Maddox - BX9329 M3 1740

l3Jbo`> 4.1 hi tiilvar .r VINDICATION OF THE GOVERNMENT, DOC'I`RINE; and WORSHIP, O F T H E Church of ENG .LAND, Eftablithed in the Reign of QUEEN ELIZABETH: A,gainfI the Injurious Reflehions of Mr. N E At, in his late Hifory of the PURITANS. Together with a DETECTION of many fal fe Quotati- ons and Miilakes in that Performance. â t! .s ,dudi alteram Partem. L O N D O N: Printed, and Sold ian C. DA v i s, in PaterNojier-Itow. MBCCRL.

A VINDICATION O F T H E Government, Do rzne, &c. INTRODUCTION. N Hearty Union and Friendíhip among Pro- teftants (could fuch a Bleffmg be obtain'd) muff prove highly ad- vantageous to the Inte- reft of true Religion. This, in all human Probability, would continue it where it already is, and fpread it in thofe Places where now it is not received. Enemies, as well as Friends, concur in this Opinion. The unwearied Endeavours of Papißs from the Beginning of the Reformation, to B divide

2 divide the q'roteftants, plainly enough thew their Sentiments upon this Head. In how many Shapes have they ap- pear'd ? What Pretences, what Intrigue, what Difguife have they not employ'd, to begin or carry on thofe Animofities, in which they have found too great Succefs ? 'Tis rather to be wifl7'd than cxpeted, that all who have feparated from theChurch of Rome thould agree in the fame Opinions, or the fame ex- ternal Rites; but in mutual Forbear- ance and Charity they may all concur. 'Tis more than time they thould: Duty as well as Intereft oblige there to it. While Popery is gaining continually upon the declining Intereft of the Re- formation ; while our perfecuted Bre- thren feel, in the moft fenfilále manner, the daily Progrefs of this ern-el 'Super- ftition upon the Continent and while the 7Emiffaries of Rome are fo far from being ina&ive in this I, jland, at fuch a Juí ure'tisextreamly unfeafonahle, and may be very _prejudicial, to kindle or revive anyDifputes among thofe of the fame Faith. No Benefit Pure can arife to the general Inter& of 'Proteflantifm,, from endeavouring to convince its Ad- verfaries, that different Parties of Pro- teftants have treated one another as feverel =y as Papifts have treated them all,

[ 3 , all. If the Original of thefe unhappy Difputes was in the main very infgnifz- cant or groundlefs, theRetinal ofthem is 1E11 more improper. For the fake of Chriflianity, therefore, and the Pro- teftant Caufe, 'tis to be hoped, that every Attempt to awaken the Paßîons of Mankind upon fuch Points, will be for ever difcouraged by the Friends of Truth and Liberty. Why should Pro- teftants bite and devour? why calumni- ate or reproach each other ? or why endeavour to afperfe and blacken the great Founders of the Reformation ? The common Enemy can do enough of This. 'Tis pity aHillary of the Puri- tans lately publithed by Daniel Neal, MA. íháuld give Occafion for fuch Re- fletians ! If either Party has offended, as it may be each in its Turn has done, fince thofe Offences now ceafe, let them be buried in eternal Oblivion; not only be forgiven, but abfolutely forgot. Iliacos intra muros peccatur & extra. If the Laws were fomewhat fevere upon the Puritans, they, when they had got the Power into their own Hands, took ample Revenge contrary toLaw. Thefe things are paff; for the future, if the Nation is not to be blefs'd with a more perfect Agreement, yet, as Chriflians, and as Proteflants, let us B 2 join

C 4 join our bell Endeavours in the impor- tant Caufe of Chriflianity, Proteflan tifmn, and practical Religion. When united Attempts have got the better of the Infidelity and Immorality of the Age (which certainly demand the firft Regard) it will then be time enough for Fellow-Chriflians and Fellow-Pro- tenants to difpute Matters of fo little Confequence as an Organor a Surplice, a fquare Cap, or a GoldRing. It may even then be too foon to engage the Minds of People upon Subjeós of fo little Moment; but, at prefent, 'tis, upon many Accounts, greatly unfeafon- able and improper. Contentions of this Sort, among many other Evils, are apt to produce a Coldnefs and Difregard for the neceffary Duties of Piety and Virtue. Men of all Perfuafions are too prone to fall into this Miflake, and fub- fiitute a di%proportion'dZeal again/l, as well asfor, the external and difputed Parts of Religion, in the Place of true Devotion and real Goodnefs. When the Mind is thus warmly engaged in fuch Difputes, either on one Side or the other, it generally becomes too earelefs of more weighty Matters. Nor is this Effect at all unnatural. One of the common Arts in this religious Con- roverfy (for even that, to the great Hurt

E 5 Hurt ofreal Chriflianitÿ, is nowbecome" aScience) is to heighten the Importance of the Point in Difpute. Matters which to a cool and impartial Man, not en- gaged in the Controverfy, appear of little Moment, by a skilful Manage- ment in this fort of Difputation, may be reprefented as of the utmoft Confe- quence. Hence Men are led to a vaft Opinion of themfelves, for being, as they imagine, fo much wifer than their Neighbours, in an Affair thought very momentous. Mr. N's Hiftory amply confirms this unpleafant Truth. In this Narration the World is reminded of thofe Difputes equally fierce and un- happy, which had for their chief Foun- dation nothing of greater Confequence than the Habit in which the Clergy were to officiate, and a few (very few they were) harmlefs Ceremonies of the fame indifferent Nature. By thus di- viding the Proteftants, they weakened that Intereíl in the Infancyof it, when itswhole ùnited Strength feem'd fcarce fufficient againft Popery. And for what Reafon was this ill-tim'd hurtful Con- tention raifed, but chiefly that divine Service might be perform'd in a black Garb rather than a white one ; that the Cloak of Geneva, and not the common Surplice, might be the ella- B 3 blifh'd

C 6 blilh'd Drefs? when, after all, the one is dreffing, in a manner, as the jefuits do ; the other, at word, is only wear- ing a Part of the Habit of the Parifh- Priefts. 'Tis natural for a Proteftant to wiih a Veil drawn over fuch a Scene as this fo warm andhurtful a Conten- tion for fo fmall a Matter. This is no Aggravation of the Cafe, Mr. N. him- N's xuff. felt' declares, " Had the Habits and p' 23o. " a few Ceremonies been left indiffe- " rent, both Minifters and People had Ibid. p. 3.94. cc been eafy." Again, " the Contro- " verfy with the Puritans had but a " fmall BegiAning." How much Di- fturbance was raifed in the Nat on up- on that Account, his whole Hiftory is a Proof. This Gentleman, upon En- quiry, will find, that the Revival of this Controverfy, and theopening thole Wounds which all good Men hoped were effe tually healed, meets with lit- tle Applaufe from the beft Proteftants, and the moft moderate Men in the Kingdom. Does he imagine there can- not be as frightful Pictures drawn of Calviniftic or Puritanical Perfecutors, as any he has drawn of the Church of England? But what Purpofe could this anfwer, except to make the different Parties of Proteftants more cold to each other,

