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·. A V I 0 F THE C 0 V EN ANT . of GRA C E I ' FROM THE ·-S.ACRED RECORDS: .- WHEREIN The·,p A. R T 1 E s in that COVENANT, · the MAKING of it, its PAll T s Con– ·ditionary and Promijfory, and the An M 1 N I s T R A T 1 o N thereof, are d'iftintl:ly confidered : __ ' Together with . The TRIAL of a faving Perfonal IN·BEJNG in it, and the WAY 'oflNsTATING Sinners therein unto thei Eternal Salvation. To which is fubjoift'd, A MEMORIAL concerning Perfonal and f'ami!y Fafling and HumiliatiQn, prefented to SAINT• and S.INNERS. ----· ---~---------... ,i-1.'~ By the late Rev.erend and Learned Mr. THOMAs BosToN, J!Iinifler of the Go.JPel at Ettrick. -:------·---------·-- , · G L A S . Q 0 IV, Printed by WILLIAM DUNCANSen. an~ fold at his Shop itl Gibfon's Land, Salt~market•. M.J)CC,,Lv..

AD VERT l .S EMENT. T H I S Trea'tife and the Memorial I . • adjoin'd, being Pofthutnous Works ofn1y Father's, I thought it nece~ary to teftify to the World, that they are .pub– liihed as he left them, being printed from his own !yianufcript, prepared for the , Prefs, without any Addition or Altera– tion whatfoever. ' THOMAS .BosToN~ r, .. -# ' .. . ' . I -· ,.;,,..":,., . .... :·. . . ........... ,.~. .. ,. . ' . I .

( I ) -------------------------·---~--~-- · A V I E \V , OF THE Co v 1 N A N T -of G R A C E, &c. ' ---------·---------- ... · PsALM Ixxxix. ~· l have made a qovenant with my Chofeno I C 0 R. XV. 45· The !a/1 Adam was made a quickhing Spirit. As 1\;fan's ru~Jil was 'originally owing to the br~a. king of the covenant of works, fo his recovery, fi·mn . the firfi to the lafi fiep thereof, is owing purely rothe fulfilling of the covenant ofgrace; which cove· - nant, bdng that ':\'herein the whole myfiery of our falvation lies, I am to effay the opening of, as the Lord fhall be pleafed rto affifl:. And there is the moi·e need ofhumhle dependence on the Father of lights, through Jefus Chrifl: his S'on, for the manifefiation of his Spirit , in this .qlatter; that, whereas the firfi eovenant i$· known in part, by the light ofnatut"'e, the knowledge of this fe.cond is owing enti,rely to revelation. · 'Twas from this cov~nan t the Pfalmiji in the verfe itnmediately preceeding thefirfl: text, took a comforta– · ble view of a glorious bui/di?zg, in£dlib1y going up in, the midfl: of ruins ; even a building of mercy ; ' For l have faid, ~ercy ih11ll be built up for ever;" the . :: A 2 grou11d .

2 A Vi~w · of the . ground of which confident aifertion is, in our text, pointed oufto be God's covenant with hischrifen. From the type o(tl~e covenant of Grace, namely, the cove– nant of royalty made with David, .he faw a building up ofmercy for. the royal family of Judah, whet} they were brought exceeding low. From the fobjldnce of i t, he faw a building ofmercy for finners ofmankind, who were laid in t:uins by. the breach of the fidl: cove– nant. T 'hjs is that 1lew buildin.g which free grace fet on foot for us; into which they that believe are infian– tly, thereupon, ' received, and where, mice received, they fuall dweH for ever: a building of mercy, in which every ftone, from the bottom to the top,, from the foundation· Hone to the cope-ftone, is pure mercy, ,rich and free mercy to us. · Ofthis building ofmercy, I !hall drop a few words. And (r.) Theplan ofit was d,rawo from all eternity, in the council of the Trinity : for it i-s 'accordin-g to the eternal purpole purpoled in Jefus Chrifi,' Eph. iii ~ I 1. The objells ofmercy, the time andplace, the way and means, of conferring it on them, were defigned particularly, before man was miferable, ·yea ' before he was at all. (2.) 1~he Builder is God himlelf, the Fa· ther, Son, and holy Ghofi, 1 Cor: iii. 9· 'Ye are ,God.'s bu~lding.' All hand~ of the g'1orio"\]s Trinity are at work in this buildi~:g: the Father choft the objecb of mercy' and gave them to the so-n to be redeemed; the Sonpurchafed redemption for them,; and the holy Ghofiapplies the purchafed redemption unto them; but · it is fpecialJy attributed to the Son, on the accopnt of his fingular agency in the work, Zech. vi. 12: 'Be– hold the man whofe name is the BRANCH.-,-H& Ihall • build the temple of the Lord: Ver. 13. Even liE · the temple of the Lord, and· HE !hall bear · the glory.' (3.) The foundatio.n was laid deep in the eternal ~ounfel; beyond the reach of the eyes ofmen or angels. Paul confidering it, cries our, ' ·o the depth ! Rqm. xi. 33· For who hath known the miud ·· of

Cr;venant of Grace. 3 · ef the Lord ? Or who hath been his c;ounfeller ?~ Ver. 34·. (4.) 'Tis more than five thoufand ,yeai·s fince this building rofe above ground. "And the firft fl:one of it that appeared, was a promift, a promife.~f ' a Saviour, m'ade in paradife, after the fall, Gen. ~~·· 15. nainely, that the/eed of the woman !hould br.uife the head of the ferpent. Here was mercy. And - . mercy-was laid upon mercy : upon promijing mercy was laid quickning mercy, whereby our lofi firfi pa– rents were enabled to believe the promife : and upon quickliing mercy was laid pardoning mercy to them; .and upon that again.fanBifying and eflablijhingmer– cy, and at length glorifying mercy. (5.) The ce171ent is blood, the blood of jefus Chriil the :Mediator,which is the blood of Go,d, Acrs xx. 28. No H1ving mercy , . for finners could conjifi, ner could one mercy ly firm up~ another in the building, without being cemenJ. ted with that precious blood : but by it the whole building confifis, and fianqs firm for ever. Heb. ix. 22, l3. arld vii: 24, 25. (6.) Ever · fince the time it appeared above ground, -it has beengoing on. And many hands have been employ'd, to ferve in carrying on the wotk: in the firfi ages · of the world, l?atri- - . archs were employ'd kit, fuch as Adam, Enoch and Noah; in the middle ages, prophets, priefls, and Le– vites ; in thefe the lafi ag~s, the apojlleJ, and other extr:aordinary officers, and ·ordinary miniflers of th~ . gofpel. Great has been the oppofrtion made to the · builq~ng from the beginning, by Satan ::md his agents, both m the way of violence and deceit : yet has it all along been· going on fiill. And now 'tis come far above mid.·height; 'tis drawing towards the top and · the time when the Jaft fioq.e thall be laid thereon~: for . 'ti~. evident, we are fa~ advanced in ' the days of the vote: of the fev~nth angel,' wherein the myflery of G~d 1s to ?e ji12ijhed, Rev. x. 7. (7.) The ropejione Will be latd on 1t, at the Jafr day; at which time the promife will receive its full accompli!hmen!, in the · A 3 .'CQffi w

