Bates - BT775 B274 1675

THE HARMONY. O F T H E Attributes, Divine IN THE Contrivance and Accomplifhment of Man's Redemption by the Lord i 0 P DISCOURSES, 0110ereiti 05 %DOA, How the Wifdom, Mercy, Jufl:ice, Holinefs, Power and TruthofGod are glorified in thatGreat andBlef ed Work. By William Bates, D. D. Which things the Angels defire to look into. t Pet, I. 12. Nihil tam dignum Deo, quám falus Hominis. lertul. lí7e etonb Coition t oFretteD anDentarttet, bait') tt)eMarion of an Ztgí)abetirat 3tabte. LONDON, Printed by 7. M. for Nathanael Ranew, Jonathan Robinfn, and Brabazon Aylmer, at the Kings Arms, and Golden Lyon in Sr. panic Church-Yard, and at the three Pigeons inCornhit, r 675.

4, ` e!, e¡tn hñ te1 cJr,y et,Tr, I' * ctEr rctA 8ra eYn hri r?rv t`Ç,c*,?.v. aT c s ` Q1,3CrJ cn 9'.. ¢., G._ T`Cx.çr. .,.>u'.c hy ,td GDG,_Cs . G,,x,¡C'aG'^G-` G{JG'a C%s.BCJ!7C!3SJ!vfJf;PCl±V E'l!a?' t7!17G:?C/t/9CdLï i ea , uP ej+.s : c+A+ u4tia T H E PREFACE. Sub jet1 ofthe enfuingDif- courfes is of that ineflimable excellency and importance, that it deferves our deepeft refeSions, and care to confider andapply it : 'Tis thegreat My- fiery of iodlinefs, the deign ofEternal Wifdom, the chiefeft of all Mods Works, that contains the Glorious Wonders of bis enjercy and Power, wherein he ren- ders himfel fmoll worthy ofour Supreme Veneration and q,Jfection. Our mat railed Thoughts are infinitely beneath its Dignity. Though the Light of the Go- A3el

The Preface. jJ el bath clearly reveal'd fo much of it as is requifite to be known in our earthly Hate, yet thefublimer parts areHill fecret, and referv'd for a full dJcovery by the brightnfs of our Saviour's Appearance. ow if the Excellency of things ex- cites our Spirits to be attentive in fearch- ing into their nature, this Divine Ob- jetéfhould awaken all our Powers, and arrefi our é71'inds, in the ferious fleady contemplation of it, being alone capable to fatisfy their immortal appetite. fe Importance of it is correfpondent to its excellency . for 'tit no left than the recovery of usfrom extream and eternal mifery, and the ?efloring ofus to the en- joyment of tdhe flefed God, a felicity without comparifon or end. If we have any regard to Salvation, (andwho would be fo unhappy as to neglec`l it for uncon- cerning frivolous. Vanities? ) it will be delightful

The Preface; delightful to know the means by which we may obtain it ; and to employ the flying moments ofour fhort time in thole things that are profitable for our ¡all End, that wemay not lofe TemporalandEternalLife together. Mary of the ancient and Modern Divines have written of this noble Ar- gument, from whom I have received be- nefit in the following compofure. ` gut none, as I know, bath confidered all the parts together, andprefented them in one view. ThereHill remains a rich abun- dancefor the erpetual exercife ofour Spi- rits. The Eternal Word alone was able toperfEl all things by once f fieal- g. Humane words are but an Echo that anfwers the Voice of God, and can- not fully exprefs its Power, nor raft fo immediately through the fenfe to the Heart, but they mull be repeated. May theft Vifcourfs

The Preface. Difbourfes be effdlual to inflame us with the molt ardent Love to our Saviour, who ranfonid us with the utivaluable price of his own blood, and to perfwade us to live for Heaven, the purchafe of that Sacred Treafure I fhall for ever acknowledge the Divine Grace, and obtain my :a- myl aim. CHAP.

( i) 4. 4. 4. 4. 4. 4. 4. e. .V tl rs `M V a au r CHAP. L. The introduîlion. Afhort viewofMansprimitiveflate. His Conformity to God; natural, moral, and in Happi- nefs andDominionover the Creatures. The moral re- femblance, as it refers to all thefaculties. The happi- nefi ofMan with ref-peel to his fenfitive andfpiritual Nature. Ofall fublunaryCreatures he is only capable of a Law. What the Law ofNature contains. God entred into a Covenant with Man. The Reafans ofthat Dí penfation. The Terms of the Covenant were becoming God and Man. The fpecial claufe in the Covenant concerning the Tree of Knowledge of Good and Evil. The Reafons ofthe Prohibition. pI E felicity which the Lord Jefus procu- red for Believers, includes a perfe& free- John 8. 36 . dom from Sin, and all affii&ive evils, the juft confequents of it : and the fruition of Righteoufnefs, Peace, and Joy, where- Rom. t4.17. in the Kingdom of God confifrs. In this the evangeli- cal Covenant excels thenatural; the Law fuppQfes Man upright, and the happinefs it promifes to exact Obedi- ence, is called Life; it rewardsInnocence with Immor- tality : but the Bleffednefs ofthe Gofpel is ftil'd Salva- tion, which lignifies the refcuing of lapfed Man from a Rate of mifery, and the invefling of him with unpe- ri ffling Glory. In order to the Difcoveryoftheexcellency ofthisBe- nefit, and the endearing Obligations laidonus by our Redeemer, 'tisneceffary to takea viewof that dreadful and defperate Calamity which feiz'd upon Mankind : B the

