Blake - Houston-Packer Collection BT155 .B53 1653

Y I N _D I I 1E I' V`E D E R !t' S; OR, A A TI S OF THE Covenant of ENTERED WITH NI A, N_ 1 .D. , In .this feveral Kindes and Degrees-dit IN WHICH c.'u.. . The agreement and refpe &ive differences of the eavenant of works, and the Covenant ofGrace, of the Old and New Covenant are difcufL. The conditions of the Covenant of Grace on mans part ; are afl.ïgnedand aifertcd, The tuft latitude and extent held forth , and againft all oppoftes defended, 'Several CoYollaries còntaining many heads of Divinity , ö controverted ; and practical points fingularly ufefull inferred. In particular the ne,ceffiry of a confiant retied Miniftery (to bring men into Cove- nant , and to bring them up to the termes of it,) and of Scbooles , and e'ur ferias of Learning, and an orderly çá11 in tendencyto Three Scripture- Texts by Mr. john Tombes in the firft part ofihîs.aflntipadobaptif ae folely'handled, and totally perverted, are fully vindicated. Infant -Rapt fine in that latitude, as now mule in reformed Churches; maintained.. By Thomas Blake, ifiniftér of the Gold.. AJl this k come úpon ras yet ham 119e nor forgotten thee, neither hive we dealt falfely in the Covenant, Pfal. 44. 17. .-- 1.or.1e n, 1'rintedfor4 beï doi er, at the ,.un aagai7ft Dzyt f'a, Church in Fleet -fireet. 1653

oaaaAbaaaaaaaoaaaaoaaaaaaaoaGOaa000aGGeoaooc. -e; ,,-' y%. a p% i1 %_ d'i% ¡ ae i ' Q0 BCC OGOGOOOOOOJ0000y0070,I1 gOGa000e00pC0a0BG08aa6aaa`0( To his Reverend,* Ll and much FHonoured pFriend, Mr. SAMV L LDEK SA M, Bacheler in Divinity , and Paítor of W e t- Felton in the County of Salop Together with M's. MARY HIL1)ER.SAM, his pious Confort. o time can wear out the memory of thofe favours which I have recei- ved from your hands ; You were of the fire that gave me a vifit , when few durft adventure themfelves un- der.the fame roof, being by the good providence of God, neceflìtated to leave a place forely al-. fliaed with the'Pëtilence ; and labouring under a F'eáver, wherewith prefently on my deparare God pleafed toalHi& me and were eye- witnef- fes of the mean accommodations, which-in thofe 2 ftraits

...------- The Epp Dedicatory. ifraits could be provided for we and my reve- rend brother with both our W vesand Families, all call tipdh the fame condition at that tii & you made it appear r ty r eye §14 c ¡our hearts in giving a free invifit 6i 'ó" me; and thole that had dependance upon me; to your hold; affòon as with fecurity we durff adven. tut: over any mans threthold where- .for many moneths we had free and liberal entertainment. If Paulin an _Fpilile did remember the like from Onefphorns (with fpecial obfervation, that he was not afhamed of his chaine) my heart Inuit needs have checked me , if having opportunity of Epiff ling according to receives cuftoni you fheuld have been forgotten. I fliall not be 11 ashamed of the language of beggers, if they have learnt it from fuch a hand ; The Lord grant unto you, that ye may finde mercy from the Lord in that day. In your honk I had not only lcifure to make a good progreffe in this Work, but fingu- lar accommodation from your accomplifht Li- brary . So that you have not only a deferved intereft its the Author , but in the Work it felf; upon fight of one part, you have often called up- on ire for publication of the whole.. So thati the Reader,4eap . any benefit , he may fee how large Ì 1

,The Ep.iftle Dedicatory. Ani large a are. e` a s - yä rS. kiiôs on; -Area dot . Pairee ri * rieitl et am I fittd -fog` them nor was aeenf o ned to them. There is ante h pnbl vvorld of one ofyou in the life of the revte elid Fát-her; tei whòni I have often in. my thoughts applied that of Doaof Hall concerning learned Whittaler ; Who ever faw him without tevereitte yr heard him without' wonder Having lead the Reader thF®ughi his glory, they adde : And yet his name with the lively piCiu re f hip perf©n lives , in his worthy fonne, Mailer Samuel Hïlderfam ; who f learning Cambridge knew when he wasFellow of Emmanu- el Colledge;and whof e prefentMinifieriai l labours,and pions converfation at Weft- Felton in Shroptlhire,do perpetuate the honour ofhis Reverend Father;who, fe memory he doth much reverence ; and whole rich vertues both perfonal and Mineriall he doth hap- pily imitate. And it is not little that is faid of the other , where it is remembered , that you were propounded by him, for a meet wife for his dearefi fonne; and recorded that be was heard with a f fe6iion to ingeminate thefe wordf ; Never man had a Binder daughter in Law. To be a follower of Inch a precedent , and to be found worthy of Inch a Teftimony, is a great 3 er