4 A _View r;f the complete fnlvation of all the objects of m.rrcy, then to 'be advanced ' unto the meafure of the fiarure of thefulnefsofChrift.' Eph. iv. 13. Inthatday our L.ord Jefus Chrill:, the great builder, 'fhall bring forth the head fione thereof with ilioutings,' even the laH: andcrowning mercy,faying, 'Come, ye blelfed of my Father, inherit the kingdom prepared for you from the foundation of ' the world.' And then ihall they dwell in the buildif,lg of mercy perfetl:ed, and fil;g of mercies for ever ~md ever. Lafl!y, The foundat-ion on which it fl:ands, is a firm one. 'Tis peceff.·u·y, that it b~ fo : for a bqilding of mercy to Jinners, from a hiJly jufl God, is a building of huge weight ; more weighty than the whok fa brick of heaven and earth·: nnd if it lhould fall, all is ruined a fecond time, with– out any more hope of relief. But it is a fure foundati.. on, berng God's everlafiing covenant; · ' I haveof it. 1nade a covenant with my cho(en.' · In which words, together with the fecond text, there are four thipgs to be confidered. I. The- founda· tion on which the building of mercy fiands ; to w~t, 'A covenant. IT. The Parties-contratlers in that eo.. venant. III. The making of it. An cl IV. The nature I. The foundation, on which the building of mercy flands, is a cove-nant, a Divine coven(lnt, a fure one. The fir.ll: building for man's h'}ppinefs was a building 1of bounty of goodnds ; but not of mercy: for man was not in mifery, when it was a rearing up. And it was founded ori a covenant too ; namely, 9n the eo· venant of works, ·-m'lde with the firfl: Adam: but he broke the covenant, and the whole building tumbled dow'n in an ·infl:ant. But this is another cov~nant, and of another nature. In the type indeed and :(hadow, 'ds the cov~nant of royalty with Dav'id, 2 Sam. vii. · J 1.-----r7. which was a foundation of mercy to bis family, fecuring the (::ontinuance of it, and that as a royal family. Howbeir, in the anti type and truth, 'ds the covenant of gr~ce, the 'ovenarJ;t of eter~~-l hf~

Cevenant of Grace. l · of the Lord ? Or who hath been his c;ounfeller !$' Ver. 34·. (4.) 'Tis more than .five thoufand •yeai·s fince this building rofe above grr.mnd. Arid the firfr fione ofit that appeared, was a promift, a promife.~f ' a Saviour, made in paradife, after the fall, 9en. m .. 15. namely, that the feed ofthe woman fhou~d b'r:_uife the head of the ferpent. Here was mercy. And mercy-was laid upon mercy : upon promijing mercy was laid quickning mercy, whereby our lofi firfi pa– rents were enabled to believe the promife : and upon · quickliing ·mercy was laid pardoning mercy to them ; .and upon that again /anBifying and eflab~ijhing mer– cy, and at length glorifying mercy. (5.) The ce?Jfent is blood, the blood of jefus Chrifi the :Mediator,which is the blood of Go,d, Acts xx. 28. No f?iving mercy , for finners could conjifi, ne>r cou1d one mercy ly firm up~ another in the building, without being cemenJ. ted with that precious blood : but by it the whole building confifis, and fiancJs firm for ever. Heb. ix .. 22, l3. ari.d vii: 24, 25. (6.) Ever · fince the time it appeared above ground, .it has beengoing on. And many hands have been em,ploy'd, to ferve in carrying on the wotk: in the firfi ages · of the world, ,Patri- - archs were employ'd k it, fuch as Adam, Enoch and Noah; in the middle ages,. prophets, priefls, and Le– vites ; in thefe the lafl: ages, the apojlleJ, and other extt:aordinary officers, and ·ordinary miniflers of th~ gofpel. Great has been the oppofrtion made to the builq~ng from the beginning, by Satan and his agents, both m the way of violence and deceit : yet has it all along been· goihg on fiill. And now 'tis come far above mid·'height; 'tis drawing towards the top and the time when the Jah: fioq.e thall be laid thereon~: for . 'ti~ evident, we are fa~ advanced in ' the days of the VOle: of the fev~nth angel,' wherein the myflery of G~d IS to ~e jillijhed, Rev. x. 7. (7.) The r;opejione w1ll be latd pn It, at the Jafr day; at which time the promife will receive its full accompli!hmen!, in the . A 3 .'COffi "'

6 1 A View of the., Jelves ; unlefs another take the burden upon him for them, there's no ·remedy in the cafe: they cannot choofe fuch an one for themfelves ; I'll make a choice (or them, and make the covenant with my_chofen. (2.) On man's fide then is God's Chojen, or chofen On~, for the word is fingular. This · chifen One, in the type, the covenant of royalty, is David; but .in the anti type, the · covenant of grace, 'tis the Son of Go.d, the lafl: Adam, even Chrill the Chofen ofGod,' Luke xxiii. 35· The trnth is, fuch great things ~re faid ofthe party with whom this .covenant w~s made, of his feed, and of the efficacy of this ~ovenant, as· <;an fully agree ·to none but ~hrifi and , his . fpiritual feed, ver. 4, 27, 29, 36, 37• The roya-l family of : Judah the houfe of David, never recov~red their an~ cien;t fplendor, after the Babylontjh captivity; with a view to which ~ime, this Pfalm feems to have been penned : their kingdom is extinB: many ages ago; and the grandeur 'of that family, accerding to the fleth, is quite funk. But the promife made to David, in the covenant ofroyalty, fiill floarifheth, and will flourilh for ever in Jefus Chrifr, the top.. branch .of the family . ofDavid. · How then can it be, but that, in theper• petua! buildingofmercy, mentioned ver. 2. and the ·· '.;e}iab!ijhment of David's fted, and . ' building up his throne to all generations,' ver. 4· Chri!r himfelf is chiefly aimed at? And indeed, fie only was thf;! mighty 1 • One, fit for, the va!l: undertaking in this covenant, ver. 19: and him the Father points q_ut to us, .as his eleCJ · or chojeri One, -Ifa. xlii. I. · ·' IJJ. As to the mahing of this covenant between the contracring parties; the Father made i.t wit~ 'his own ·son, ' I have made a covenant with my chofen :' and that, ' before the world began,' Tit. i. 2. l?Y theiJ; mutual agreement thereto, this covenant was · com– .pletely made from ete.rnity; even as the covenant ?f I works, with the firfi Adam, was, before we ~ere 111 being. The original text calls it cutting off a covenant; ',•