7 1 other, and help the Papifls to triumph over them all? The two Dingdoms of England and Scotland are happily united ; each Per- fuafi.on has the Advantage of a publick Eflablithrnent, with a Toleration to thofe that refpeively differ from it. But this, it feems, is not fuficient; no- thing but the Introduction of the Gene- va Plan, or fomething like it, thro' the whole united Kingdom, can give full Satisfadion. To acçomplith this Defign, Mr. N. has taken much Pains to reprefent the Church of England as founded in Violence and &oodfhed, its Conflitution contrary to the Word of God, and invading Chriftian Liberty; and, to the great Joy, no doubt, of Papilis, thews much Difpleafure againft almoft every thing done at the Refor- mation, and very feverely treats the Memory of the great and worthy In- Iruments of it. The taking away the fuperfluous Popi-fh Furniture and Vefl- ments, which, according to his own Principles, hadbeen abufed to Idolatry, and were a Profanation of the Ch.rifli- an Worth.ip, he exprefsly calls by no better Name than the Papifis give it,N'r Ilia. Sacrilege, or Ch arch-theft ; and cen-p' 77' flues the Proceeding in Parliament, ac-vrd. Burn. cording to the Advice of pious Prote- x.a. vai. IT. B 33o.Appe».

N's Hift. P. 139. [ 8 fiat Exiles, to eftabliíh the Protc 1ant Religion, for not having the Confent of a Popi/h Convocation. " Heath, " fayshe, [QueenMary's] Archbiíhop of cc `fork made an elegant Speech againfi: the Aft of Uniformity of Common " Prayer and Service in the Church, " and Adminifiration of the Sacra- " ments ; in which , among other " things, he obferves VERY JUSTLY, " that an AC of this Confequence " ought to have had the Confent ofthe " [then Popiíh] Clergy in Convoca- " tion, before it pafs'd into aLaw." On the contrary, this Gentleman introdu- ces the Patrons of the Geneva Model, as Perfons zealous for Chriftian Liber- ty, that were only defirous of (hewing a greater Regard to Scripture, promot- ing a purer Reformation, a holy Difci- pline, &c. Thus while he defcribes one as exceeding bad, the other ex- treamly good, what is the natural In- ference from all this, but that the cor- rupt Church fhould be abolifh'd, and a pure one plac'd in its room, by all who hate Perfecution, regard the Laws of Chrift, or value Chriftian Liberty? Tho' many wife and moderate Men think it an Unhappinefs to have this Controverfy revived at this Junóture ; yet, if it (hall appear, that Mr. N's Hifto!

r 9 ] Hiftory contains many things injurious to the Memoryof the Great Föunclrefr of the Proteftant Religion, and very partial Reprefentations of thofe who aced by her Authority ; it muft be thought a Piece of Juftice to that good Princefs, as well as to her Minifters and Servants, to re-confider this Mat- ter. if all the Proceedings in a long Reign of Forty Four Years were not equally praife-worthy, 'tis not to be wonder'd at. Human Frailties attend Perfons of every Rank, and it will ap- pear that the Puritans were as far from being faultlefs, as their Superiors. 'Tis. but Juftice therefore to divide the Blame, and let each Side have its proper Share. With this View publick Notice is taken of Mr. N's Performance, that the Church of England, which has al- ways been the great Support and Bul- wark, as well as the Refuge and Afy- lum of the Proteftant Religion, may not lye under fuch a heavy Load as he has laid upon it; when fo large a Part juftly falls to the Share of other Perfons. Juftice to the Eftablifh'd Church ob- liges us to obferve, that the Bithops and Clergy thereof have exprefs'd no Defire to engage the King's Proteftant Subjects in Difputes with one another, nor made anyAttempts to revive thefe Con-

[ io a Controverfies about leffer Matters; when Chriflianity itfelf, and the Pro- ftant Religion, are fo vigoroufly affault- ed. In the prefent Cafe, the very Rights of Self -defence had probably been waved, if Silence under fuch an Attack, would not, to the great Hurt of the Proteftant Interefl, have given an Appearance of Truth to force inju- rious Reprefentations. In order there- fore to do Mice, and lay this Matter fairly before the World, 'tis requifite to throw force Light into thofe Cha- raders of the Peen herMiniflry, and Bifhps , which this Gentleman has drawn fo very black and frightful. It will at the fame time be neceffary to caft fume Shade into his Pitures of the Puritans, which are made too bright and glaring. This laft is indeed the more unpleafant Part of the Work ; and had they not been applauded at the Expence of the great Inftruments of the Reformation, their Charmers would have pafs'd untouch'd. Howe- ver, as they are now dead, and unable to anfwer for themfelves, they (hall be treated with all the Candour and Ten- dernefs that are confiftent with Truth, andno more Ihail be. Paidof them than is neceffary to the Defence of their ccufed Superiors. The Treatment theft

L n thefe have met with (hall not be made an Example in fpeaking of the other. The Efablifhment of the Church of England on the Bafis on which it now ftands, was , eifeded in the Reign of Queen Elizabeth ; we shall therefore pats over theprecedingParts of Mr. N's Hiftory, and confider this as the prin- cipal Period when theControverfy with the Puritans properly had its Rife. A few Obfervations upon the Cir- cumftances of Affairs in that Reign, will give force Light to the Difpute, if under them it ihali appear, i. That Queen Elizabeth was really a Prote lant, and wifely fix'd upon the me proper and fcriptural, as well as mòft catholick and comprehenfve Etta- bliflunent of the Proteftant Religion. . That the Puritans were neither defirous of a Toleration for themfeives, nor willing to grant it to any others ;; but folely aimed at the efiabljhing their own Platform, and perfecuting their Fellow-SubjeLs and Fellow-Proteftants. 3. That they were treated with great Indulgence and Favour, and ailow'd to enjoy many and cnftdorable Prefer.. meats in the Church. ïl. That