2 )e parmonvoftie ttt abut , Chap. I. the wretchednefs of our Captivity ilIuftrates the Glo- Le-y1.J ry of our Redemption. And fence the mifery of Man was not the original condition of his nature, but the effe:& ofhis guilty choice, 'tis requifite to make fome reffe&ion upon his ñrft ftate, as hecame out of the pure hands of God; that comparing our prefent mifery with our loft happinefs, we may revive in our breafts the affe&ions ofSorrow, Shame and Indignation againft our (elves ; and confidering that the Heavenly Adam hathpurchafed forus a title to abetter Inheritance than wasforfeited bythe Earthly one, we maywith the more affe&ionategratitude, extol the Favour and Power of our Redeemer. God who is the living Fountain of all Perfe&ions,. (pent an intire Eternity in the Contemplation ofhis own Excellencies, before anycreature was made. Inthe moment appointed by his Wifdom, he gave thefill' Being to the World. Three diftin& orders of Natures he form'd, the one purely spiritual, the other purely Material, and between both one Mixt, which unites the extremes in it felf. This is Man, the abridgment of the Univerfe, aily'd to theAngels in his Soul, andtoma- terial things in his Body, and capable of the Happinefs ofboth; By his internal Faculties enjoying thefelicity ofthe IntelleElual, and byhis external tailing the Plea- fures of theSenfftiveWorld. Man's greateft excellency was a perfeht Cónformity to theDivinePattern. God created Man in his own Likenefs, in the Image ofGod created he him. This includes, Firfl, The Natural similitudeofGod in the fubftance of the Soul, as it is an intelligent, free, fpiritualand Immortal Being. This is aflìgned to be the Reafonof Gen. 9. ß, theLaw, That Whofo fheds Mans Blood, by Man(hall his Bloodbe"bed; for in the Image ofGod made heMan. secondly, A moral Refemblance in its Qualities and Perfe&ions.. Thirdly,

ftt Contribíng an'giactcmption. 3 Thirdly, That Happinefs and Dignity of Mans Rate, chap. was the confequent, andacceffion to his Holinefs. LÇY -) The Natural refemblance I thall not infilt on. For the diftin t llluttration ofthe other, we muli confider God in a threefold refpeCt : i. In refped of his abfoluteHolinefs, unfpotted Puri- ty, infinite Goodnefs, incorruptible Juftice, and what- ever we conceive under the notion ofmoral Perfeaions. 2. With refpe& to his comp/eat Bleffednefs, (the re- fult of his infinite Excellencies ; ) as he is perfe&ly ex- empt from all evils which might allay and leffen his felicity, and enjoys thofe pleafures which are worthy ofhis pureNatureand glorious State. 3. In regard of his fupreme Dominion, which ex- tends it felf to all things in Heaven and Earth. Now in the Participation ofthefe, the Image of God didprin- cipally confift. The Holinefs of Man was the copyof the Divine Purity : his Happinefs a reprefentation of the Divine Felicity : and his Dominion over the lower World the refemblance of Gods Soveraignty. I will take a particular furveyof them. z. Man was conformed to God in Holinefs. This appears by the expreffions of the Apoftle concerning the Sanctificationofcorrupt man; which he Pets forth, by therenewing ofhim in knowledge, righteoufnefr and col. 3. ¡0. holinefr, after the image of the Creator. The Renova- tion of things is the reftoring of themto their Primi- Eph. 4. Z4 _ tivefiate, and is more or lefs perfect, by its proporti- on to, or diftance from, the Original. Holinefs, and Righteoufnefs are thecomprehenfive Sum ofthe Moral Luke t.' S. Law, which not only reprefents the will but the Na- ture ofGod inhis Supreme Excellency, and in confor- mity to it the Divine likenefseminently appear'd. Adam wascreated with the perfectionofGrace : The progrefs of the molt excellent Saints is incomparably fhort ofhis B 2 begin-

4 e pannotyoftIeZí1 üie (tttibutef, Chap. I. beginning : By this we may in part conje6 ure at the t '-1rs.j Beautyof Holtnefs in him, of which one faint ray ap- pearing in renewed perlons is fo amiable. This primitive Beauty is expreft in Scripture by rectitude : God made Alan upright. There was an univerfal entire rectitude itx his Faculties, difpofing them for their proper Operati- ons. Thiswill morefully appear by confìderingthedi- ftinct powersof theSoul,in their regular Conflitutions. i. The underftandingwas iarich'd with knowledge. Naturewas unveiled toAdam, he enter'd into its San ctuary, and difcover'd its myferions Operations. When. Gen. Z. 19. the Creaturescame topay their Homage tohim, whatfo- ever he called them, that was the name thereof And their Names expreft their Natures. His Knowledge reach'd through the whole compafs of the Creation, from the Sun theglorious veffel ofLight, to the Glo- worm that fhines inthe hedg. And this knowledgewas notacquir'd by Study, 'twas not the fruit ofanxious in- quiry, but as the illuminationof the Air is inan inftant by the light of theMorning, fo his Underftanding was enlightned by a pure beam from the Father ofLights. Befides, He had fucha knowledge of the. Deity, as was fizfficient for his Duty and Felicity. His mind did not flick in thematerial partof things,but afcended by the feveral ranks of Beings to the Univerfal Cauf. He difcover'd the Gloryof the Divine E/fence and Attri- butes by their wonderful ef'eeis: i. Almighty Power. When he firft open'dhis eyes, the ftupendous Fabrickof Heaven andEarthprefented it felftohis view, and in it the molt exprels and clear characters ofthat Glorious Power which produced it. For what could overcome the Infinite diftance be- tween not being andbeing,but infinite Power ? As there is noproportion between not being And being, fo the eanfe whichunites thofe terms, mutt be without limits. Now

Q onttíbít g tRebemptían. 5 Now the Divine Word alone, (which calls the things Chap. I. that are not, as if they were) caufed the World to rife .; from the Abyfs of empty nothing. At Gods Command Rom. 4.17. the Heavens, and all their Hoft were created. And this C4, 33. 6. led him to confider the Immenfìty of the Divine Ef fence; For Infinite Power is incompatible with ai"nite Effence, and by the confideration of the Inamenty he might afcend to the Eternity of God. To beEternal without beginning, and Infinite without bounds, infer one another, and neceffarily exifi in the fame fubjeCt. For 'tis impoffible that any thing which is form'd by another, and bath a beginning, fhould not be limited in its Nature by thecaufe that produced it. Therefore the Apofile declares, that the EternalPower of God is fet Rom, p. 20. forth in the Creation of theWorld; joyning with the difcovery of his Power, that of his Eternity. 2. Admirable Wifdom appear'd toMan in the Crea- tion. Forby confidering the Variety and Union, the Order and Efficacy, the Beauty and Stability of the World, he clearlydifcerned that Wifdom which fo re . gularly difpofed all. 'Tis thus that Wifdom fpcaks in the Bookof Proverbs; When he prepared the Heavens, Prov. 8. 27 I was there : Whenhe fit a compafs upon theface of the 28'29' depth : When he ellablifhed the Clouds above : When he ftrengthened the Fountains of the Deep When he gave the sea his Decree, that the Waters fhould notpats hir Commandments: Whenhe appointed theFoundations of theEarth: Iwas with him,contriving all in the belt man- ner for Ornament and Ufe. The knowledge of this, fill'dhis Soul with wonder and delight. The Pfalmift breaks forthwith aflonithment, as one in the midfi: of innumerable Miracles, 0 Lord, how manifold are thy pra. ro4 works ! in Wifdom haft thoumade them all And ifhe ditcovered fuch wonderful and Divine Wifdom in the Works of God, when the vigoux of the hasmane derfranding.