. ' I Covt,ltmt of Grace. 5 life ·and fal~ation to finners, the fpir~tual fled of the Head thereof, to be given them in the way o( free grace and mercy, Pfalm lxxxix. 2, 4, 29, 36: and ·in which they are freed from the curfe, fo that it can– not reach. the,m, notwitbfianding of their failures s. but the 'Lord deals with them as his children .frill, tho' offending children, ver'. 30, 33 : and all, by the . means of Jefus Chriil: the Saviour, the mighty On~, ver. 19. This is the founpation of the \.V hole building of mercy to finners, in their low ~fiatc, · into which they wer.e brought by Adam's fall. The rev;elation, _promulgatio'ri, and offer made unto the fon ~ of men, of t~is covenant which lay hid in the depths of the eternal counfel 9 is cal}ed the :go(Pel; the glad tidings of a new covenant, for life and Jalvation to finners. · II. The partio-contraClers in this co,{enanr, · are God and his chofen~ the !aft Adam : for 'tis evident,. .. from the natur€ of the things here fpoken, ver. 3; 4· and fi-om 2 Sarn. vii . 8. that thefe words, ' I have ' made a .covenant with my chofen,' are t·he Lord's own words. Both heaven and earth are concerned in this covenant; for it was a covenant of peace between them : •and accordingly, the interefis of bmh are feen to, hy the parties-contracrers . (1 .) On Heaven's fide ; is God himfelf, the par ty propoftr of the covenant; ' I have m·ade a covenan t with my chofen .' He was . • the offended party: yet the motion for a covenant of peace comes from him; a certain ind ic'ation of the goodwillofthe whole glorious Triility, towards tbe recovery oflofi !inners. The G od and Fatber of our LorJ Jefus Chriil, the Father of mercies, beholding a lofi world ; his mercy feeks a vent, that it may be fl10wn to the miferable : butjuflice fiands in the way of the egref~ and building of mercy, without there be a covenant whereby it may be l1ti sfied. Then f~ith the F~ther, T~e fidl: covenant will not fer ve the pur– pofe of mercy, there mufi be a new bar!lain : but the Jofi creatures .blave no thing left, to cont~?,:ct. for them~ ' ' A 4 · fdvcs;

a .Jf Piew t;fthe ·this difterenc~, to wit, that the firft was for life in perfection to upright man having .life before; the Se– tond, for life in perfeCl:iqn to £nful man legally and morally dead. The parties contracted. for, in this fe· tond covenant, wc;-re confidered as under the bands af death, abfolurely void of life ; a'1d therefore utterly incapable to act for helping themfelves. They lay like . dry bones, fcattered about the grave's mouth, before the parties·contratlers ; jufiice forbidding to give thini .life, but upon terms confifient with, and\becoming its hot1our,. :· 3· The condition of the covenant, the terms pf that · life, agreed to .by the reprefentative, is implied in that he was the lafi Adam, namely, to go through witf.L · what the firfi Adam had fiuck in. 'Adam, in the cove- . nant of works,fiurnbleJ in the courfe ofhis obedience, · and fell ; and by his fall was quite diC1bled to begin ' it anew; he thereby came·nnder the penalty of th<\t c0venan t aHo, but was utterly unable to difcharge it. So the la(r Adam come!> in the room of the firfi, not as the fidl: /tdam fiood in his integrity ;. for' in that cafe, pthere was no place for a n~cond Adam; but, as he lay ' a broken man under the firfl: bargain. And . coming in his, in this cafe, his. bufinefs was, tu fJ.tisfy the demands of the firfi covenant, in behalf of ·his feed. Thefe demands were now run up high, quite beyond what they were to innocent Adam: the penalty was become payable, as well as the principal fum. \Vherefore, the firfl: covenant being ingrofs'd in the feconJ, is declared broken ; and the principal 2-nd penalty being fumm'd up togetl1er, the clearing of the whole is laid upon the lafi or f~cond Adam, as the conditiot) of the fecond covenant. . 4.. The promife of the covenant, to be, upon that · conditir:nr, perf')rm'd by the party contraEl:~r on Hea– \Te'n's fide,' is imply'd in thefe words, ' I have made a covenant with' (iq the original, To) my chofen. That. is, ' 1 hlve, made a covenant.) binding auq obliging m;:- . ,

Covenant of Grac~. 7 na.nt; which,phrafe is taken from that ancie.nt ufage ofcutting offa beafi, by cutting ita.funder, at the mak– ing of a covenant, ]er. xxxiv. 18. It intimates thi5 covenant ' to be a covenant by ftcrifice; wherein the party-contraCl:er on man;s fide was the focrifice, and · Divine Jufiice the fword that cut itafunder, according ' to' Zech. xiii. 7· 'Awake, 0 fword, again£1: my iliep· herd, and againfi the man that is my fellow, faith the Lerd of hofis: froite the iliepherd.' And withal, it imports the inviolablenefs and perpetuity of the cove– nant made; no more, for ever, to be dHfolved, than the parts of the -bea£1: cut off, one from the other, tG ·be joined again as formedy. ' . IV. For the nature ofthiscovenant; there are five things belo~ging thereto, that appear from the .teXt : namely, (r.)The being of a reprefentation in it; (2.) The defign, for which it was fet ori foot; (3.) That there .are in it a condition, and (4.) A promife ; and (5.) Into whofe hands the adminifiration of it is pu~. 1. There is a reprefentation taking place in this co– venant. As it was in the firfi covenant, fo it was like– ·wife in· the fecond ; the party~contra_Cl:er and under– taker qn rban~s fide, was a reprefentative, reprefent- · ing and fufiaining the perfOns of' others. This appears~ .in that the chofen One, with whom the covenant was 1nade, is called the lafi Adam. For 'tis pbin, he is fo called in relation to the firfi Adqm, who was the figure (or type) ofhim. Rom. v. 14. Namely, in that, likea5 the firfi Adam reprefenting his feed, in the co– v~riant of-works, brought fin and death on the·m ; fo he reprefenting his, brings righreoufi1efs and life to them; as the Apofile teacheth at large in that chapter. 2. The defign of this' covenant, was' life, the mofl: valuable interefl: ofmankind~ ' The lafi Adam was· made a quickning fpiri,t,' to wit, to give life to his feed: So it is a cov~nant of life, as the covenant of Levz, a type thereof, is expr~Oy called, 1\.fal. ii. 5· The firfi covenant was a, covenant oflife too : but there is this