[ ì2 q.. That their own irregularCondit obliged the Government to fecure itfelf, by keeping a ilrióer Hand upon them. And that, after all, great Di/linction was made between peaceable Noncon formats and thofe that endeavour'd the. Overthrow of church and State that the one were indulged, while the other were reftrain'd. If thefe Things íhall appear upon proper Evidence, the Eng- lifh Reformation, 'tis to be hoped, will be fufficiently vindicated from the Re- fle&ions cafe upon it in theHifiory of the Puritans, and appear in its true Light ugreat andglorious Work. To prevent all Sufpicion of Unfair- nefs or Mifreprefentation , the very Words of the Authors made ufe of shall be quoted ; tho' this may caufe a Diverfity in the Stile, yet it mutt great- ly add to the Reader's Satisfa1ion. Mr. N. allows Bishop Burnet, Strype, and Fuller, to be the chief Church Hiftorians of thefe 'Times, and as fuch to. deferve Credit. Thefe, together with the PuritanWriters of the great- eft. Efteem and Reputation among their own Party, will be the chief Evidences produced in , this Caufe® CHAP.

C 13 1 C H A P. 1. N the firfi Place, 'tis but Juflice to Queen Elizabeth, to mention her honeft Concern and Zeal to introduce and fupport the Proteflant Religion that the Meafures the took were the mofi proper, and moft fubfervient to this laudable Defign. Any one in the leali acquainted with the Chara6ter of this Great Princefs would hardly think it neceffary to vindicate her from the Charge of being aaually a Papift, or greatly inclined to Popery. But, was not only the Imputation of, thofe in her Reign, who could not be gratified with the full Efiablithment of their own Schemes, but Mr. N. alto, in Imi- tation of them, has frequently laid this to her Charge; it feems neceffary, in the firfi Place, to vindicate her from fo heavy an Accufation. By Mr. N's Account of this Great Princefs, it mufi be thought her Heart was entirely Popifh. Thus, pag. 33'7. " Tho' the Papifls were the Queen s moll dangerous Enemies, her Majefty '" : had a peculiar Tendernefs for them So again,. . p. 255. " One would havé " thought, rays he, there formidable f.s Confpiracies of the Roman Catho® " licks

[ =4 " licks lhould have alienated the " ,Queen's Heart from them." If her Majefty, upon very weighty Reafons, was for retaining .fome few ancient Ce- remonies, it had been much more decent as well as jut to fo Great a Queen, to have faid fhe inclin'd moreto the Luthe- ran than Galviniflic Proteftants, in the external Polity of the Church, tho' the never came up to the former. But 'Popery is an odiousWord, and therefore the Good Queen is to be Brandedwith that. Thus, when he is giving her Charaaer in Form, at the End of her Reign, p. 6oz. " As to her own Re- " ligion, fie affected a middleWaybe- " tween 'Popery and Puritanifm, tho' cc her Majefty was more inclinable to " the former : She difliked the fecular " Pretentions of the Court of Rome " over foreign States, but was in love " with the Pomp and Splendor of their " Worfhip. This is the heavy Charge brought againft that Illuftrìous Princefs, who expofed herfelf to fo many Hazards for the Proteftant Religion. How ground- lefs the Accufation is, will foon appear to her Honour; and if it be to the ,Shame of her Accufers, they are to thank. thernfeIves. The

{ '5 3 The cruel Treatment the met with in her Sifter's Reign, merely upon the Account of Religion, fufficiently proves what Opinion the Papifts had of her Sentiments upon that Head. Theyne- ver thought her Heart was for them, or that the was any way in love with their Worfhip. Her Behaviour, after the came to theCrown, plainly thew'd they were not mifiaken in their Apprehenfi- ons of her. The Way in which the Pope himfelf, as well as f foreignPrincesvd The Bull of the Renifh Church, and her own °f ofi P'us nQv. aeueen - g Pop0Subjects always treated her, is "a p Elizab. Bur. farther Evidence in her Favour ; and Vol. 2.p 377 fo is her fupplying theVacancies in the Church, as Mr. Rapin obferves, with Rapin, EIiz. the moll zealous Proteftants, and here z6o. inviting foreign Protefants intoher Do- 'Strype's Ann. minions, as well as fupporting them I. p' 2.0. abroad. To formabetter judgment of the Queen's Regard to the Proteftant Religion, it may be proper to recoiled the Circumfances of Affairs at her ;Ac- ceffion. This will give a jufler Notion of her Conduó, and thew the Necefty there was to proceed with great cau- tion, and mull alfo convince every un- prejudiced Perfon, that had the been fecretly difpofed towards Popery, 'we- re would have led her to follow her Inclination? and continue-Religion in the fettled

1161 fettled State in which Queen Mary left it, and not expofe herfelf to fo much Trouble and Danger, as it was eafy to forefee fo great a Change mull certain- ly occafion. Queen Mary's Endeavours to make the Nation entirely Popifh, had fuc- ceeded too well. Bill-lop Cox to a learn- ed Foreigner gives this Account of it. Srtype's Ann." Popery fo encreafed and prevailed in v,,i. t. Ap-cc Five Years only, under the cruel Pend. p.5.4. cs Reign of Queen Mary, that it was cc incredible how very much the Papifis cc were hardened." Biohop jewel, at the fame time, to the learned Bullin- Ibid. ger, " Our Univerfities are fo entirely loft, that there are fcarce two who ee are of the fame Opinion with us. " You can fcarce believe fo great De- " vaftation could be made in fo short Ibid. cc a Time." As to the Bifhops and Clergy, all over the Nation, they were unanimous for Popery, firm as a Rock. Immotus enim, fays Bilbop Cox, fiat Clerus totzis. ranquam dura ftlex, aut flet Marpefia sautes. Súb fzevo Marix imperio ita crevit invaluitque Papifmus ad quinquennial); tantum, ut incredibile fuerit quantopere perfora Papiitarum obduruerint. s4caáemie noftrz ita afRietx Punt & perdite, ut vix due. funt qui nobifcum fentiant vix credas tantum vaftitatem afferri potuifïe tam parvo tempore. SO.