The Epfle Dedicatory. er glory then all the noble blood that ran through the veines of the greateft of either of your Anceftors. Let this (mall piece finde a roome in your Study and Clofet,, and tali- fie to the world that gratitude lives in the . breaft of From my ftudy in 2 amzvorth . No- vemb.4.' 1652,. Tonr áfe 6liónate friend and ervant, THO. BLAKE.

4404444444.444,444,44 t S + +4 +WM 44+ READER, He Reverend Althoff), of this 1'reatif e is already known to the fret by his for- mer Labours, which clo give fo faire a charaEier of his worth , and befpeakof thee, fo ready an entertainment of this excellent piece that were it not, that in this glut of books wherewith the world is cloyed, it might be unhappily buried out of thy fight ; We neither need, nor fhould prefix thefe few lines, tanquam digitum indicem, to point thee to it The fub, e i about which it is converf antis of noblef t rant e; viz. The Covenant of Almighty God with Man-kind, znhich is d f engui f ht into it's lindes;of Works,of Grace.And this againe, according to the f everal formes or modes thereof, Old, and New, which how they refpeCiively take hands land agree,wherein they !bale hands, and part. What the terms ofthe Covenant ofGrace are,as propound- ed by God , and what the conditions on mans part whereupon he (being thereunto reJonf al) becomes trimly a confederate ; what is the amplitude andcom- prehen iveneff thereof in refJe6i ofthe perfons that .' have right ofclaime to the priviledges or interefis of it, are all let firth in their varior 'colours, and fe drawne to the life, that thy f] not iiAe to be tired With

To the Reader. with reading ; but led on with an appetite foTharp and quick that when thou arriveji at the end, thou wilt complain of theJhortnef e of `the way. For in the do5ritre of the Covenant truly flated, an Qrtho dox Faith' bath fire foundation thence praCiic godlineffè receives powerful influence and obligation. Thereby very many error rs of feveral forts ofErro. mays by a tef e dr ftandard are re5i feed, or difcove- red; from thence our Sacraments do as it were- re- ceive afonl,and thofe pertinent and f afonable digref - Jions fúllowing in this book,concerning -the necety of is )(WedMin ery, &c. do by confequence receive both f i rend t and ufefulneffe. As concerning the rem Ines of a f mer controverfie about Pxd abaptii r,which are'.prefented to thee i,ì this Book, they are not ont of their own placeib a reatife of the Covenant.We(hall not adventure to fay any more thereabout; but in imi -, tation of that of Mr. Hooker in the Preface to his Ecclefiáticall P oIitie,jball crave to re =minde all agitatours of that or any other controverf e , That the time will come, when a few words delivered with meekneff of fitif°1ome, fhàil afford the -more romfori, then great von am s written witlìfcornefnt- nefe, and in the ffrment of a fower and angry flirit; for 'tis an honour to as y man to be a Slave to another mans rea(on and Mafie ofhis own pa ions, vale. Thine n the Lord Jefus, Richard Vine,. .i' un. F ilher.

1 Ns, `i° , Pg. + ` li! iÍt11 c -5- z- .7L, 7_ 7"._ Ì . A PREFACE To the R EADER. Hóuld I undertake by way of Preface to pof %(s the Readers ears with the whole Series ofa dif- pute into which among many others, :tho moll unworthy by providence I have been drawn, he might be fo long held in the Porch, that he would fcarce finde leafure to enter the Houfe ; yet to leave him altogether ,unfatisfied, may on the other hand be fome prejudice to his more clear apprehenfion of my purpofe, in - the enauing enlarged difcourfe. Refiding fometimes in London in the times of the late publike diftraElions,the Bre- thren in the Minìftery then ufually met once in the week, to debate fuch things for their more full fàfisfaction, that then in the Church were molt controverted. When that of In- ! fant-Baptifine (among many others)came in order to be put to the queftion,Mafter rombes was the only man that mani- fefted any fcruple in it, whichwas no fooner fignified, bat the whole Affembly manifefted their concurrent defires, with all tenderneffe and refpeEt of love, (which his place and worth might challenge)to endeavour his fatisfaEtion,which accOrdingly feveral dayes in a Syllogyftical difpute was en- deavoured, which labonr of love, if I (hall f -was. requited by him with nothing better then fcorn, and all evidences of A difre- ct Several pro_ ceedingsgivìng occafion to this Treatife.