to . A Y.iew of the Covenant o/Orace. a. and liv. IO. Heb. viii. '· and 'xiii. 20·. But the f"ol– iowing account of it#ihall be ranged un?er thefe fix heads: namely, Firfl, The parties in the covenant. · of grace : Secondly, The making of that covenant: Yhird!y,The parts of it: Fourthly, The adminifiration of it: Fif?hly,The trial of a faving perfonalinbeing in it: Sixthly, The way ofinfiating finners perfonally and favingly in it. ·- H E A D -- 1. The PARTIEs in the Crn1enant ofGrace. -~· N all covemints of whatfoever nature .they be, whe· , th{lr covenan.ts ofabfolute promife, or conditional on:es, there mu£1: needs be difiinB: parties .:. for, how– beit, one may decree, refolve, or purpofe with him– felf, without another party; yet one's covenanting or bargaining, vowing, or promiGng, fpeaks an obliga· tion thence arifing to_ano~her difiinB: party. Accord 7 ingly, ih the covenant of ~grace, there are three p:a~ties to be confidered; Firfi,'The party-contraB:er on Heaven's fide: Secondly,T:he party·contraB:er onman'$ fide; a.nd Thirdly, The party-contraCted and under– taken far ; Of which in order. And •'I ,, c ... ., · I. Ofthe Party-contrdtler on Heaven's fide. . ..,_ ' AS it was in the'Covenamt ofWor~s, in this point; ~-"' - fo it is likewife in the Covenant of Grace: the ,·· ' party upon the one fide, is God himfelf, and he only. '. ·· There was no need ofany other, to fee to the intere{ls · ofHeaye11, in ·this cov~nant ; and there was np·other when it was made, being made from eternity~ '~be· , fore the world began,' Tit. i . .2 .. This is plain fr0m the words of, the covenant, ' I \vill be their God/ ]er. xxxi. jj. · But,

' ' Covenant ofCraa. , 9 n1yfelf, by foJemn promife, to my chofcn On~, for fuch and fuch benefits, upon the condition therein flared and agreed to.' Compare the following claufe, ' I ha·ve fworn unto David my fervant.' The nature , of this promife wiH be enquired into, in the dqe place. Lafl!y, The adminifiration of this covenant, is put into the hands of the party<ontre<B:er on man's 11de; ' The lait ...4dam was made a quickping Spirit.' Each ofthe contraCting parties being God, it was not poffible tha~)dther pany ihould fail; or, that the laH: Ad~m ilio¥1-il break, as. the fir.!! had dope. Where fore, ' the time ofChrifi's fulfilling of rhe condition of the coven-ant, being prefix'd by the Fat]1er ; God took Chrifi's fingle bond., for {i.J[licient fecuri(y, and there.. upon confiirute him adminifirator of rhe covet1.ant. Thof'e whom he reprefented, were confidereld as be– ing under death, which, in the language of the cove... nant, is a very extenfive term : the Sp irit and life were to be purchafed by him, and did belong to the promife of the covenant. So, up,)n the credit of his , -' fulfilling the condition ofthe covenant, in due time~ the fulnefs of the Spirit, and eternal-life were lodged . in him, to be communicated by him. Rev. iii. I. s Thefe things faith he that hath the feven fpirits of God.' 1 John v . 1,1. ' God hath given to us etern<'l life: and this life is in his Son.' John xvii. 2. ' As thou hail: given hirri power over all fiefu, that he ' !hould give eternallif~.' Thus \Vas he made a quick~ ning Spirit.' , · , · Now the DocTRINE of thefe texts thus compared explained, is, ' That the covenant of grace, :for life and falvation to loH finners ofmankind, was rnade. with JESus CHRIST the LAsT ADAM • and He con- ·· ' ' ilirute adminif1r.1tor of it.> In handling of this weighty fubjecr, I decni .i.t not necc:xfEuy to infifi, to prove thar there is a rovenant of gracq the being ofwhich is ob r.:ious fl·om the texts, .and many other f<::ripmrcs, iuc:h ~s~ !1~1 . ·xlii. 6, xlix. {'!. and

12 The Parties in the Integrity, if they would. Thus, fi·om etern!ty, the ~0 .. vena,nt ofworks in all the parts and appurtenances t-hereof, lay before the eternal Mind; rho' beino- mad~ with a meer man, it could not actually be ent~ed in· to, till once Jl!an was created .But, ' known unto Goa &lre all his works from the bcginning .of the world/ ' .<\eh xv. 18. 2 . He decreed alio horneternity, to per· . mit the firfi man, the reprefentative of the whole fa– mily, to faH, an<J fo to break the covenant, and in– volve himfelf and all h-is pofterity in ruins. It is evi– dent from the fpotlefs holinefs of God;. :md the n4ture of the thing, that the Divine permiilion .was not the cal:lfe of man's fall ; a~d from the neceffary depend– ence of the Clieatme upon the Creator, that, without it, he could not have falled. .But the fovereign Lord of the creatures pennitted the fall of man, for his own holy ends, ·purpofing· to bring about good from it. Now God the party·contracrer on Heaven's Jide in the cov€nant of grace, is · to b.e confidered in that matter, in a. threefold view. . Fir//, He is to be confidered in it, as an offended God ; offended with all the iins of all mankind, ori· ginal .::tnd actual.' Looking upon the'children ofmen,' ' the whole mafs of mankind ~ppeared, in .the eyes of his glory, cortupt and lothfome, the very reverfe of , his bolinef's : He faw them' all gone afide, together become filthy, none doing good, no not one,' Pfalm ·~ xiv. 2, 3· In the firfi covenant, God contraB:ed with · ' man himf<:lf, as a friend ; without the interpo.fition of ;. Mediator. But, in the fecond covepanr, it was not fo; and it ~ouJd not be fo : for, in it, man '\•VaS, confidered, ~s ~Jalle9 creature,~ t~anfgreffor ofth,: Jaw, a.n;l · an enemy -to God; and, 1t 1s .a covenant ot reconclli– ation, a covemmt ofpeace for thofe who had been at war with Heaven. ~econdly, But with~, God is to ~e con!idered h~rein, as a God purpofing an·d decreemg from eternity, to manifdt the glQry of grace, love, and mera cy,