C =7 i So far was QueenElizabeth thought from being in love with Popery, that, as Mr. Rapin tells us, " a great Dif-Rapin, E,ir> " ficultywas thrown in the Way of theirait " Declaration of the Houfe of Lords " in favour of Elizabeth. And this " was, that all England, and particu- " larly the Houfe of Lords, made Pro- " feffion of the Roman Catholick Re- " ligion ; and that it was almoft out of all Doubt, that Elizabeth was a " Proteflant in her Heart." The Bi- Chops and Catholick Lords perfuaded themfelves that Elizabeth would find it a difficult Undertaking to change the eftablith'd Religion, ihou'd her Inclina- tions to fuch a Change beever%firang; fo firm, in their Opinion, was the Foun- dation upon which Popery flood, that they thought the attempting any Alte- ration would bring her into Di/turban- Rapin's Hift. ces that might be attended with heribid' Ruin. This was the State of Affairs, as to Religion ; the Nation univerfally fPopifh ; not only the Bithops and Cler- gy, but all the Privy-Counfellours, judges, and other publick Officers, were the molt bigotted Papifls, and chofen into Place for that very Reafon. 'Twas with great Difficulty they got a Ann. Vol l Bifhop to crown theQueen, and at Taft?' 291 it was one in a See no more confidera- C ble

IS a ble than Carl/.fie. The Oppofition from the Popifh Clergy appear'd very foon. Ann. T/4..1* In Convocation, as Mr. Strype fays, they P' 44 & 56' did notably beflir themfelves, nor were they lefs alive in other Places. " The " Popith Priefts and other Zealots took cc frequent Occafion, notonlytopreach, cc but to Jpeale very untoward Words cc againfi the Queen, refleóting, as it " feems, upon Queen Anne sollen her `` Mother, and her own Legitimacy " and Title to the Succeflion, and in " favour of theQueen of Scots." This was another Embarafsment upon Queen Elizabeth ; her Title to the Crown was difpu-ted, and liable to Objections upon the Article of Illegitimacy. Her pow- erful Rival, Mary Queen of Scots, was in actual .`F ffefon of one Part of the Hand, was of the fame Religion with Elizabeth's Suvjets, and to the Power of Scotland join'd that of France, where the had married the Heir of theCrown ; fo great was her Intereft in England, that, as Melvill, who was not igno- rant of thefe Matters , informs us, Memoirs " Queen Elizabethwas in great Sufpi- p. C8' " cion of her Eftate, finding fo many of her Subjects Favozlrers of the " Queen of Scots." And fo fanguine was Queen Mary, her Friends fo many and powerful, that the armed the ilrms

[ 19 3 Arms and Stile of Queen of England, strype' Ann, and follicited the Pope to declare Eli- zabeth's Title not to be good. Mr. Strype juffly obferves " the Queen had Ibid. p. io. " ftill more Reafon to be jealous of the Scots Title, fince her Sifter, the late " een Mary, ufed to taunt her, by " telling her often, that the Queen of Scots was the certain and undoubted cc Heir of the Crown of England, next cc after herfelf. Add, Pays he, to this that the Cardinal of Lorrain, in a ç` Conference with force Delegates " from Spain at Cambray, about this time afferted, that his Niece the faid " Queen of Scots was moil jet ,Queen " of England." Befides, it mull be remember'd, that againft a Rival fo ftrongly fupported, Queen Elizabeth was very ill provided to make any Oppofition. The Crown was incum- ber'd with immenfe Debts, the People difpirited, the Fortifications ruinous. " Queen Mary left the Kingdom in asstrype'sAnn " low and miferable an Ebb as ever it Vut.1 p. 2., c` was known to have been in, in any " former Times; embroil'd inWar with " .France'and Scotland ; the Exchequer " very low, . that Queen having con- cc traded great Debts. By this means " Elizabeth had formidable Enemies " before her and behind her, but illy C 2 " guard-

Ibid. P. [ 20 J guarded at Portfmouth, the Ifle of Wight, Dover, againft France ; fo " that an Invafion was fear'd on that " Side ; and, on the Scots Quarters, 3 " Berwick was in a woful Condition, cc wanting both Fortifications and Men. The Lord Keeper Bacon feem'd juftly fenfible of the unhappy State of Affairs, when he reprefented to theParliament " the great Decays and Lo%s of Ho- " nour, Strength, and Treafure, and " the Peril that happen'd to this Impe- " rial Crown of late Time. The mar- vcc ellous Wafle of the Revenue of the cc Crown, the ineftimable Conficmption c: of the Treafure levy'd both of the " Crown and of the Subjec` .; the ex- " ceedingLofs of Ammunition andAr- tillery; the great Lofs of divers Va- cc cc liant Gentlemen of good Service ; the incredible Sums of Money owing " at that prefent, and in Honour due to be paid, and the biting Interefl " that was to be anfwer'd for Forbear- " ance of this Debt." Nor did the Face of Affairs abroad look more fa- vourable for a Reformation, than thofe at home. So far was the Queen from being ftrengthened and fupported byany foreign Alliance, that the me confide- rabic Powers of Europe were ready to oppofe any fuch Defign. Her own Sub- Sub-

2I Subjects ve;y loon began to form Con-- (piracies with her foreign Enemies, even before her Coronation. " Therewere Strype's Ann: " fome already, lays Mr. Strype, p of 7 cc the Popifh Faó ion, contriving Mif- cc chief againft the Queen, by Petting " up the Scots ,Q,ueen's Title, and by CL getting Affzflance from the Cruifès in " France, to carry on their Defigns in " her Behalf." France was neither un- willingnor unprepared togive them that Affiflance. This was not doubted by the Queen's Friends, " for it was con-Ibil p. t r. " eluded at Court, and taken for gran- " ted, that the French meant to en- deavour the Conqueft of this Realm. They had now (as no lefs Man than Secretary Cecil obferves in a Paper drawn up upon this Subje t) " got an Ibid. " Occafion to conquer Scotland, and " had already Men of War there; and prepared a great Jr'my both out of " France and Almain, their Captains " were appointed, their Victuals pro- " vided, their Ships in Rigging, they " reckon'd within a Month to have t` their Wills in Scotland. That done, " it feem'd moft likely they would pro- " fecute their Pretenceagainft England, " which had no Fort but Berwick to ¢` ftay them, and that was unperfe1t, " and would be fo thefe twoYears Day. C 3 " If