6 VieOtt-manyof tIe Ztbtne2(ttrtbuteZ, Chap. I. derffanding was fo much impair'd by the Fall; how LeV-N...) much moredid Adam, whoperfectly underlfood Vni- verfal Nature, theoffices of its parts, the harmony of the whole, and all the juft Laws of Vnionby which God hath joined together fuch a multitude of beings Co diftant and difagreeing, and how the Public( Peace is preferved by their Private Enmity ? This difcovery caufed him to acknowledge, that Great is the Lord, and ofgreat Power :his Vnderflanding is infinite. 3. Infinite Goodnefs fhin'd forth in the Creation. This is the leading Attribute, that call'd forth the reft towork. As there was no matter, fo no motive to in- duce God to make the World, but what arofe from his Goodnefs : For he is an Allfufcient Being, perfeF,fly bleffed in himfelf. His Majefty is not encreafed by the Adoration of Angels, nor his Greatnefs by the Obedi- ence of Nature; neither was he lefs happy, or con- tent, in thatEternal Duration before the exiftence of any Creature, than he is fince. His Original Felicity is equally incapable of accelion , as of diminution. 'Tis evident therefore, that only free and unexcited Goodnefs moved him to createall things, that he might impart being and happinefs tothe Creature, got inrich his own. And as by contemplating the other works ofGod, fo efpecially by refle&ingupon himfelf, Adamhada clear fight of the Divine Attributes which concurr'd in his Creation. Whether he confider'd his loweff part, the Difficile eft Body, 'twas form'dofthe Earth, the motf artificial and expediren. beautiful pieceofthe vifhleWorld. Thecontrivance an r1p ns s of its parts was with that proportion and exaFlnefs, major fit, as molt conduc'd to Comelinefs and Service. Its ffature Lail. e op'f was ere and raifed, becoming the Lord of the Crea- tures, and an obferver of the Heavens. A Divine Beautyand Majeftywas fhedupon it. And this was no vanithing

in Contaîng tran'Z ia.ebomption; i vanifhing ray, loon eclipr'd by a Difeafe, and extin- Chap. L guifht by Death, but fhin'd in thecountenance without LI-v---N,J any declination. The Tonguewas Man's peculiar glory, being the interpreter of the mind, and capable to fignifie all the Affe&ions of the Soul. In fhort, the Body was fo fram'd, as to make avilìble difeovery of the Prerogatives of his Creation. And when he re- fleeced upon his Soul that animated his duff, itsexcel- lent endowments wherein 'tis comparable to the An- gels, its capacityof enjoying God himfelf for ever, he had an internal and molt clear teftimony oftheglorious perfe&ions of his Creator. For Man, whoalone ad- Miratur aiia mires the works of God, is the molt admirable of all. h remiraror 2. The Image of God was refplendent in mans Con- maximum fcience, the feat ofpra&ical Knowledge, andTreafury it Cutum` of moral Principles. The direclive faculty was lìn- cere and incorrupt, not infe&ed with any difguifing tin&ure: 'twas clear from all prejudices, which might renderit an incompetent Judge of good and evil. It inftrufted Man in all the parts of his relative Obligati- ons to God, and the Creatures. 'Twas not fetter'd and confin'd, fearfully refiraining from what is law- ful'; nor licentious and indulgent in what is forbidden. Briefly, Confcience in Adam upright, was a fubordi- nate God, that gave Laws, and exa&ed obedience to thatgloriousBeing who is its Superior. 3. Therewas a Divine Impreffion on theWill. Spi- ritual Reafon kept the Throne, and the inferiour Fa- culties obferved an eafy and regular fubordination to its dilates. The Aflê&ions were exercis'd with pro- portion to the quality of their Obje&s. Reafon was their inviolable Rule. Love the molt noble, and Ma- fter-affection, which gives being and goodnefs to all the reft, even to hatred it felf; ( for fo much we hate anobje&, as it hinders our enjoyment of the good we love :)

s e atmolly ofMe Zítíne2fttributo, Chap. I. love :) this precious IncenCe was offer'd up to the excel- lent and fupreme Being, which was the Author-of his Life. Adam fully obeyed the firfl and great Com- mand, of loving the Lord with all his heart, foul, and ftrength. His love to other things was regulated by his loveto God. There was a perfect accord between flelh and fpirit in him. They both joyn'd in the fer- vice of God, and were naturally mov'd to their hap- pinefs. As the two Eyes content in their motion, fo reafon and fenfe agreed for the fame end. In Ihort, the image of God in Adam, was a living, powerful Principle, and had the fame relation to the Soul which the Soul hath to the Body, to animate and order all its Faculties, in their Offices and Operations, accor- ding to theWill ofhis Creator. 2. The Image ofGod confifted (though in an infe- riour degree) in the happy ífate of man. Herein he refembled that infinitely Bleffed Being. This happinefs had relation to the two Natures, which enter into Mans Compofition : i. To the Animal and Senfitive, and this confiíied in two things. i. In the excellent difpoGtion of his Organs. 2. In the enjoyment of convenient Obje&s. i. 'In the excellent difpoGtionof the Organs. His body was form'd immediatly by God and fo not liable to thole defects, which proceed from the weaknefs of fecond caufes. No blemífh, or difeafe, which are the effects and footfleps of fin, were tobe found in him. His health was not a frail inconftant difpoGtion, eafïly ruin'd by the jarring elements, but firm and fiable. The humours were in a jufi temperament, to prevent any difiemper which might tend to the diffolution of that excellent frame. Briefly, all the fenfes were quick and lively, able to perform with facility, vigour and delight, their operations. 2. There