' The Parties in Jhe Covenant of Grac~;, . 1 t Eut, whether God is herein to be confidered .per-· fonally or e.ffenti<dly, is not quite fo clear. Some di· vines think, that the Father perfonally co.nfidereq, namely, as to the fir{l Perfon of the glorious T,rilility~ · is the party-'contracter on Heaven's fide. Others, that God e.ffentially confidered, that is, as Father, Son, and· holy Ghofi, as that party·contracter. But, however we ..conceive of that matter, we are affured fi·om the holy ;oracles, That thefe Three ·are one God; and judge, that, accord_ing to the fcrip(ure, it may b~ fafdy fa id, that God, effentially, confidered, was the party· con– tracter in the perfon of the Father. Hereby it is owned, that the Son an.d the holy Ghofl: have their part in the covenant, on Heaven's fide, as the party offended by man's fin : and, in the mean time, a peculiar agen– cy, in this great work of power, :omd authority, on that fide, is attributed to the Father ; 'as there is unto the Son on man's fide. ' And that, of the party-con tracrer on Heaven's fide, we ma_y conceive aright in _this matter; thefe two 'things are, in the .firfi place, to be taken notice of, I. He from all oternity ·decreed .the .creation ofm~n after , J:i~? own ·image, and the making of the covenant of works with him, in time. "All things, brought forth in time,, lay from eternity in the womb of God's de– cree; in virtue whereof, they have their being in time: for which caufe, the decree is faid to bring forth, as a woman d~th a child;Z~ph. ii. 2. And the creation of ,angels and men,with the providence about them,made -many in the volume of the .fealed book of"the d~crees. God felf-fufficient needed neither man nor / ail gel ; but for the manifefl:ation of his. own glory, · he purpofed from eternity to create them: and, more·· over, to enter into fuch a covenant with man, as one fhould therein reprefent the whole family ; fovereign ,pleaffire mean while taking another method with the ingelic.tribe: but withal, pl;lrpofing to give both the cm..e and the other a fu.fficien t ability tQ iboQ in their - , ·\ntC• .. '

11 'The Parties in the · Integrity, if they would. Thus, from etern1ty, the eo• vena,nt ofworks in all the parts and appurtenance9 thereof, Jay before the eternal Mind; rho' being mad11 with a meer man, it could not actually be entred in· ', to, till once ~an was created .Bu.t, ' known unto Goi are all his works from the beginni~g ,of the world,' ~a~ xv. 18. 2 . He decreed aHo horn eternity, to per· . mit the lirfi man, the reprefentative of the whole fa– mily, to fall, and fo to break the coven:lnt, and in– volve himfelf and all his pofterity in ruins. It is evi– dent fi·om the fpotlefs holinefs of God;. and the n4ture of the thing, that the Divine permiilion was not the taldfe of man's fall ; a~d from the neceffary depend– frice of the ct;eatme upon the Creator, that, without h, he could not have falled. .But the fovereign Lord of the creatures pennitted the fall of man, for his own · holy endsF purpofing to bring about good from it. Now God the party·contracrer on Heaven's f!de in the covcmant of grace, is · to b.e confidered in that r,natter, in '.1 threefold view. Fir/1, . He is to be confidered in it, as an offended God ; offended with all the fins of all mankind, ori· ginal and actual.' LQoking upon the~children ofmen,' the whole mafs of mankind appeared, in .the eyes of his glory, cor'tupt and lothfome, the very reverfe of • his holinefs : He faw them' all gone afide, together heco1ne .filthy, none doing goqd, no not one,' .Pfalm xiv. 2, 3· In the firfl covenant, God contracred with · ' man himfdf, as a friend ; without the InterpoSition of ;. Mediator. But,.in the fecond covepant, it was not fo; and it ~ouJd not be fo ; for, in it, man \ >\'aS, confidered; as a'J~llei? creature, a tranfgreffor ofthe law, and an enemy -to God; and, it is .a covenant of reconcili– ation, a covenant ofpeace for thofe who had been ~t war with Heaven. , , ~econ.dly, But with~, God is to be confiderecl here– in, as a G0d purpofing and decreeing from eternity, tQ 1~anifdt the gl<i>ry of gra(e, love, and mer- · ~ I cy,

Coventint ofCracr. t] cy, ·in. the falyation of fome of mankind 1oft A.ccqr– d!ngly,w~ are faid to be fav~d in ti~e, 'a~cording tq \ .z h1s own purpofe and grace, gtven us m Chnfij efus,be;. fore the world began,' 2 1~im . i. y. without filch a pur.- ~ · pofe ofgrace in God, there could never be a covenant .ef grace. But, the fovereign Lord ofthe crea·mres.., o– ver-looking the fallen angels, as to any purpofe o( mercy, entertained thoughts oflove and peace t.owards fallen mankind.; purpofing, in himfelf, to make.fome of them everlafiing monumen is of his free grace and mercy, partakers of life and lalvation; and fo fet on foot the covenaiit of grace~ Laflly, Yet w·e are to cot1fider him alfo, in this mat· ter, as. a.jufl God, who cannot but do.right, give fin a jufl recompen(e, and magnify his. holy law, ' and make ·it ~ honourable/ Gen. xviii~ 25. Heb. ii. 2. Ifa. xlli. 21. Upon the motion for extending mercy ·to fin.ners · of mankind, the ju.llice of God interpofeth, pleading tha.t mercy cannor be !hewn them, but upon terms a– greeable to law and jufiice. And, indeed, it was nei· ther agreeable to the natpre of God, nor to his truth in his word, to erect a throne of grace on the ruins of his exact Jufiice, ,nor to fhew·mercy in prejudice ofit. Now the jufiice of God required, that 'the law which _ was violated, lhould be fully fatis fied~ and the honour– thereof repaired ~y fuffering ' and obedience ; the for.. · ~ mer,fuch, as might fatis~y the penal fanCtion ofthe law; , ' ~nd the latter, the · c~mmanding part ofit: the which being quite beyond the reach ,of the finners themfelves, they behoved to die wi(hout mercy, unlefs another, w-ho could be accepted as a fufficient furety, ihou1d undertake for them, as a fecond Adam, comlng in their room and fiead, as they lay ruined by the breach o( the covenant of works. Thus fiood the impediments in the way of mercy tofallen man, quite infuperable to him, or any of hi~ fellow-creatures: and the covenant of grace was made, for removing thefe impediments .out of t{le way ; anci · , , . • · ' ·. t~at ... ,.,, , ' .. ~· . ·,