22 cc If they offer'd Battle with the " Almains, there was great doubt how cc England wouldbe able to fuftain it, " both for lack of good Generals and cc Great Captains, and principally for cc lackof People, confidering theWafte cc that had lately been by Sicknefs and " Death there three laft Years." Thus far that Great Man. There was foon after the Queen's Acceffion a Plan drawn for effecting a Reformation. It is needlefs to tranfcribe the Whole, which is to be feen in Bithop Burnet's .Hiftory of the Reformation, but more corre& in the Appendix to Mr. Strype's Annals of ,Queen Elizabeth, Vol. I. However, as this is a Paper of Confe- quence and Authority, we shall. tran- fcribe that Part which contains the juft Reprefentations of the Dangers that were likely to follow a Reformation. vol. T. Ap " What Dangers may enfue upon. the Pen' 1'. 4. ," Alteration ? " I. The Bithop of Rome, all that cc he may, will be incenfed ; he will excommunicate the Queen's Highnefs, `c interdil the Realms, and give it to cc Prey to all Princes that will enter up- " on it, and incite them thereto by all manner of Means. ti` II. The FrenchKing will be encou- raged more to the War, and make his

Cc CC CC CC CC CC CC CC CC CC GC CC CC CC CC CC Ci CC CC CC CC CC CC CC CC CC CC f23] his People more readyto fight againft us, not only as Enemies, but as He- retici's. He will be in great Hope of Aid from hence, of them that are difcontented with this Alteration , looking for Tumult and Difcord. He will alfo flay concluding Peace, upon Hope of fome Alteration. III. Scotlandwill have fome Caufes of Boldnefs ; and by that way the French Kingwill feem fooneft to at- tempt to invade us. " IV. Ireland alfo will verydifficult- ly be ftay'd in their Obedience, by reafon of the Clergy that is fo ad- dided to Rome. " V. Many People of our own will be very much difcontented ; efpeci- ally thefe Sorts. " i. All finch asgovern'd in the late Queen Mary's time, and were chofen thereto for no other Caufe, or were then molt efteem'd for beinghot and earneft in the ` other Religion, and now remain Unplac'd and Uncall'd to Credit, will think themfelves difcre- dited, and all their Doings defaced, and Rudy all the Ways they can to maintain their former Doings, and defpife all this Alteration. " z. Bithops, and all the Clergy will fee their own Ruin. In Con- C 4 " feffion

CC Cc cc cc Cc cc Cc cc Cc Cc CC cc CC CC Cc CC CC CC Cc CC CC Cc CC 'CC CC CC CC ct CC fefï'won and Preaching, and all other ways they can , they will per- fwade the People from it. They will confpire with whomfoever that will attempt, and pretend to do God a Sacrifice, in letting the Alteration, tho' it be with Murther of Chrifrian Men, or Treafon. cc 3 . Men which be of the Papifl Sete, which late were in manner all the judges of the Law, the Jztices of the Peace, chofen out by the late Queen in all their Shires, fuch as were believed to be of that Sea ; and the more earneft therein, the more in Eftirnation. Thefe are like to join with the Bifhops and Clergy. " 4. Some, when the Subfidy (hall be granted, and Money levied, (as it appeareth that neceffarily it muff be done) will be therewith offended ; and like enough to confpire and arife, if they have any Head to flir them to it, or Hope of Gain and Spoil. " 5. Many [itch as would gladly have the Alteration from the Church of Rome, when they shall fee perad- venture, that force old Ceremonies fhall be left ftill, or that their 'Do- t-trine which they embrace, is not al- lowed and commanded oN L y, and all other abolifhed and difproved, " fhall

x253 " !hall be difcontented, and call the " Alteration a Cloaked `'apiflry, or a " Mingle -mangle. Thefe were not imaginary Dangers ; the Queen was really expofed to them all. And as thefe D iiculties arofe on the Proteflant Side, fo there were great Temptations to continue `Popery. The avoiding fo much Trouble and Hazard, muff have had great Weight with a Woman of lets Piety and Refo- lution than Queen Elizabeth. We find early Intereft, much Sollicitation, and great Offers, were made on the Popifh Side ; Men of Power and Influence at home, the moll confiderable Foreign St Type's Ann. Princes, and even the Pope himfelf interpofed in this important Caufe. There was one Offer of fo much Confe- Ibid. pp cog. amn quence, that had the Queen's Heart C Eaimz b po, 4Ao. n, been at all Popifh, the muff have paid great Regard to it. This was to con- firm Queen Elizabeth's Title to the Crown, and by this Means fecure her againff all Diffurbance from her Sub- jets ; to overthrow the Claim of fo formidable a Rival as the Queen of Scots, and fix her in the quiet and in- difputable Poffetlion of the Throne. No Body imagines Queen Elizabeth -wanted Underflanding to difcern the Importance of this Offer ; but the had too

[ 26 too much Zeal for the Proteflant Re- ligion tohearken to it, and her Refufal ought, in Juflice, to be afcribed to this Caufe only. Mr, 11t. 'tis true, has thought it no ungenerous or ungrate- ful Thing to affign another Reafon for it, Page 172 , but the ,Queen would not part with .her Supremacy. Had her Heart been as Popith as his Pen de- fcribes it, the would have followed her Father's Example, in retaining many of the Popith Superflitions, and not have eflablith'd the Proteflant Form ofKing Edward. She might have afferted her Supremacy, and made little Alteration in the publick Face of Religion. Mafs might have been celebrated, the Popich Saints adored, and every other Abomi- nation in the Worthip of that corrupt Church, retained and inforced. The Queen might Hill have been Supreme, and by her °Authority compelled her Subje&s to comply. Thus Idolatry and Perfecution, the worft Parts of Popery, would have reign'd triumphant in the Nation, and the Queen have maintain'd her Supremacy, as King Henry VIII. did. Under this Head, it may not be im- proper to mention M. Rapin's Senti- ments, fo oppofite toMr. N's, of Queen Rapin's Hif} Elizabeth's Religion. " I don't be- Elm fub fin. " lieve

t 27 " lieve (fays that Hiftorian) any Body cc ever queftion'd her being a true Pro- " tefant." Her Letter to Henry IV. upon his turningPapift, is fo expreffive of an inward Conviâion, and the great Regard fhe had for the Próteflant Re- ligion, that, in Juílice to her injured Memory, it (hall be laid before the Reader ; 'tis preferved in Camden and Rapin in the following Words. IT is hardly pjible to exprefs the extreme Grief and 3S'atisfaction, which bas feized me, upon Morley's Reprefentation of Things. Good God, what a miferable Worlddo we live in Could I ever have thought, Sir, that any fecular Confideration could have prevailed with you, to difcard a juft Senfe of God and his Fear ? or, can you ever reafonably expect, that Provi- dence will grant this Change of yours a happy Prue ? or, couldyou entertain a Jealoufy, that the gracious Being, who had fo long fupported and prefer vedyou, wouldfail and abandonyou, at Taft ? it is, believe me, a dangerous Experiment, to do Evil that Good may come. But I hope, you may be yet re- covered to a better Inclination, even the Spirit of a found Mind. In the mean Time, I (hall not ceafe to recommend your