i A Preface to the Reader. difrefpe6i, I fuppofe without a diffenting voice ; I fhall be cleared from calumny or detraftion; by all thole that either were agents in it, or witneffes of it : His refufal to take the place of an Opponent, that we might hear his arguments a- gainft us,when ours would not fatisfie,.is by himfelf confeft, Apol. pag. I Í I . And I muft not conceal his reafon, Becaufe the argument (faih he) wouldprefently lead them to oppofe,this being all my argument again Infant- Baptifyn,that I could well urge in dlute, that ii is not appointed by God, and foprefently, upon one or two fyllogifines,they muff become opponents againe, fäth Affirmanti incumbit probatio. Where by the way we may take up this from him, byway of conceffion, That there are no other arguments ro be urgedagainft this pradice,but fuch that are negative; no Scripture-text can then be urged, but only Scripture- filence preft; And in cafe he had refted here in his difpute againft uI fuppofe that allthat know the rules of difputation well; know, that we fhould have been _put oft the opponents work, as foóne as in, when we had produced grounds, his work mutt have been by ftrength of argu- ment, to have overthrown them; upon this occafion I com- municated to force choice friends fomewhat that .I had preached to my people at Tamworth,relating to this bufines. viz. The birth prìviledge and Covenant- holinefle of the iffue of Beleevers, and was not only encouraged,but earneftly fo- licited to make them publike ; About half a yeer after Mr. Mart ball publiffied his Sermon of the Baptizing of Infants, which he preached inhis morning Lefture, at the Abby in Weflminfter. The firft that appeared in oppofition of us both, was Matter- ch. Blackwood, in a Treatife called , The Storming of Antichrifl,&c. A work which Matter Marfhall defervedly neglected (though principally bent againft him) as unworthy of confutation and it might havebeen let alone, iftht weakneffe of his ftilowers is the neighbour - .hood where it was vented, (led then by the novelty of it)had not

ve. A Preface to the Reader. not perfwaded him that there was fome ftrength in it. He fhe xäes the cruelty, inequality, and injuftice of corn pulfion of conscience, by 29. Arguments : he puts twelve Argu -' merits againft Infant- baptifrn in his. Title, eleven in his book. The ftrength of the 29. he himfelf fufpets, and gives his reafons, in his Poftfcript to his Rejoynder; and I (hall wait and pray, that God may difcover tp him the weakneffe of the other :. He profeflèth himfe4 much 'ffe6ted (as every Chriftianought) with the divifions`pf thee times, and de- fires that it may not be deemed pride,or pwcincfre in him to give his advice: Let Chriftians (faith he) cande f cend one to another;. Let the Presbyter and nicknamed Independent, or Congregatio- nail confent to the nicknamed Anabaptift,or Antipedobaptift,to explodelnfant- Baptifine, &c. This I confeffe were the way to be at quiet in that particular,, though when that were done, we fhould have manifold more and endleffe contro- verfies. Bucer bath long fince obferved, that this is the root from whence Errors of all forts fprout. And may not I ad- vife that thefe Anabaptifts , or Antipxdobaprifts (whether right named,or nick - named) w, Auld receive Infant - Baptifm with the Church of Chrift in fucceffion from the Apoftles, as firmly bottomed in the Scriptures And this root being cút off, all the enormous branches we might hope would wither. The yeere following, vit z 64.5 Mafter Tombes appeared in his Exercitation andExamen,direBeing the laft in fpecial to Mailer Marfhall, and dealing with him in particu- lar, not out of his own choice (as he tells his Reader, Apol. II I.) but out of i cefhry, led thereunto by providence, which muff be fame fecret inftin61, i..:ch as led the milch- kine with the Arke towards Bethjbernejh : Ail reafon would have perfwaded to have made choice ofthofe_ that fofreely had communicated their grounds,in defire of his fatisfa Lion, and fo earneftly defired his for refutation. In this Examen I am upon all occafions taken in, not to receive any fatisfa- A 2 lion,