14 The Par ties ·in the that it might be the channel, wherein the whole rich flood·of faving mercy might flow freely, for the quick– ning, purging, frucrifying, and perfecting of lofi fine ners of mankind, who were under the bands of death and the curfe, through the ofthe firfi covenant by the firil Adam. . · · From what is faid on this point, we may draw this inference, to wit, that.' the redemption of the foul is · precious.' The falvation ofloil finners was a greater work, than the making of the world : . the powerful word comm'lnded, and this lafi was done ; but · the former was not to be compafle·d, but with mot:e ado. · II. 'Of the Party-contraCler on Man''S fide. · . .. .WE have feen, that upon the one fide, in the cove• ~ nar~t of peace, is God himfelf. ,, Now, upon the other fide is Jefus Chrifr th_e Son of God, with his fpiritual feed, Heb. ii. I 3• 'Behold, I and th'e children which God bath given me :' the former, as the party– contracrer and undertaker ; the latter, as the party– contracted and undertaken for: a good reafon for his name lmmdnuel, which, ' being interpreted, is God with· us,' Mat. i. 23 . . The party-contracter then, with God 7 in the cove~ nant of grace, is our Lord Jefus Chrifi. He alone ma.. naged the interefis of men, in. this eternal ~argain ; for, at the making of it none of them were in being ; , nor, ifthey had been, would they -have been capable . of affording any help. ' . . Now, Jefus Chriil: the party-contracter on man's fide, in the covenant of grace, is, · according to our te~ts, to' be confidered in that matter, as the Jail: or fefond -.Adam, head and reprefentative ofa feed, lofi: finners ofmankind, the party· con tracred for .And .t?us he fified hiinfelf Mediator, between an offended JUfi: God, and offending men guilty before ,him: in which point laf-one main difference betwixt the firil: Ad,am and the ~hifr Adam. For, ' there is one Mediator, between

Coiienant ofGroce.' I.) hveeh God, and men, the man, Chrifi Jefu:s; who gave himfelf a ranfom,' 1 Ti~n. ii . .5, 6. And fo ·the cove– nant ofgrace, which could not be made im1Jlediately with finners, was made with Chrifi the lafi Adam, their head and reprefentative; mediating between God and them ; therefore called ' Jefus the Mediator o£ the new covenant,' to whom we come by believing. H~b. xii. 22; 24. . . . · 4 The term mediat()r· is .hot, to my obfervation, a·p· plied in the holy fcripture to any other, except Mofts, Gal. -iii.· 19. 'The law was ordained by angels in the 1 hand of a TUediator .; And of him, a typical mediator, it is worth obferving, that he was not only an intermeffenger,between God, and lftael; butjin God's. ·renewing his covenant, in way of reconciliation, af- . ter the breaking ofthe tables, the c<;>venant was made with him, as their head and ,repre(entative, Exod. xxxiy. 27. 'And the 1:-ord faid unto JJiofts, Write thou thefe words: For after the tenor ofthefe words, I have made a covenant with thee and with Ifrael! This refers unto the gracious anfwer made to Mo.fes's prayer, ver. 9· ' Pardon our iniquity and our fin, and take us for thine inheritance.' Ver. la. 'And he • ~namely, the Lord)' faid, Behold I make a covenant,' be_fore all thy people I will do rna'rvels,' &c. Ver. 28. ' And he wrote upon the ubles,' (to wit, the nhv ones) ' the wotds of the covenant, the ten command.:. · ments.~ Now Mbfts was alone on the mount witK God, during the whole tih1e of this tranfatl:ion: and, , , in it, the Lord fpeaks of hint and the people as one, all along. 1 · , For clearing of this putpofe, anet)t the party·con.. traCl:er on man's fide, I fhall (I.) Evince that the co• venant of grace was ina~e wi-th Chrifl as the la!tAdr1m, head and reprefentative of a feed; and (2.) Shew why it was fa made. Fitjl 1 ~hat t~~ covenant of grace, the fecond eo- - , . B venant, . .

16 -The Parties in the venant was 'made with Chri!l: as the la!l: or fecond 44 dtem, head and reprefentative of a feed, to wit, his [pi– ritual feed, appears fi·om the following coqfiderations• . Firfl, Covenants typical of the covenant of grace were made or e11abliihed with perfons reprefenting their refpeCl:ive feed. Thus it was in the typica,l coo: venant in our text, the covenant ofroyalty ,made with David; an undoubted type of the covenant of grace. In it, David .was God'sfervant, having a feed com– prehended with.him therein, Pfalm lxxxix. 3, 4· He was an eminent type o,£ Chrifi, who is therefore cal ... led David, Hof. iii. 5. ' Afterward !hall the children of I(rael return, and feek the Lord their God, and Da- . .vid their king.' And the benefits of the covenant of grace, are called ' th ... fure mercies of David,' 3· Thus was it alfo in the ' covenant o( the day and night,' (Jer. xxxiii, 20.) e~ablifhed with Noah and his fons, reprefentative of their (eed, the new world, Gen. ~ix. 9· ' Behold I efiablifh my covenant with you, and with your feed after you.' And that this cove1' t was a type of the covenant ofgrace, appears, from its be– ing made upon a ·facrifice, chap. viii. 20, 2~, 1_2; and from the fign and token of it, the rainbow, chap. ix. · · 13'. appearing round pbout the throne, Rev. iv. 3'- J?ut · efpecially, from the nature and import of it, to wit, that there fhould not be another deluge, Gen. ix. t 1. the fubfiance of which is plainly declared, Ifa. Iiv. 1 9.• ~ As I have fworn that the waters•ofNoah would no more go over r_he earth ; fo have I {worn that I would not be wroth with thee, nor rebuke thee.' Ver. 10. , · ~ For the mountains -.fuall depart, and the hills be re– moved, but my kindnefs. fhall not depart, from thee, neither fhall the covenant of my peace . be removed, /faith the ·Lord that bath mercy on thee.' And fuch alfo was the ' covenant of the land of Canaan,' made with Abraham reprefenting his feed, Gen. xv. I8 ...an4 afrerwards confirmed by ,oath, chap. xxii. 16, 17. In all wh~ch he wa.s an eminent type ·of Chrifi, the -true . Abrt~ham

Cov~nant t;f Grace.i .. .., Ahraham, (ather ofthe multitude of the .faithful, who,.. upon God's call, left heaven his native country, .and came and fojourned among the curfed race ofmank~nd~ and there offered up his own fleih and blood a facnfice, · unto God, and fo became the tru~_ ' heir of the world," and received the promifes for l)is fpiritual feed, the fum whereof is given by Zacharias, in his account of the covenant with Abraham, Luke i. 72. ' To remember his holy coven:mt: V~r. 73• The oath which he fware to our father Abraham, Ver. 74· That he would grant unto us, .that we being delivered out of the hands of pur enemies, might ferve him without fear, Ver. 75· In holinefs and righteoufnefs b~fore him, all the days ofour life.' And finally, thus it was in the covenant. of everlafling pridlhood, made with Phinehas ; ano.. ther type of the covenant of grace. ln it Phinehas flood a reprefentative of his feed, Numb. xxv. 13. ' And he £hall have it, and his feed after him, even the covenant of an everlafiing priefihood; becaufe he was zealous for his God, and made an atonemeot for the children of Ifrael.' And therein he typified Jefu~ .Chrifi, reprefenting his fpititmil feed in the covenant ·of grace :. for it is evident, that it is in Chrifi, who ~11fde the great ~tonement for finners, the everlafiing pnefihood, promifed to Phinehas, hath its full accom.. pliiliment, his fpiritual feed partaking of the fame in him, according to Pfalin ex. 4· .' Thou art a priell: for ev<?r.' Rev. i. 6. ' And hath made us kings and priefis unto God and his Father.' Now, forafmuch as thefe typical covenantJ were mad~ or e~abliihed with parties, il:anding therein as public perfons, heads, and reprefentatives of their fee~~ it natively follows, that. the cc:;>venant of grace typified by them, was.. made With Chrill: as the head ' a1;1d reprefentative of his fpiritualjeed: for whatf0e– yer, is attrib?ted to.any perfon or thing as a type, hath . Its..acco~phfhmcnt really and chiefly i~ the perfon or . thmg typified. · · B 2 SecrmJ!y, _,