i 28 J your Cafe to God, in my Daily Pray- ers, and earnefily to befeech him, that Efau's Hands may not pollute the Blef- fang and Birth-right of Jacob. The fromife you made of a facred and friendly Alliance, I conceive myfelf to have deferved, and even earned at a va/t Expense. But Ihad not matter- ed that, hadyouhill kept your Pelf the Son of the fame Father. From hence- forth I cannot look on myfelf as your Sifter, in refpec`i to our common Father; for Ime, andlhall always, payamuch greater Regard to Nature than Choice, in that Relation: As Imay appeal to God, whom I befeech to recover you into the Path of a fifer and founder Judgment. Your Sifter after the Old-fafhioned Way, as for the New I have nothing to do with it, ELIZABETH. Upon the Whole, 'tis hardly poífible to conceive Circumstances more dif- couraging to a Reformation, than thofe in which Providence, to give her Vir- tues the greater Luftre, placed this re- nowned Queen. Her very Sex, in a Cafe where there was fomuch Difficulty and

29 and Danger, Teems no inconfiderable Difadvantage -- An exceptionable and difputed Title, a powerful Rival, an empty Treafure, no Friend, no Alli- ance abroad to fupport her ; at Home, the Clergy, the Magifhates, the Popu- lace, all againft her in the Alteration. At the fame time, the inviting Allure- ments of Quiet and Security in a Throne, to engage her to continue Religion as the found it. Such a State of Affairs illuftrates the Warmth and Sincerity of the Queen's Zeal for the Proteftant Religion, and thews the NeceJity of her ufing great Prudence and Caution in the Introduction and Eftablifhment thereof. That the Queen proceeded with Zeal and Prudence, will appear upon a Survey of her Conduó. 'Tis a confiderable Argument in favour of her Meafures, that they did, by the Blefling of God, effedualiy e/labli/h the Proteftant Religion againfl the moft violent and moft univerfal Oppofition that could poffiblybe made to it. What would have been the Succefs of other Methods and other Schemes, 'tis no fmall Felicity we are not able to de- termine. However, let us take a ge- neral View of the Queen's Proceedings which were fo fuccefsful. _`. The

C30) An 1z " The Queen Pays Mr. Strype, was Val. 1. p' 38'" not backward, upon herfcryl coming to the Crown, to thew her merciful cc _Nature (fo different therein from " her late Sifter) toward the aiEled " Profeffors of the Gofpel in Bonds " and Imprifonment ; and for putting " a fpeedy Stop to the cruel Methods ufed before, for the detesdting them cc cc in all Places, and taking them up by a kind of Spanifh Inquifition ; fo " as became aPrince that intended not " to rule with Rigour, but Juftice and " Clemency. One of her earliefl Asti- ¢` ons was to releafe the Captives, and cc to reftore Liberty to the Free-born. " Therefore Orders from above were " tent to the Keepers of the Prifons, " wherefoever thefe honeft and pious " People were detain'd, that they " fhould fet them at Liberty, taking " their own Bonds for their Appear- cc ance, whenfoever they fhould be " call'd to anfwer." Betides, fetting thefe poor Prifoners at Liberty, and enquiring into the Execution of a Com- muon in the late Reign againft Loi- lards, and calling the Commifïioners to an Account for their Proceedings, the Queen publifhed a Proclamation. where- in fhe allow'd the Gofpel and Epiftle for the Day, theTenCommandments, the

E 31 the Litany, the Lord's Prayer and Camd. Ann Creed in Englifh, which the had be- Lib. gan to ufe in her own Chapel, where flue had forbid a Popifh Bithop that officiated, to elevate the Hoff ; and as a farther publick Profeifion of her Re- gard to the Holy Scripture, the receiv- ed theBible in Englifh withgreat Marks of Regard at Cheapfde Conduit, in a Procefion thro' the City. Confidering the Queen was in the Infancy of a dif- puted Government, and had not the Authority of Parliament to fupport her in thefe Proceedings, it fhew'd great Regard for true Religion, to venture fo far herfelf. Mr. N. Pure was igno- rant of all thefe Tranfadions, when he fo pofitively afferted, " the onlyN's Hitt " Thing her Majefly did before thee. 113. " Meeting of the Parliament, was to " prevent Pulpit Difputes. But the grandAffair was the Ejia- bli/hrnent of Religion by the Authority of the whole Legiflature. This, con- fidering the State of the Nation, muff proceed originally from the Queen, be conducted by the Wifdom of her Coun- cils, encouraged and fupported by her Authority. The Temptations were firong, on the Side of Popery. Power- ful Sollicitations and important Propo- fals employ'd in its favour. But the Piety.

r 32 ' Piety of the Queen was refolute enough to furmount all thefe. Under the great- eft Difcouragernents, the refolves to at- tempt the Eftablifhment of the Prote- flant Religion. An Undertaking ex- treamly hazardous as well as diffi- cult ! Here a Queftion of great Con- fequence naturallyarifes. What Form thall be eftablithed ? Thofe who had feparated from the Church of Rome were not unanimous in their Opinions, nor did they agree in one uniformMan- ner of Worfhip. The Calvinifls and the Lutherans (not to mention others) had great Differences among them- felves, and each of them their Party. 'Twas impoffible for the Queen to fall in abfolutely with either of thefe, and not offend the other. And as the put herfeif at the Head of the whole Pro- tellant Intereft, it muff give her great Strength and Influence, not to be too much bigotted to a fingle Branch of it. Her Circumftances requir'dgreat Cauti- on. But ChriflianPrudence and Chriftian Charityhappily concurr'd in recommend- ing fuch an Eftablithment of Religion as might include the greateft Number of Proteflants, and give her the Aftili- ance of wife and moderate Men of all Parties. Befides, as the Nation in general was Popifh, it plainly appear'd an