inContriving att'fi IflettniptQn, 2. There were convenient Objects, to entertainhis Chap. I. fenftive faculties. He enjoyed Nature in its original Purity, crown'd with thebenedictionof God, before 'twas blafted with the curie. The World was all Harmony and Beauty, becoming the goodnefs of the Creator; and not as 'tis fince the Fall diforder'd and deform'd inmany parts, the effect of his Juftice. The Earth was liberal to Adam of' all its Treatures; the Heavens of their Light, and fweeteft Influences. Hewas feated in Eden, a place of fo great beauty and delight, that it reprefented the Celeflial Paradife which is refrefht with Rivers of Pleafure. And as the ultimate End of the Creatures was to raite his mind, and inflame his heart with the love ofhis great Benefactor; fo their ñrft and natural ufe was the fatisfa&ion of the Senfes, fromwhence the felicity of the Animal Life did proceed. 2. His fupreme Happinefs confifted in the exercife ofhis moft noble Faculties on their proper Obje&s. This will appear by confdering, that as the fpiritual Faculties have objeïls which infinitely excel thole of the fen(itive; fo their capacity is more inlarged, their unionwith ob]eels is more intimate, and their percep- tion is with more quicknefs arid vivacity: and there- by are the greateft infiruments of pleafure to the ra- tional being. Now the higheft Faculties in Man are the Vnder,ftanding andWill, and their happinefs con- fills in unionwith God by Knowledge and Love. r. In the Knowledge of God. As the delire of Knowledge is the molt natural to the humane Soul, fo the obtaining of it produces the molt noble and fweet- eft pleafure. And proportionably to the degrees of excellency that are in objeas, fo much ofrational Per- fe&ion and Satisfaction accrues to the mind by the knowledge of them. The difcovery of the Works of C God

o panmotnp of*Zíbítte Itttrtbttfev, Chap. I. God greatly affe&ed Man, yet the excellencies fcat- ter'd among them are but an imperfe& and mutable fhadowofGod's infinite and unchangeable Perfe&ions. How much more delightful was it to his pure under- {landing, tracing the footfleps and impreffions of God in Natural things, to afcend to him who is the glo- rious Original of all Perfe&ions ? And though his finite underflanding could not comprehend the Divine excellencies, yet his knowledgewas anfwerableto the degrees of Revelation wherein. God was manifefl'ed. He faw the admirable Beauty of the Creator through the tranfparent vail of the creatures. And from hence there arofe in the Soul a pleafure pure, folid and fa- tisfying, a pleafure divine ; for God takes infinitecon- tentment in the contemplationof Hirnfelf. 2. The Happinefs of Man confif}ed in theLove of God. 'Twas not the naked(peculation of the Deity that made him happy, but fuch a knowledge as ravitht his Affe&ions ; For haplíinefs refults from the fruiti- ensof all the Faculties. 'Tis true, that by the media- tion of the underflanding the other Faculties have accefs to an objet`; the Will and Affe&ions can't be enclin'd to any thing, but by vertue of an aE of the mind which propounds it as worthy of them: It fol- lows therefore that when by the difcovery of the tran- feendent excellencies in God, the Soul is excited to love and to delight in Him as its supreme Good , 'tis then really and perfeecly happy. Now as Adam had a perfe& knowledge of God, fo the height of his love was anfwerable to his knowledge, and the compleat- nefs of his enjoyment was according to his Love. All the Divine Excellencies were amiable to him.. The Majefty, Purity, juffice, and power of God, which are the terrour of guilty creatures, fecur'd his happi- nefs whileft he continued in his obedience. His Con- fcience

inConíribing 419'an'otlebettption. Ild fcience was clear and calm, no unquiet fears difcom- Chap. I. pos'd its Tranquillity, 'twas the feat of Innocence r'-J and Peace. Briefly, his love toGod wasperfect, with- a John 4. ,s. out any allay of tormenting fear; and Delight its in- feparableattendant was pure,withoutthe leall mixture ofSorrow. 3. There was in Mans dominion and power over the Creaturesa fhining part ofGod's Image. He was ap- pointed God's Lieutenant in the world, and adorn'd with a Flower of his Crown. God gave him the folemn Invefliture of this dignity, when he brought Pfal. 9. sA 6. the Creatures to receive their names from him, which was a mark of their homage, and a token of his fu- preme Empire to command them by their names. As this Dominion was eflablifht by the order of God, fo 'twas exercifed by the mediation of the Body. In his Face and Words there was fomething fo powerful, as commanded all the hofls of the lower world. And as their fubjealion was moll eafie without. conflraint or refiflance, fo 'twas moth equal without violence and oppreffion. Thus holy and blefl'ed was Adam in his Primitive Elate. And that he might continue fo, he was obliged for ever to obey the Will ofGod, who bellowed up- on him Life and Happinefs. By the firfl negle& of his Duty he would mofl juflly and inevitably incur the lofs of both. This will appear by confidering the delign of God in the Creation : God did not make the Worldand Man for the meer exercife of his Power, and fo left them; but as the produélion of all things was from his GoodneG, fo their refolution and tendency is for his Glory. He is as univerfally thefinal as the efficient caufe of all crea- tures. For that which receives being from another, C 2 ca'n't

2 e patron')cf t eZíbíte 2ttrttutcv, hap. I. can't be an end to it felf: for the previfon of the end L lThr,,,) in the mind of the Creator Pets him a work, and is antecedent to the being of the creature. Therefore Prov, 15. 4. the wifewan tells us, that God made all thingsfor him- xom. II. ;5. felt: And the Apojile, that Ofhim, and to him, and through him are all things : to whom be glory for ever. The lower rank of Creatures objectively glorifie God, as there is a vifible denionftrationof his excellent At- tributes in them : Man is only qualified to know and love the Creator. And as the benefit ofall redounds to him, 'tis his duty to pay the tribute for all. By his mouth the world makes its acknowledgment to God. He is the Interpreter of the filent and uninter- rupted Prailes, which the full wire of Heaven and Pfal. 145,t o. Earth renders to him. 0 Lord, all thy works pram thee, (from the moft noble to the leaft worthy) thy Saints blet thee. Thankfulnefs is the homagedue from underffanding Creatures. And from hence it follows, that Man only was in a (late of moral dependance, and capable of a Law. For a Law being the declaration of the Superiour's Will requiring Obedience, and threatning Punifhment on the failure thereof, there muff be a principle of Reafon and choice in that nature that is govern'd by it, a. To dilcover the Authority that enjoins it. 2. To dilcern the matter of the Law. 3. To determine it felf out of judgment and eleëtion to Obedience, as moft excellent in it felf and advantageous to theperformer. Now all inferiour Creatures aremoved by the fecret force of natural inclinations ; they are infenfible of moral engagements, and are not wrought ovin an illu- minative way by the forefight of rewards and punifh- meats : But Manwho is a reafonable creature owes a Row. ra. 1. reafonable f rvice. And it is impofiible that Man fitould be exempt from a Law ; For as the notionofa God,