18The Patties in the Secondly,Our Lord Jefus Chrifi being, in the phra; feology of the holy Ghofi, the lafi Adam, the reafon hereof cannot be taken frotn the nature common to the firfi Adam and him ; for all mankind partake of .that : but for their common office offederal headfhip and reprefentation, in theirrefpeCtive covenants touch– ing man's eternal happinef5;; the peculiar un~ to Adttm, and .the man Chrijl . Accordingly, Adam is called the fir(i man, and Chrifi the .fecond man, I · Cor. xv. 47· but Chrifi is no otherwife the fecond man, than as he is the fecond federal head, or the reprefen· tative in the fecond covenant. ; as Adam was the firfi: federal head, or the reprefentative in the firfi covenant. Agreeable to which, . the Apofile reprefents Adam as the head of the earthy men, and Chrifi as the head of heavenly men. Ver. 48. The former being thefe 'who bear Adam's image, namely, alf his natural feed ; the lattir,thofe who ·partake of the image ofChrifi, namely, his fpiritual feed, ver. 49· All this is confirmed from Adam's being a figure or type of Chrifi,. which the a• · pofi.le exprefly afferts, Rom. v. 14. and from the parallel he draws betwixt them two, namely, that as by Adam's covenant breaking; fin and death came on all that were his, fo by Chrifi's covenant-keeping, · ,. righteou(nefs and life come to all that are his, ver. 17, 18, 19. Wherefore, as the firfi covenant was made with Adam, as the head and reprefentative of his na· tural feed ; fo the fecond cove11ant was made with Chrifi, as the heq.d am\ repre~entative of his fpiri"tual feed. Thirdly, As the firfi man was called Adam, that is to fity, man; ~e being 'the head and reprefentative of mankind, the perfon in whom God treated with a,ll men, his,natural feed in the firfi coven~nt: and on the other hand, all men therein reprefented by him, do in the language of the holy. Gnofi, go under ~he name of Adam, Pfalm xxxix. s, 11 . ' Surely every man' (in the Original it is, 11/l.lldam) is va11ity : fo Chriil: · · bears ,.

Covenant ofGrace. · '9 .bears the name of his fl'iri tual feed, and they . on t~e other hand bear his name ; a plain_ evidence of the1r · being One in the eye of the law, an~ ofGod's trea.t– ing . with him as their reprefentative in the fe<:ond ~o· venant.l/rae/ in the name of the fpiritual fe'ed,Rom.lX• .6.Andour Lordjefus Chrifiis called by the f.1me name, Ifa. xlix. 3'.' Thou art my fer,vant; 0 Ifrael, in whom I will be glorified ;' as feveral learned and jud}cious commentators do underfl:and it, and it is evident from the whole context, ver. 1-, 2, 4,--~9. The truth is, Chrifi is here fo called with a peculiar folemnity : for tpe original text ft<\nds .precifely thus, ' Thou art - ·my fervant ; Ifrael in whom I will glorify myfelf,' that .is, thou art Ifrael's reprefentative, in whom ·I will glorify myfelf, and make all mine attributes il- ' lufl:rious ; as I was dithon&>ured, and they datkne.d, by Ifrael the collective body of the fpiritual feed. And this leads us to a natural ·and unftrained interpretation of that pa!fage, Pfalm xxiv. 6. ' This is the genera– tion of them, that feek him, that feek thy face, 0 ja.; q}b ;' that is, in other words, that long for the ap– pearing (Pray. viii. 35, Gen, xxxii . 30.) of the Mef– fias, the Lord whom the old Tefiament church did fo feek, a pledge ·of whofe ' coming to his temple,' (Mal. iii. 1.) was "the bringing in of rhe ark into the tabernacle that Da.vid had erected for it, _on which . oq;afion that Pfa!mwas penned. Accordingly it fol– _lows immediately, ver. 7· ' Lift up your .' heads, 0 ye , gates, and be ye lift up, ye everlafl:ing doors, and the King of glory fhall come in :' and in another Pfalm .t:enned on the fame occafion, a1-ld exprefly . faid tQ have been ' delivered on that very day into the hand of AJaph.' 1 Chron. xvi. 1, 7· is that expreffion found ver. 11. ' feekhis face continually;' jufily to be in– terpreted, agreeable to the circumftances of the main thing, which David, through the Spirit, had in view that. day, namely, . the ~oming of the Meffias. - Thus, Chnfl: bears the name of the fpiritual f~ed : And they, B 3 on .~

'I 'o . The P,arties in the on the other hand, bear his name too, 1 Cor. xii. rl: ~ For as the body is one, and hath many members, and all the members of that one body, being many, are one_bo4y ; fo alfo is Chrifi.' · · Fourthly, The promifes were made to C:hrifi as the fecond Adam, the head and reprefentative of his feed, GaL iii. r6. ' Now to Abraham and his feed was the promife made. He faith nbt, and to feeds, as of 1nany; but as .ofone, and to thy feed, which is Chrifi.' I own .that here, even as in the text immediately be– fore-cited, is meant Chrifl myfii~aJ, the head and members ; it is t0 them, that the promifes are here faid to b~. mad~; but, primadly to the head, fecon· :darily to the members in him; even as the promife of life, in the fir11 covenant, was primarily made to Adam ;1s the head, and fecondarily to all his natural feed in him. Thus is the typical covenant with Abraham, the prornifes of the earthly inheritance were primari~ ly made to Abrahctm himfelf; and fecondarily, to hi!; feed according to the flefh. And ~ven fo, the pro– m~fe 10.f the eternal inheritance, plain1y Hands made ~o Chrifi, Tit. i. i. ,_In hope of eternal life, which God that cannot lie,promifed before the world began;, when there was hone, but ·Chrifi, to whom that pro.. inife could be rnade p~r(onally. Accordingly the eo.. ve.nant is h1id to be made with the houfe of l(rae!, 11amely, the fpiritual lfrael; yet are the prornifes of _ it diretl:ed, not to them, but to another perfon, Heb._ viii. IQ. ' I will be ro them a God, and they {hall be t0 me .apeople,' T "he reafon of which plainly appears, in the prom~fes being made to Chrifl: as their heacl.,. · . and reprefentative. Now, forafmuch as thefe pron\ifes belong to the ~o.venant ofgrace, which is therefore cal· _led 'the· covenant of promife,' Eph. ii. 12. 'ti:; mani• · fefi. that, if they were made to Chrifi, as the head and reprefentative of a feed, the covenant ofgrace was m~~e w~th him as fuch ; <lnd he to whom they were · primari..

