whatevc; we fet our Hearts upon, we rpay ~!lUre our felves, and ~xperic_nce will teach it us, that the pleaihre of polfeffing tt, will no~ nea~ countervarl the bitternefs of lofing it. And as if God had on purpofe fo ordamed tt, to take off our Hearts from the World t.he better we efi:eem any thing, the moreVanity and Vcxationfhall we find in it· fo~ the more will our Care and Perplexity in keeping it, and the more bur Grief and Torment in lofing it be encreafe~. ~hat's a thi~d Demonft~tion. . IV. Fourthly; The Vanity of the World appears m tlus, That a little Crofs w1Jl emb•\· ter great Comfotts. One dead Flit 1s enough to corrupt a whole Box of the Worlds moft fragrant Oilmnmr: How mu<;h will only. the aking of a Tooth, a fit of theSton~;

The Vanity of the World. 7 or Gont, deaden and difuearten us to all the Joys and Pleafurcs of.Life? ~ertai~1ly, rhe World muft needs be vain, that cannot bear out the brunt of a.JtttlePam o~Srckuefs. The lealt crofsAccident is enough todifcompofc all ourDel.tghts. Audmdccd there are fo many Ingredients required to make np worldly Fc~tet- , , ...... . , ty +Riches Health, Friends, Honour, good Name, and the like; .'J:<J 4>ruvtJ\'.~ r 'iY.n; rl;(J. - th~t if any or' rhefe be wanting, .the whole Compofition isfpoiled, "t:; ·~:r ~~:~v~tvti':.t= and we fuall takcadv~ntage aga~nft our felves to conclude ~care ~vnn~;@e~?v,~Tovbfwc-'~· miferable. For fuch IS the peevlfhnefs of our Nature, that tf we iv7;tX.V•o:q:, ~'.!1-Mif;, Otl ndvv have not all we would, we take no content in any thing we have. ~ tu:fiJ.tf.l~~~rJ; 0 ;rnv )J'e!~t-y And bcfides,.we are apt I! to fiide off from the fmoothcr part of our :::~~~..:Y.~~~A:i. »t.;~r;, Lives, as Fhes from Glafs, and to !hck only on the rougher Pailll- '· s. ~ l. 10 • ,. s. ges: For neither is Senfe capable to be fo much or fo long alfctlcd ll T- • ,.;? . ;, with the Imp~emo~S ofPleafi.tr~,as .ofpain,(fincenever could there e;_QJf/'!/.,.;; ~ rJ;-a~r:; !;~~7: yctbeanyDeltghtsmventeda.sptercmgastherearemanyTorments) T J.fl...,v ~'/fruP e.. 7'/,1~ ~,g,7&;,­ nor yet is our bufie remembrance fo officious in calling back the TOH d7.tM~ivt".n, Ji! :) Tf5.- pleafantPa1Tages of our days to our review, as thofe that hJve been 'X.~111u ~~~v'ntt ~ Ji! ~,t.tv· more gloomy ~nd dolorous. And tho' it be our ~n to look ~ore ~~g;:~;~l;J;:cpJ[o:~:: upon the Crones we find, than the Comfons we enJOY; yet hct.ewe £M?f"Aho~7«~ Ji r cini'iiv.b«u.- may likcwife fee how vain a thing it is for us to exped: Happrnefs riJOlm· Plutarcb d~ tr;r,quil." and Contentment from the World, whofeCroiTcs as they arc more, fo they are more confiderable than its Comforts. ·' Fifthly, Confider, the longer we enjoy any worldly thing, the more Aatand infipid V. doth it grow: We are foon at the bottom, and find nothing but Dregs there. In all thePieafbres of Life either our Spiri ts fink and fall under the continuance of them, as not able to bear a conftant tenfion and emotion; or the Delight confifts mecrly in the novelty and variety of the ObjeCts, which when we are made more familiar with, are but dull, becaufe ordinary: And fothey either tire onr Appetites, or deceive ou r Hopes. And therefor e the moft artitlcial Voluptuaries have always allowed them~ fe·Ives an intcrmiiTLon in their Pleafi.Ires, to recruit Nature, and Jharpen their fcnfual Defires, without which they would but cloy and furfeit, and in- 'Ctrtos h,)bt!u.t die; ipfi ""14 ftcad of Plcafures, prove only a wafte and oppreffion to the Spirits. gift,,. v~!ttptmU Epicum).quibM * Epicurm himfelf, the great Mafrer and Servant ofPleafure, who mnlig~tefamemextinguem. :>en. · made it the highefl: good and chiefeft.Hap_pinefs of Man, fcthimfclf E.p. •8 lip. ad Mm.mum t~p~J certain da-ys of Abfrinence in courfe, wherein lie would but nig- Dt•.f.l.Atrt in't!it.iE:~rJic. T~ct~· gardly facisfie his Stomach, well knowing that the plcafi1re of ;~f::h~~~"f.~~~~~:r::; Gluttony could never be fo much enhanc'd as by an mtcrval of £Y. l'ta,Mtu.w/.7(~ .. ~t:tft'X!P.:.~ Hunger. ' rou.Y..eciiforJip.;;~ l'ta.-ri6,);,, For what is a furnifh'd Table to him whofe conftant Meals overtake one another, bnt only the heaping of Food npon Crudities and Indige!tion? What the Titles of Honour to a Perfon born Noble? They fignifie n,o more to him, than it doth to another Man, when he hears himfelfcalled by his ordinary Name. What isRefpea and Honour to aMan long accuftomed to it? It brings him no great content when he hath it, but torments him when he fails of it. Give thefe things to thofe that arc unacquainted with them, if you wonld have them valued. Bring a poor Man to aTable ofDclicates; invert an ignoble Perfon with Honours and Dignities; give Rcfped: to a defpifed Perfon, and for the prefent you blefs them. . But Time and Cufl:om y;ill we~r otr. this Content: .. ~J~d the ·t· tedioufnefs even of . t-:--SIInt :a!U qn;que td!· fuch a L1fe as thts, w11l make them wtlhng, at l eaft for their Diver~ dlaovu£ , tifement and Recreation, to* retire to their homely Cells andSta- ~fag.,.,. Vo!tlptatueommm.4;rt t ion. For as it is with thofethatare accuftomed toftrongPerfumcs, rar,~r ufiu. ]uvc:n. Sac. 1 1 • they themfelves cannot fcent thofe Odours, which to others th:lt ~ Non e:~iflnnuntt du~ere tt ufe them not, are moft fweet and fragrant: So it fares with us in ad nmiJw cte111Z4 & p:uptrum. the long continuance of worldly Enjoyments· our Scnfes are fo ttll'"· & quuqmd alutd tfl Pt" ftuft and even fulfocated with them, that we can~ot perceive them; j;j1 :.'~S:~1."Ep.'';v~~'artlm udtQ and unlefs we purchafe Pleafures by alternate Sorrow, they are but loft upon us. Now how vain muft the World needs be, whofe Comforts ar e not valuable while we ha\•e them, but while we have them not? And how vain a. re thofe Joys for which we ~lift pay down as much Grief, .as the Joys themfelvesare worth? So that upon balancmg the Accompt, there remains' nothing to us: and it had been altogether as good to have entoyed nothing. Again~