[33J an Ati of great Compaffion to many Thoufand Souls, as well as neceffary to the Queen's Safety and the Succefs of the Reformation, to contrive; if it were pofiible; filch a Form of Iosfhip, without Idolatry; as might keep the Po- pish People in the Church, and fo give theman Opportunity of being inftruóted in the Principles of true Religion ; which, if they had been haftily driven away, they could never have had ; and in all Probability, fuch unfeafönad'le Aifterity mull have occafion'd a gene- ral Revolt and Infilrrec`lion in favour of the 2«een of Scots, the Popifh Heir, which would have deflroy'dQueenEli- zabeth, and with her the Proteftant Religion: For notwithftanding all the Precaution that was ufed, there were fome lnfurrections in favour of Popery. The true Scheme therefore, the wifef and moft charitable, was to unite, if poflîble, the different Parties of Prote- liants, and yet (due Regard being ftill had to the Effentials ofReligion) to engage the Papifts to come to Church. Let us confider a little what Methods were propofed, before we examine that which the Queen chofe. By Mr. N'sva. P so whole Account, the Reader muff ima- 7° °' alibijaI$ pi; give, that the Conteft about Religion was only between the Corruptions of Popery

C 3,4 ] Popery and the Purity of the afpel. But - Purely it is a very great Omiffion not to take any Notice of the `l'roteflant Brethren of the .LUTHERAN-'Church, as if they deferved no Regard or Con- fideration, when the Plan of . an Ella- blithment was forming. The Reader will judge how important this Omiffion is, by what Mr. Strype Pays in his Annals Ann. Vol. r. of ueen Elizabeth, " A difficult Work P. S3 " this that was now taking in. hand ; the Reformation of Corrupt Religion, `` being the harder to bring 'to pafs, " becaufe there. was net only in this cc Jun lure a formidable Popich Party " to ftruggle with, but a Lutheran " Party alco, for there was not a few cc now that, in the Alteration of Re- cc ligion would endeavour to have it `` fettled according to the Auguflan ee Confefon." Thofe that were for having this the of ablitli'd Form, gave a Reafon for it that was not without ibid. p. , 74. Weight, the better to join- in League with the German Proteflants, and thereby fupport and ftrengthen that In- tereft here. The Numberof thofewho favour'd the Lutheran Scheme, - was fo confderable, and the Arguments they ufed fomuch regarded, that many were apprehenfive they would carry their Point. " There were Thoughts now " of

C3s CC of receiving the ,4uguflan Confefon, " the better to join in League with " the German Proteflants, as one of " the Bifhops wrote to a foreign Di- " vine." There is a very remarkable Letter from the , learned /linger, chief Paflor of the Church of Zurich, upon. this Occafion. " I fee, fails he,Ibid. " no fmall Diflurbances like to arife, ` even in England alto, if the 4ugu- " flan Confeon be received, which " force would have ; a thing very un- worthy in many Regards. This, " lays he, gives Vexation to all the purer Churches,, and would infe6t cc them all with its Leaven. I pray ", God reftrain Men otherwife pious, but fufficiently troublefome, to godly " Men and the. purer Religion. And " you knowwhat was done in POLAND, beware, and lay to your helping Hand, that it be not received." He then adds a Declaration of great Im- rortance, cc KING EDWARD'S REFOR MATION SATISFI4TH THE GODLY. Video & in Anglia non modicas obíturas turbas, fi quad quidam (rem indigniffonam niultis modis) poftulant, reci- piotur 4«gsifiana Configio. Vexat hæc omnes £cclefias fin- ceriores, & cupit fuo fermento inficere otnnes. Deus co. herceat homines falls alioquin pion, at pietati puriori mo- lefias. Et to fcis quid fa tum fit in Polonia. Cave, & adjuva, ne recipiatur. Satisfacit piìs Edwardi Reformatio. E Epift AIS. in Bibbedh. Ecclef. Belg. Lod. vide Strype. D z The

[36] The Reader will certainly remember, that this was the Adviceand the 7udg- ment of fo confiderable a Calvinift as Bullinger, at a Time when this Mat-. ter was under Debate. From him we learn, that King Edward's Reforma- tion was the moil advifable Scheme, and would give Satisfation to all pious Men. Satisfacit (in the Prefent Tenfe intimating not only, that it had fatif- fied them in King Edward's Reign, but that it did fo now) Satisfacit plis Edwardi Reformatio. But, befides the Lutherans, there were other Proteftants, particularly force of thofe who had lived at Geneva, in Queen Mary's Reign, that earneftly prefs'd to have the Form of Worfhip and IDifcipline they had ufed in that Place eftahlifh'd here. They, as it was natural for them, gave the Prefe- rence to their own Model, as the Lu- therans did to theirs. The Number of the Geneva Exiles was very inconfade- rabie, compared with thofe that were difperfed at the many other Places. N's xicl. Mr. N. obferves, that thofe of Gene- p. 12.3. va [only] wrote to their Brethren of Arrow, 73afzl, Francfort, Strasburgh, Troubles of and Wormes (&c. as it is in the Origi- Franctort, nal, ihould have been added) defiring Edit. Isrs, mutual Forgivenefs [of what happen'd at

t 37 1 at Francfort] and that they would unite their Endeavours to obtain fach a Form of Worfhip as they had feen pradtifed in (what they call'd) the beff reformed Churches. The others, who were of different Sentiments, reply'd, that it would not be in their Power to appoint what Ceremonies should be ob- ferved ; but they were determin'd to fubmit to things indifferent, and hoped thofe of Geneva would do fo too :. " And that whereas all the reformedibia. p. ,s,. " Churches dyeramong thernfelves in " divers Ceremonies, and yet agree in " the Unity of Doctrine; we fee no " Inconvenience, [fay they] if we ufe cc fome Ceremonies divers from them, " fo that we agree in the chief Points " of our Religion." The Letter from the Church of Geneva was fign'd by eleven Perfons, Chriflopher Goodman, Miles Coverdale, John Knox, John Bodly, William Williams, Anthony Gilby, Francis Withers, William Ful- ler, John Pullen, William Bevoyet, William Whittingham. Thefe fign'd in the Name of the Church, That of Francfort was faid to be mofi nu-men,. Refor; merous, and amounted only to about vol. nr. $o Perfons; but making the great ft nufrt of Allowances, we cannot fuppofe, thatp. 13, the Church of Geneva, Minifters and D 3 People,

[ 38 1 People, did, at moil, amount to One Hundred . And of thefe Minilters feve- ral, tho' they prefer'd the Geneva Mo- del, yet could, and a&ually did comply with the eftablithed Form, and were Beneficed in the Church. Let us then take an impartial View of this Matter, and in order to form a Judgment, remember what Mr. N. Pays, Pag. 42. with an Air of Triumph againft Bithop Burnet," is it reafonable cc that the Majority tloulddepart from " their Sentiments in Religion, becaufe " the PRINCE with the Minority are of another Mind ? Sure then, if the Minority, even with the fupreme Ma- gifrate on their Side, had no Right to an Efablithment (for it is of that the Bithop is fpeaking, and to that Mr. .N. obj ó s) a Minority without the Prince, fo fmall a Number as ihould not be called a Minority, an Handful of Men, were extreamly unreajonable to expet the Efabli hment of their own Form of Worthip, and the Extirpation of e- very other. If the vat{ Numbers of gapfts, Lutherans, and of thole both from abroad and at home, who were for King Edward's Reformation, be confider'd,what Pretence, what Shadow of a Pretence had a :tingle. Hundred of Men from Geneva to claim the San- ¿ion