A Preface tothe Reader. }ion, but meerly (as the Reader may fee) as an object of fcorne, manifefling his high difpleafure againfi any :man (pointing them out by name,) that had fo much as in com- mon difcourfe given any approbation of my paines. And becaufe my words as he findes them from my hand,will not ferve his defigne,he is put to it to render them,both in words and fenfe his own, which though he bath heard of, and hash not been able to anfwer one charge of ten, of fuch his falli- fications, yet he holds on in his wonted way, and both in his Apology and Antidote (hewed himfelf fo groffely guilty, that a man might think he had at once caft offall regard,either of confcience or reputation. Several pens have, been employed to examine thisExamen,a lift wherof he gives his Reader ;To thefe he replies joyntly in a Treatife which he ftiles not an Anfwer,(as indeed it is not)but anApol.and fuch a one, that a learned friend of mine certified me before I faw it, that it re- quired not any anfwer to it,but anApol.for it-,My anfwer gi- ven to thatExamen in which I was fo much concerned,com- ing in after all the reft, and as it appears to his hands (I know notby what honeft artifice)peice -meal from thePreflè,I am not taken in till p. 77.and there I am faluted;But that I may bear more then an equall fhare he lets upon me apart in a Poftícript,containing more then one half as much paper, as he had fpent on all the other ; And this he entitles cal Po fl- fcript,wherein is a Reply to Maher BlakesAn finer of myLetter; but what kinde of Reply he can meane, I know not how to conjecture; upon occafion of Mr. Vines & Mr.calamy's tefti- mony (where they are pleafed to fay that my Anfwer is for argument finewy, and for languagemodeft) he faiesp. i ix .. of hisApology,whether this Anfwer f Mr.Blakes be finewy far Argument, I hope in time to examine; fo that the firength of the finews (this Apology notwithftanding) by his own con- feffion remains; Tet untried ; And page 2. he faith, his caufe contains either the matter, or the manner of his Treatifes, and plainly

..""444*Nik..mearmon.. A Preface to the Reader. plainly fignifies that the clearing of himfelf from' tome complaints and charges in the manner of handling the whole bufineffe, is'the work of that Apology, which yet is fo done, that fome of his antient and neareft friends have told him, that they have been afhamed to read what he bath written; Though I did prefently prepare a rough draught by way of. Rejoynder, yet this confideration (with the advice that, I re- ceived from the Stationer,that this Apology lay by the walls little looked after) put me upon a refolution to wait till E fhould fee his ftomach difgorged wholly , that I might at once receive the whole offhis ftrength,which hitherto l have found to be formidable only in flourifhes and calumnies,but the Proverb is verified, Threatened folks live long. He refl., ed fatisfied with hisApology fix compleat years,though there . is fcarce one year paft, but I often heard that an Anfwer to all Antagonifts was coming forth. In the mean (pace his in- fultations and cries of victory found in the ears of all that have any occafion of converfe with him,magnifying his own works to the pitty and fmile of his friends, to the fcorn and reproach of his adverfaries, vouching a learned man that told him that he had brought the handling of Divinity Controverfies into a Scholaftical method; All(it feems)may learn ofhim,he bath learnt of none;Ego primes inveni,is his glory : Suare7, Bellármine, Valentia, Stapleton among the Jefuits; Zanchius, Whitaker, P.nivzs, Reynolds, 7hìff è, Pride aux, nor any other among the Proteftants can reach him in their Polemicks. The Conceffions which he fuppofeth he . hath gained from his adverfa.ries, he holds out as fo many rich fpoils,boding a Conqueft.The tweaks and ftraits which he him felf is brought into, with. his fhuffies, tergiverfations, contradiF,tions, his light received from Jefuites , he leaves for difcourfe for his Readers. I only fay,if his arguments were as high as his confidence, none would land in his way; and if his confidence had bin as low as his arguments,he had A 3 never.

A Preface to the Reader, never expofed hinifelf to fuch notable baffles. But after fo long a paute, he gives a warning- piece, at lait to expeCt him in 1 _ full ,,uit1a ice in Prince -like Majefty fending out his Prxcur tr Cr) "orerunner (as he words it to a large review of the diff'ps enternie`a 'Infant- Baptifine; A way unbefitting his place,! .t =well enough fuiting with his fpirit. This is molt fpent perfonal quarrels with Mr. Baxter, about a confer- ence held within Bewdly Chàppel, and occurrences concern- ing it.His pen is dipt in fuch inke as might be expelled from his hand The Reader may obferve that which favours of fuch bloody revenge, that is not to be mentioned.One cen- faire of his I cannot omit, The Magiflrate a ilranger to the meetings of the godly in their hou fes; The Minifler (fuch as he is) for' his credit, and others of fornervhat like jam'', it is likely, did invite Mr. Baxter to oppofe me, as they have done their Schoól&nafer to make life of their abilities to uphold theirDagon of Infana- ffrinkling.But Matter Baxters abalfe of Scriptures fo palpably impertinent,hismanaging the difputc with reafonings of wit, and other carnal wayes, do afJure me he had no call from Cod. How eafily can Mr. Tombes get aflàrance what is of God, ant £.L t againft him , becaufe it is likely that fuch men (towards whom he ufes his liberty it pleafure) invited Mr. Baxter, and Mr. Baxter ufed wit in his reafonings, and made ufe of Scriptures in Mr. Tombes his judgement imper- tinent; therefore he had no call from God. I do not doubt but Mr. Baxter judged Mr. Tombes his Scriptures as imper- tinent asMr.Tombes did Mr.Baxters,and as I little doubt but Mr.Tombes would have made ufe of more wit,could he have found it as ready. Methinks Mr. Baxters great fucceffe in that dayes work, might with Mr. Tombes have been an ar- gument as ponderous to conclude his call from God, as all of thefe to conclude it was not from him : But all this is to uphold the Darn of Infant- fprinkling, I would demand of Mr. Tombes,whether the Apoftle to the Hebrews Both not call