ínCoutrtbíngOAfs'0 ifictemption. 3 God, that is, of the firft and fupremeBeing, excludes Chap. I. all poffibility of obligation to _ another, -who hathfirß l..l,T given to the Lord, and it fhall be recompenfed to him Rom. cc.35 again ? and of fubje&ion to a Law ; for fupremacy and fubjedion are incompatible: fo the quality of a Creature includes the relation of dependance, and na- tural fubje&ion to the Will of God. This is moft evident from that common Principle which governs the intelligent Creation: 'Tis a moral Maxime towhich the reafonable nature neceffarily of tints, that the dif- penfing of benefits acquires to the Giver a Right to command, and lays on the Receiver an Obligation to obey:; and theCe rights and duties are meafirred by the nature of the benefits as their jufl Rule. This is vi- fible in that Dominionwhich is amongfl men. If we afcend to thefirf Springs of Humane Laws-,. we (hall find the original Right of Power to arife ei- ther from Generation in Nature, or Prefervation in War, or foirepublic& Good accruing to the Society by the prudent care of the Governour. Now the be- ing and bleflèdnefs ofthe creature are the greatefl and moll valuable benefits that can be received; and in the bellowing of them is laid the moft real foundation of Power and Authority. Upon this account Man who derives his life and felicity fromGod, is under a natural and flrong obligation to comply with his will. From this right of. Creation God alerts his univerfal Dominion: I have made the Earth, and created Man Ifa.45, a 2, . upon it, even my hands havefiretcht out the Heavens, and all their boils have I commanded. And the Pfal-1 Pfau. oe. .: miff tells us, Knowye. that the Lord he is God, it isHe that made us, and not we our f lves ; we are his people and the flaeep ofhis. paflure. His Jurifdidion is groun- ded on his propriety in Man; and "that arifes from his giving being to him : Remember, O Ifrad, for ifa.4421 >, tbon..

14 TACpannortyof theZíúítte 2ittritttto13, Chap. I. thou art my fervant, I have formed thee. From hence _iv' he bath a fupreme Right to impofe any Law, for the performance of which Man had an original power. Uni'erfal Obedience is the juft confequent of our ob- ligations to the Divine Goodnefs. Suppofe that Man were not the work of God's hands, yet the infinite excellency of his nature gives him a better title to command us, than Man bath upon the account of his reafon to govern thofe Creatures that are inferiour to him. Or fuppofe that God had Si plus fit pre- not created the matter of which the Body is com- tii in opere pos'd, but only infpir'd it with a living Soul, yet his quarn in mate- right over us had been unqueftionable. The Civil ria, dominium Law determines, That when an Artificer works on rich eß a¡us qui fpeciem fecif- materials, and the engraving be not of extraordinary feo ; quonis value that the whole belongs to him who is the el, idpprava- owner of the materials : But if the matter be mean, 'mináfua quad and the workmanfhip excellent , in which the price ad fe trahat. wholly lies; as if a Painter fhoulddraw an admirable caftan, Pi&ureon a piece of Canvas, thePi&ure of right be- 7nfli:ut.Juffin. longs to him that drew it. So if according to the er- Plato. rour of fotne Philofophers, the matter of which the World was made had been Eternal, yet God having infufed a reafonable Soul into a piece of clay which is the principle of its life, and gives it a tranfcendent va- lue above all other beings which were made of the fame element, it is molt juft he fhould have a property in him, and dominion over him. TheLawofNature towhich Man was fubje& upon his Creation, contains thofe moral Principles concern- ing good and evil which have an effential equity in them, and are themeafures of his duty to God, to himfelf, and to his fellow creatures. This was pub- kn. 7. 12, lifht by thevoice of Reafon, and is holy,ju.ft andgood : Holy, as it enjoins thofe things wherein there is a con- formity

i> Contrïtfng Ottreo bcmptíon formity to thofe Attributes and Anions of God which Chap. I. are the patternof our imitation fo thegeneral Rule L.."--vm, is, Reholy, as God is holy, in all manner of converfa- r Pet, r. as.. tien; and this is moft honourable to the humane na- ture. 'Tis juft, that is, exa&ly agreeable to the frame of mans faculties, and moft fuitable to his condition in the world. And good, that is, beneficial to the ob- ferver of it ; In !¿keeping ofit there is great reward. P(al. rg. sr- And the obligation to it is eternal; it being the un- changeable will of God, grounded on the natural and unvariable relations between God and Man, and be- tween Manand the Creatures. Befides the particular dire&ions of the Law of Na- ture, this general Principle was planted in the reafo- nable Soul, to obey God in any inftance wherein he did prefcribe his pleafure. Moreover, God was pleafed to enter into a Cove- nant with Adam, and with all his Pofterity naturally defcending from him. And this was the effe&, I. Of admirable Goodnefs : For by his Supremacy over Manhe might have fignified his Will meerly by theway of Empire, and required Obedience; But he was pleated to condefcend fo far as to deal with Man . in a Tweeter manner as with aCreature capable of his Love, andtowork uponhim by rewards and punifh- ments congruoufly to the reafonable Nature. 2. Of Wifdom to fecure.Man's obedience : For the Covenant beinga mutual engagement between God and Man, asit gave him infallible ofurance of the reward to ftrengthen his Faith, fo it was the fureft bond to pre- ferve his Fidelity. 'Tis true the Precept alone binds by vertue of the authority that impofes it, but the coulent of the Creature increafes the Obligation; it twills the cords of the Law and, binds more ftrongly to,