- , , Covenant D[ Grace. 2 _1 'primarily ;nade,\vas furely the party-con:tracrer th~rein. Lajl!y, This federal headfh1p ofChri4, and h1s re– 'prefenting his fpiritual feed in the covenant of grace, , appear~ from his furetilhip in that covenant, the betre.r tefiament, whereof ' Jefus was made a furety ,' Heb. vii. 22. Now he comes fu_r€ty for them, in the way of fatisfaCl:ion for their debt of punifhment and obedience; \ ~nd that, taking ,the whole burden. on himfe]f, as for perfons u'tterly unable to anfwer for themfelves. This will afterwards fall in to be dearect Mean wbile, ft1ch a furety is a true reprefentative of the party he is fi.1rety for, and one perfon with them in the eye of the Jaw. Hence, not only is Chrifl: faid to have neen made fin fo,r us,' 2 Cor. v. 21. to have had the iniqui– ty . of us all laid or1 him, Ifa. liii. 6. and to have died ·for us, Rom. v. 8. But alfo we' are faid to have be-en crucified with Chrifi, Gal. ii. 20. to be made the ., righteoufi1efs ofGod in him, 2 Cor. v. 21. yea, to be raifed up together, and glorified, being made to fit rogether in heavenly places in Chrifi Jefus,' Eph. ii. 6. and fo be made alive in Chrifl:, as 'Ye die in Adam, 1 Cor. xv. 22. All which neceffarily requires this head: fhip and reprefentation, in the covenant. And thus it ~ppears that the fecond covenant was made with Chrifl: as the lafi or fecond Adam, head and repref~mtative of his fpiritual feed. , Secondly, We are to enquire, wherefore the fe– cond covenant, the covenant of grace, was fo mad~. And this fuall be accounted, for in the following par– ticulars. , . Firfl, '"!'he covenant of grace, was made with 'chrill: ·.Jas the lafl: Adqm, head and reprefentative of his fpiri· tual feed, that infinite love might have,an early vent, even from eternity. The fpecial love of God to the fpiritual feed took vent in the covenant of gace : and that love and that- covenant, are of the f.1me eternal qate; as the Jove was everlafiing or eternal,Jer. xxxi. 3· So was the covenant, Heb. xiii. ~o. '):'it. i. 2· But, B 4 fincc

·~~ The Pdrties in the , iince the feed are but of ye.fierday, the covenant of _grace behov'd to be like the covenant of works, a ye– fierday's covenant, a time-covenant; if it was not made '\Vith ChriH as their reprefentative, it could not other– wife have been an eternal covenant. The promife of eternal life, which is undoubtedly a promife of the covenant of grace, could not etherwife have been of {o ancient a date, a~ ' before the world began,' as the ApoHle fays it is, Tit. i. 2· How could an eternal covenant be originally made with creatures of time, but in their eternal head and reprefen tative ? Or, how could an eternal covenant be perfonally made with -them, by way of perfonal application to them; had it not been from eternity made with another as their head and reprefentative ?But in the method of infinite wifdom, free love took an early vent; not waiting the flow motion ,uf its objects creeping out of the womb of time, in which many of them lay wrapt, even to this day: but as pr'inces,fometimes do, by proxy, mar– ry young princeffes, before they are marriageable or capable to give their conf€nt ; fo God in "his infinite love, married to himfelf all the fpiritual feed, in and by ']e_(us Chrifl as their reprefentative, · not only be– fore they were capable of confenting, but before they were at all : the which they do afterwards in their ef.. feetual calling, approve, of by faith, and give the~.r · confent perfonally to ; ~ andfo they enjoy God as their God, and God hath them as his people, John xx. 17. ' I .afcend mito my Father,,and your Father> and to my God, anq your God.' Secr;ndly, Otherwife it could not have been made at - all a conditional covenant anfwering the defign of it .. This covenant taking place only upon the breach of the fi.i-fl: covenant, the great d~fign of it was, T~at dea9 /inners might have life, as was before obferved. Now, in order to this, a holy jufi God flood upon (::onditions, without ·performing of which, that life was 1~0,t to qe given : and they were high condition,$, - · · · · ffalm

. Covenimt of Grace~ - 23 ' Pfalm xi. 6. c Sacrifice and offering thou didfi not defire.' 1 Theff. v. 9, 10. ' Jefus Chrifi, who died r for us, that-we fhould live.~ But, how could an effectual conditional covenant for life, be made with dead finners, otherwife than a reprefentative ? Dead fouls cannot perform any condition for life at all,which can be plea{ing to God. They mufi needs have life, before they can do any thing of that natu-re ; be it ne– ver fo fmall a condition : therefore a conditional co– venant for life, could not be made with finners in their own perfon ; efpecially confidering, that the conditi– ons for life, were fo high, that man, at his befi frate, w~s not able to perform them. Wherefore, if fuch a covenant was made at al.l, it behaved to be made wit~ Chrifi as their reprefentative, Rom. viii. 3, 4· Thirdly, It was fo ordered, to the end it might be, 'Unto us poor finners, a covenant of grace imdeed. 'Tis evident fro!ll the holy Scriptures, that this cove– nant was defign'd for exalting the free grace of God ; and that 'tis {()framed,as to be a covenant of pure grace, and not of works, in refpeCl: of us, wha~ever it was in refpeCl: of Chrifl:, Rom. iv. 16. ' Therefore it is of f~it~, that it might be by GRACE.' Eph. ii. 9· ' Not of WORKs, let any man £hould BoAsT.' And at this rate indeed, it is a covenant of pure grace; and all ground of¥7oafling is taken away from us; the Lord Jefus Chrifi himfelf, as a reprefentative, being fole ·undertaker and performer of the conditions thereof. lipt it is not fo, if it is made with the finner himfelf, - fianding as principal party, contracting with God, ancf undertaking and performisg the conditions of the co– venant for life; for, how low foever thefe conditions, undertaken and wrought by the finner in his own per– !on,- are fuppofed to be, the promife of the covenant IS made to them : and fo, according to the Scripture reckoning, 'tis a covenant of works, Rom. iv. 4-- ' Now to him that W ORKETH, is the r eward not reckoned of grace, but of d~bt ~· a11d 'twixt Adam's 'ove•