39 ]' pion ofpublick Authority,.to. enjoin and enforce their Scheme ? a Proje± as impraélicable as it was anreajonable ! Thus, the Lutherans and Calvini/ls were each for their Plan ; but there was a thirdPropofal, King Edward's Reformation. It happens, very unluc- kily that Mr. 11's, or, if he pleales, the Puritans Objections to this Plan, as it was re-eflablifhed by Queen Elizabeth, are really fo many Arguments in its Favour, with refped to , the feveral Parts of it, _`Doctrine, Government and IJorfhip. As to the firft Point, indeed, there was but little Difference ; however a Cenfure is pafs'd upon the Queen by Mr. N. himfelf, for not being rigid enough in her Opinions, and amongm,S nift, other Faults laid to her Charge, the isp. 113. blamed for being fond of old Rites and Ceremonies, thinking her Brother had firipp'dReligion too much ofits.Orna- ments, and made the Doi rines of the Church too narrow in forne Points. Something of the like Nature is infi- nuated in one of the. famous Admoni- tions to the Parliament, for the extir- pating the Epifcopal Government, and the eftabliíhing the Geneva Platform, or, in their Stile, the Holly Difcipline, wherein 'the Puritans make the 1o1low D4 ing

40 J ing Declarations : " For the Articles concerning theSubftance of 7 otrine cc ufing a Godly Interpretation, in a " Point or two, which are either too cc fparely, or elfe too darkly fet down, we are, and are ready according to " Duty, to fubfcribe unto them." For this, and other the like Reafons, Mr. N. gives them the Character of being zealous Calvinifis and Mr. Fuller Fuller 46. 9+ obferves, " force have unjuflly taxed P. 72' " the Compofers for too much Favour cc extended in their large Expreßions, cc clean thro' the Contexture of thefe " Articles which were penn'd in cc cornprehenfave Words, to take in all cc who dfering in the Branches meet cc in the Root of the fame Religion." That the Articles of the Church of England are 'fö fparely fet down as not to countenance the fevereft No- tions of zealous Calvinifts, is certainly true, and has been often proved, but efpecially by a late.judicious, learned and moderate Writer, in a Piece, in- tituled, An Apology for the Church of England ; printed for E. Widwinter in St. Paul's Church-Yard. This Gentle- man has íhewn, beyond all Contra- diction, that the Articles were com- piled with a Latitude, thatfairly ad- mits a Subfeription from thefe of the SentiT

[ 41 3 Sentiments of Arminius, as well as Calvin, Fie obferves, that among the Compilers, there were feveral Anti, Calvinians ; and, as thofe who compil- ed the Articles were not all Calvinifts themfelves, fo they were very far from defigning to frame Articles upon the rigid Calviniftic Notions. That as thefe Reformers were known to be Men of Temper, Prudence and Moderation, 'tis but Juftice to fuppofe, that in Points fo nice and intricate, they intended fuck a Latitude as would admit Sub- fcription, bymoderate Perfons, of what is nowcalled the Arminian, as well as of the Calviniftic Opinion. This Tem- per, fo agreeable to the general Prin- ciples upon which the Church of Eng- landwas eftablifhed, they likewife ob- ferved, with refpet to the Article of Chrift's _`Defcent into Hell ; for tho there are feveral Opinions about it, yet they have not fpecially determined which is the true one ; and were par- ticularly careful in the Review of the Articles, to f}rike out that Paffage, which decided upon the Point. That, as the fuppofing the Articles left in medio, between moderate and rigid CALVINISTS does not make them ufe- lefs fo neither does the leaving them n medio, between moderate Armini- ans

f 42 J ans and modere Calvinifis make them ofnoUfe,, becaufe they -exclude other Notions, which both Parties agreed in ; in particular, the ill Ufe that the Gofpellers made .. of Predeíli- nation, which brings them, as Bifhop Latimer expreft it, either to 3efpe- ration or carnal Liberty, He likewife appeals - to the Articles themfelves, and mentions feveral Par- ticularsheld by theArminians, by,which he obferves it eafily appears, that no one Propofition in all the Doórines of the Church of England concerning Predeftination, is contradióed by them. He takes Notice likewife of force Par- ticulars in which the Articles do not a- gree with the Calviniftic Scheme; they no where declare, that the. Decrees of God were made without any Regard to the good or bad Behaviour of Men ; but what is moft remarkable is, that they :atually dyer from the Calvinifs in that material Article . of vniverfal Redemption ; exprefsly afferting that Chrift's Death is a perfect Redemption, Propitiation, and Satisfa&pion for all the Sins of the , whole World; that this O- pinion runs thro' all the Offices of the Church, and is :directly oppofite to the Calviniftic Notion, that Chrift dyed on- ly for the Elea ; or in theWords of the We

C 43 1l'étminter Confeflion, neither are any other redeemed by Chrift. This Point of univerfal Redemption, is the chief Article of the Difpute between the Ar- minians and Calvinifms. ; and, as he ob- ferves from Dr. Whitby, who was well skilled in that Controverfy, draws all the refit after it. Here the Church differs from the Calvinifms. That agreeably to this .publick De- claration of our Church, the private Writings of the molt eminent Refor- mers,: fuch, as Archbifhop , Cranmer, Bithop Latimer, Bithop Hooper, &c. fpeak in the fame Strain ; he has pro- duced Quotations from them. He fur- ther obferves, that the principal Oc- cafion of Calvinifm taking any Root a- mong the EnglifhClergy, was in Queen Mary's Reign, when many of the Ex- iles fell into the Calviniftic Notions, which they learned at Geneva, Zu- rich, and other Calviniftic Churches ; that, notwithftanding this, feveral con- fiderable Divines were of different Sen-. timents, and the Articles continued, without any material Alterations, as to thefe Points, under Queen Elizabeth, the fame they were under K. Edward'. When thefe were compiled in that King's Reign, it does not appear any Deference was paid to Calvin's Judg- ment