6 e 1 a monp oftie Mine tttíbuteV, Cha L toObedience. Thus Adam was God's fervant as by the conditionof his nature, fo by his choice, accept- ing the Covenant from which he could not recede without the guilt and infamy of the worft perfidi- oufiiels. The terms of the Covenant were becoming the Par- ties concern'd, God and Man; It eflablifhed an infe- parable Connexion betweenDuty and Felicity. This Gen. 2. 17. appears by the Sanélion, In the day thoueatef of the forbiddenfruit, thou f alt die: In that particular fpe- cies of Sin the whole gentle is included ; according to Gal. 3. Io. the Apofile's Expofìtion : curfed is every one that cloth not continue in all the works of the Law to do them. The threatning of Death was expreff, it being more difficult to be conceiv'd : The promife of Life upon his Obedience was implied, and eafìly fuggefted it felt to the rational Mind. Thefe were the moll proper and powerful motives to excite his Keaton, and a$è& his Will. For Death primarily fignifies the diffolu- tion of the vital union between the Soul and Body, and confequently all the preparatorydifpofitions there- unto; Difeafes, Pains, and all the Affeítions of Mor- tality, which terminate in Death as their renter. This is theextremeft oftemporal Evils, which innocent Na- ture fhrunk from, it being a deprivationof that excel- lent {late which Man enjoyed. But principally it fig- nified the feparation of the Soul from God's reviving pretence, who is the onlyFountain ofFelicity. Thus Ezek. 8. 4. the Law is interpreted by theLaw -giver, the Soul that fins(hall die. Briefly, Death in the threatning is com- prehenfve of all kinds and degrees of evils, from the leaft Pain to the compleatnefs ofDamnation. Now 'tis an 'inviolable Principle deeply fet in the Humane Nature, to preferve its being and blefednefs; fo that nothing -could be a more powerful refiraint from Sin

nt Contain 9,an' 3ReDemptlom 7 Sin than the fear of Death which is deflru&ive to Chap. I. both. This conflitution of the Covenant was founded not only in theWill ofGod, but in the natureof the things themfelves: And this appears by conildering, T. That Holinefs is more excellent in it felf, and feparately confidered, than the reward that attends it. 'Tis the peculiar glory of the Divine Nature, God is glorious in Holinef . And as He prefers the infinite purity of his Nature, before the immortal felicity of his State; fo he values in the reafonable Creature the Vertues by which they reprefent his Holinefs, more than their perfeël Contentment by which they are like Him inBleffednefs. Now God is the moll juft efleemer of things, his judgment is the infallible meafure of their real worth ; 'tis therefore according tonatural order that the Happinefs of Man thould depend up- on his Integrity, and the Reward be the fruit of his Obedience. And though it is impoffible that a meer Creature in what fiate foever, fhould obtain any thing fromGod by any othertitle but his voluntary Promife the effeët of his Goodnefs ; yet 'twas Inch Goodnefs as God was invited to exercife by the confideration ofMan's obedience. And as the neglec`.t of his Duty had dif- charged the Obligation on God's part, fo the per- formance gave him a claim by right of the Promife to everlafling Life. 2. As the firft part of the alliance was moll reafo nable, fo was the fecond, that Death fhould be the wages of Sin. It is not conceivable that God thould continue his favour toMan, if he turn'd Rebel againít Him : For this were to difarm the Law, and expofe the Authmty of the Law-giver to contempt, and would reilecrt upon the Wifdom of God. Betides, If D the

>< s 31:0e parmonp ettbe Attríbttíeo, Chap. I. the reafonable Creature violates the Law, it neceflà- #'v- .J rily contra&s an obligation to puni(hment. So that if the Sinner who deferves death (hould enjoy life, with- out fatisfa&ion for the offence, or Repentance to qualifie him for pardon, ( both which were without the compafs of the, rill Covenant) this would infringe the unchangeable rights of Juftice, anddifparage the Divine Purity. In the first Covenant there was a fpecial claufe, which refpe&ed Man as the- inhabitant of Paradif, Gen. z. 17. that he (hould not eat of the Tree of Knowledge ofgood and evil upon pain of Death. And this Prohibition was upon molt wife and juf reafons. T. To declare God's Sovereign Right in all things. In the quality of Creator he is supreme Lord. Man enjoyed nothing but by a derived title fromhis Bounty and Allowance, and with an obligation to render to him the Homage of all. As Princes when they give Elates to their subjecis, Rill retain the Royalty, and receive a'fmall Rent, which though inconfiderable in its value, is an acknowledgment of dependance upon them: So when God placed Adam in Paradife, he refer- ved this mark of hisSovereignty, that in the free ufe of all other things Man Ihould ab(tain from the forbid- denTree. Yn minimis o- 2. To make trial of Man's Obedience in a matter bedientiæ pe- very congruous to difcover it. If the Prohibition had grounded any on nt egiílato- m fact- been moral internal' evil in the na- res, quia Le- ture of the thing it Pelf, there had not been fo clear bdoris ad am a teftimon of God's Dominion, nor ofAdam's Sub ebflgantts je&ion to it. But when that which in. it Pelf was in- eft aben- different , became unlawful meerly by the Will of da eft ratio, quam rei de God, and when theCommand hadno other excellency eft, tex it but to make his Authority_ more facred; this was a confining ofMan's liberty,aud to abftain waspure Obe- dience. Betides,

ni Contain sr An'O3aeD¢mptt®li. ig Betides, The reftraint was from that which was ve- Chap. I. ry grateful and alluring to both the partsof Mans corn- iV'1J pounded Nature. The SenfitiveAppetite is ftrongly excited by the Luit of the Eye; and this fruit being beautiful to the fight, the forbearance was an excellent Gen, 3.6. exercife of vertue in keeping the lower appetite in obedience. Again, The delire of Knowledge is ex- tremely quick and eareft, and in appearance molt worthy of the rational Nature; Nuilsra animofuavior Lactan. cibua, 'Tis the molt high and lufcious food of the Soul. Now the Tree of Knowledge was forbidden; So that the obfervanceof the Law was the more eminent, in keeping the intellecInal Appetite in Mediocrity. In fhort, God required Obedience as a Sacrifice. For the Prohibition being in a matter of natural Pleafure, Obfequii gl- and a curb to Curiofity, which is the Luft and Con- maj c,quod cupifcence of the Mind after things conceal'd ; by a quis minus reverent regard to it, Man preferited his Soul and Body "lit. P[,n. toGod as a living Sacrifice, which was his reafonable Rom. s2. t fervice, Da CHAP.

20 37.,be Parmonv of ttje Zibúle tttrctiutt , Chap. 11. CHAP.II. Man's Naturalfiat was mutable. The Devil, moved by hatred andenvy, attempts to feduce him. The Tem- ptation wasfuitable to Mans compounded Nature. The Woman beingdeceived, perfwades her Husband. The quality of the firfr Sin. Many were combin'd in it. 'Twas perfealy voluntary. Manhad Power to ffand. The Devil could only allure, not compel him, His Vnderflanding and Will the califes of his Fall. The punifhment was of the fame date with his Sin. He forfeited his Righteoufnefs and Felicity. The loft of original Righteoufnefs, as it lignifies the purity and liberty of the Soul. The torment of Confcience that was confequent to Sin. A whole Army ofEvils enter with it into the World. AAAN was created perfealy holy, but in a natu- ral, therefore mutable frate. He was invefred with power to prevent his Falling; yet under a pof fibility of it. He was compleat in his own order, but receptive of finful imprefíìons. An invincible Perfe- verance in Holinefs belongs to a fupernatural frate;. 'tis the priviledge of Grace, and exceeds the defign of the firfl Creation. The rebellious Spirits, who by a furious ambition had railed a war in Heaven, and were fallen from their obedience and glory, defigned to corrupt Man, and to make him a companion with them in their re- volt. The moil fubtile amongft them fats about this work, urgedby two thong paffìons, Hatredand Envy. r. By Hatred. For being under a final and irrevo- cable Doom, he lookt on God as an irreconcileable Enemy : And not being able to injure his Effence, he. firuck

¡ti containMan', 3Rebcrnptt®tt. ` ftruck at his Image: As the fury of force beafts dif- Chap. II. charges it felfupon the Piaure of a Man. He Tingled out ddarn as the mark of his malice , that by fedu- cing him from his Duty, he might defeat God's de- fign, which was to be honoured by Man's free obe- dience, and fo obfcure his Glory as if He had madeMan . in vain. 2. He was follicited byEnvy, theTiroNative of Hell For having loft the favour of God, and being caft out of Heaven the Region of Joy and Bleí%dnefs, the fight of Adam's Felicity exafperated his Grief. That Man who by the condition of his nature was be- lowhim, (Mould be Princeof the world, whilft he was a Prifoner under thole chains which reftrain'd and tormented him, the power and wrath of God, this made his {late more intolerable. His torment was in- capable of allay, but by rendering man as miferable as himfelf. And as hatred excited his envy, fo envy in- flam'd his hatred,and both joyn'd inmifchief. And thus putht on, his Subtilty being equal to his Malice, he contrives a Temptation which might be moft taking and dangerous to Man in his railed and happy fiate. He attempts himwith art, by propoundingthe lure of Knowledge and Pleafure, toinveigle the spiritual and senftive Appetites at once. And that he might the better fücceed, he addreffes to the Woman the weak- eft and moft liable to fedu&ion. He hides himfelf in the body of a Serpent, which beforeSin Was not ter- rible unto her : And by this inftrument infinuates his Temptation. He firfl allures with the hopes of im- punity, re fall not die; thenhe promifeth an univer- fal knowledge of goodand evil. By thefe pretences he ruin'd Innocence it felf. For the Woman deceived by thole fpecious Alleiives, fwallowed the poifon_of the Serpent, and having tatted Death the perlwaded her.

442 5:tepannartpof meZíñine2iíírgbut¢o, Chaff of their bCd bor. ThusSin enter'd ndbrought con- fufion into the World. For the moral Harmony of the World confifting in the juft fubordination of the leveral ranks of beings to one another, and of all to God ; When Man who was placed next to God, broke the Union, his Fall brought a defperate diforder into God'sGovernment. And though the matter of the Offence feems fmalI, yet the Difobedience was infinitely great; it being the tranfgreffion of that command, which was given to be the inflance and real proof of Mans fubje&ion to 2caul, God. Totam legem violavit in illo legalis obedientice precepto. The Honour and Majefly of the whole Law was violated in the breach of that fymbolicalPrecept. 'Twas a dire& andformal Rebellion, a publick renun- ciation ofObedience, an univerfal Apoftafie fromGod, and change ofthe laft End, that extinguifht the habit of original righteoufnefs. Many Sins were combin'd in that tingle a&. t. Infidelity: This was the firfl flep to ruine. It appears by the order of the Temptation : 'twas firfl faid by the Devil Te fhall not die, to weaken their Faith ; then re (hall be like gods, to flatter their ámbi- tion. The fear of Death would have controuled the efficacy of all his Arguments; till that reflraint was broke, he could faflen nothing upon them. This ac- a Tim 2.14. count the Apoflle gives of the Fall; The woman being deceiv'd, was in the tranfgrefon. As Obedience is the effe&of Faith, fo Difobedienceof Infidelity : And as Faith comes by hearing the Word of God, fo Infi- delity by liflening to the words of the Devil. From the deception of the Mind proceeded the depravation of the Will, the intemperance of the Appetite, and the defection of the whole Man. Thus as the natu- ral,

23 ral, fo the fpiritual Death made its entrance by Chap. H. the*Eye. And this Infidelity is extremely aggravated, L -- -- j as it implies an accufation of God both of Envy and Primi in ho- Falihood. mine moriun-. tur oculia.Ptin. r. Of Envy ; As if he had deny'd them the perfeai- ons becoming the humane Nature; and they might afcend to a higher orb than that wherein they were placed, by eating the forbidden fruit. And what greater difparagement could there be of the Divine Goodnefs, than to fufpec& the Deity of Inch a low and bate Paillon , which is 'the fpecial charaCter of the Angels of Darknefs ? 2. 'Twas equally injurious to the honour of God's Truth. For it is not eafy to conceive that Adamwho was fo lately the effeet of God's Omnipotence should prefently diítruít it as unable to inflict the,punilhment threatned, but his aflent was weakened as, to the truth of the threatning : He did not believe the danger to be fogreat or certain upon his Difobedience. And he that believes not God, makes him a Liar. An impiety r John 5.16. not to be thought on without horror. And that which heightens theaffront, is, that when he diftrufted the Fountain of Truth, he gave credit to the Father of Lies; as appears by his compliance the real evi- denceof his Faith. Now what viler contumely could be offered to theCreator ? 2. Prodigious Pride. He was fcarce out of the the promife of Rate of nothing, no fooner created, but he afpir'd to lßaibÿ`j ,ntd be as God. Not content with his Image, he affeCed notdie,encon- anequality, to be like him in his inimitable Atributes, bef,e ehi that he He would rob God of his Eternity to live without fhou2d enjoy an end ; ofhis Sovereignty, tocommand without depen- Immortality, dance ; of his LWifdome, to know all things without on cod, wilt, referve. Infinite Infolence ! and worthy of the molt but abfotuae;. fiery indignation! That Man, the Son of the Earth which it proper , to God alone. forgetful.

4 0eDamon') time Zíbmne2fttributeZ, Chap. II. forgetful of his Original, fhould ufurp thePrercgatives Li^vN.) which are effential to the Deity, and fet up himfelf a real Idol, was a ftrain of that arrogancy which corrup- ted the Angels. 3. Horrid Ingratitude. He was appointed Heir ap- Præceprum de parent of all things ; yet undervaluing his prefent por- uno cibi gene- tiOn, he entertains a propel of improving his Happi- re non eden- nefs. The excellent 'late newly conferr'd upon him do ubi aliorum tanta copia was a ftrong obligation to pay fo fmall an acknow- íubjacebar,ram ledgment to his Lord. The ufe ofall the Garden was ,:aw ad obrer- allowed to him, only a Tree excepted. Now in the vanum, tam breve adme mldfl of fuch varietyand plenty, to be ínflam'd with morif retinen- the intemperate appetite of the forbidden Fruit, and Aura, ubi præ- P PP ertim no to break a Command fo equal and eafie, what was it dum voluntati but a defpifing the rich Goodnefs of his great Bene- cupiditas re- íifìebar,tanto faalor? Befides, Man was endued with a diviner Spirit majori injufti- than the inferiour order of Creatures : Reafon and of violatum eft, qun N. Liberty were the fpecial priviledges of his Nature, ciliori pofTet and to abufe them to Rebellion renders him as more obfervantif unreafonable, fo more difingenuous than theCreatures caftodiri. Ang. de civic. below him, who inflexibly obey the Will of God. Del lib, 14. v,.. The vifible Contempt of God's Majefty, with a fighting his Juftice. For the Prohibition was fo exprefs and terrible, that till he had caft off all refpeas to the Law-giver, 'twas not poffible he fhould venture to dif- obey him. The Sin of Adam is therefore called by Rom. 5.14. the Apoftle, Difobedience, as eminently fuck ; it be- ing the firfi and higheft inftance of it, and virtually a breach of all theLaws at once in that contempt of the Law giver. 'Twas the prophanation ofParadife it felf, the place of God's fpecial prefence : There he fell, and trampled on God's Command before his face. What juft caufe of afionifhment is it, that a reafonable Creature fhouldbid openDefiance to the Author of its Life ! That a little breathing duff fhould contemn its Crea-

In Cflntrtbtng tleDemptt®n, 25 Creator ! That Man fhould prefer fervile compliance Chap. IL to the will of the Tempter, before free fubjeition to his Father and Sovereign ! To depofe God and place the Devil in his Throne, was double Treafon, and pro- vok'd his infinite jealoufie. 5. Unaccountable and amazing Folly. What a de- fpicable acquifition tempted him out of Happinefs ! If there had been any pof bible comparifon between them, the choice had been moreexcufable. But that the pleafures of Tafle andCuriofìty fhould outvie the fa- vour of God which is better thanLife, that the mofI pernicious evil gilded with the thin appearance of good fhould be preferr'd before the fubftantial and fupreme Good, is the reproach of his R.eafon and makes the choice fo criminal. And what lets than voluntary Madnefs could encline him to defire that, which he ought infinitely to have fear'd, that is, the knowledge of evil ? for nothing could deflroy his Happinefs but the experience of Evil. What but a wilful di.flrac`lion could induce him to believe, that by defacing God's image he fhould become more like him ? Thus Man being in honour, but without under- Ptal. 49.12. (landing, became like thebealh that perifh. 6. Abloody cruelty to himfelf, and all his Poflerity. When God had made him a depoftary in a matter of infinitemoment, that is, of his own Happinefs, and all mankinds, this fhould have been a powerful motive to have kept him vigilant : But giving a ready ear to the Tempter, he betrai'd his truf}, and at once breaks both the Tables of the Law, and becomes guilty of thehighefi Impiety and Cruelty. He was a Murderer before a Parent, hédifinheritedall his Children before they wereborn,andmade them Slaves before they knew the price of Liberty. And that which increafes themalignity of this Sin, È and

25 to AtntonWoîtt)e Oébíne Ita.ibutc53 Chap. II. and adds an infinite emphafis to it, is, that 'twas per- ,- fe&ly voluntary, his Will was the foie caufe of his Fall. And this is evident by confidering; z. That Adam innocent had a fufficient power to perfevere in his holy State. There was no fubflra&i- Deferuit on of any Grace which was requifite tohis fland;ng; defertus'eft. He left God before he was forfaken by Him. Much Aug. lets was there any internal impulfion fromGod. 'Tis incontinent with the Divine Purity to encline the Creature to fin: As God cannot be tempted to evil, neither tempts he any man. Tis injurious to his War dom to think that God would fpoil that work, which he had compos'd with fomuch defign and counfel. And 'tis difhonourable to his Goodnefs 5 He loved his Crea- ture, and Love is an inclination to do good; 'twas imponible therefore for God to induce Man to fin, or towithdraw that power which was neceffary to refill the Temptation, when the confequent muff be his in- evitable ruine. Inmerit& ex- 2. The Devil did only allure, he could not ravifh aminanda ve- his confent. Though his malice is infinite, yet his qux mpulír, I" Gaufa quæ power is fo reftrain'd that he can't fallen animmediate, eaufa qux re- much lets an irrefiflible impreflion on the Will : he Ír, Qerfonæ trauere ur- thereforemade ufe of an External Obje& to invitehim. idonietas ad Now objeîtts have no confiraining force, they are but utrumque. partial Agents, and derive all their efficacy from the Grot. Faculties towhich they are agreeable. Andalthough fi_nce Sin bath difordered the flefh, there is difficulty in refitting thofe objeUs which pleafantly infinuate * Quantòpo. themfelves; yet fuch anuniverfal re&itude was in Adam, tan vitandt and fo entire a fubje&ion in the fenfual Appetite to fuit faeilicr, cantò contu- the fuperiour power of Keafon, that he might have macìæ crimine obtain'd an k eafie conqueft. A refolute Negativehad oneratur. fic;iium faciliis made him vi lorious : by a ftrong Denial he had baf- venía.Terrxt, fled that proud Spirit. As the Heavenly Adam, when 1. 2. ad utter , he,