A Preface to the Reader. call Jewifh fprinklings by the naine of Baptifines:'Heb.9. io. whether the garments of warrioursbefmeared and fprink- led with blood are not :laid to be baptized, Revel. 19. I3. and I fay 63. r. compared? and then he may fee whither his jeere reacheth. Mr.Baxter tells himhe never law Infant fprinkled; but were they fprinkled, and that practice an Er- ror, (which Mr. Tombes will never evince till he bath holpen us to a new Edition of the Greek Teff. & corre ted our Le- xicons) `yet muff it be a Dagon-worfhip :' He is very angry with Mr.Ley becaufe he hears from him the name ofGoliab; fure that moufter never uttered more reviling wordsagainff the armies oflfrael,then he Both againff the church ofChrift; was he himfelf baptized into Dagon Do all the Churches of Chrift (in the midft of which he walks) fall down before Dagon :' Was he fomany yeers a worfhipper of Dagon It is wonder that when Mr. Tombes comes in that glory (as he imagines) to bring an Arke againft it, that this Dagon doth not fall flat down before it! This he plainly enough fig - nifies was his high expe &ations; Prxcufor, pag.2. he faies he fuppofed affoone as he appeared,his brethren in theMini- fferywould have joyned:but he fadly complain of the con- trary. Whether it were (faith he) that mens re/%lutions were pitched on the patterns of other Churches, or fwayed with preju- dice, or fear of fomething elfe, I quickly found my hopes decei- ved; my very Venting from them though in this candid man- ner begetting enmity towards me, and notwithflanding my rea fans prefented to them, Pxdobaptifme of ablif bed in the Dire- ¿fory. That Afff'mbly, or any other member of it (or any one that obferves the Directory by them fet out) may tell him that this is no fufficient enumeration. There is that (by him not named) that lies at the root, and makes men his ad- verfaries uponhis diffent.They upon trial have found his ar- guments to be both illogical, and atheologiaj; void of Art, and more remote from any divine Scripture- grounds . The moff.

i A Prefacet;to the Reader. ' moft confiderable he hath borrowed from the jefuites (who agree with him in under - valuing the Covenant made with our fathers, and calling Infants out of Covenant ) which have been anfwered over and over (before Mr. Tombes e- ver entered the lifts; yea,before he drew breath,) by their adverfaries; Doctor Featley having traced Mr. Mountague, through Arminius, and Bertius, ding the feif- fame autho- rities,Scriptures,reafons,fathers,and for the molt part in the fame words with them applies to him an Epigram of Sir Thomas Moores made upon one whom he names Gallus, and whom he had traced through the ancient Poets, Vatibus idem animúfque & veré f iritas idem Zvi fuit antiquis, eft mob, Galle,tibi. Carmina námque eadem, verfufque frequenter eofdem uos f ecére illi, to quoque, Galle, fads. I may apply the fame with as good reafon to Mr. Tombes, that he bath the fpirit of the late fefuites,whether by way of calumny or truth, let that which bath been Paid in my An- fwer to his letter,and what Cod willing (hall be faid,demon- ftrate. It is great pity he Mould take all this pains and tra- vell with fuch big expectations of reformation in this bufi- neffe, and no man undeceive him, in letting him know that he is not a man for this work, never like to be the leading man of any fuch Sea, or fpreading faction ; He wants a rol- ling glib tongue, to carry it out in a fmooth taking way, to Work on the fancies of the ignorant multitude: One Haggar, one Collyer, &c. or any of their pitch (as oppofite to him in other things,as all are to the truth) in this will have three for one to glory in, efpecially having the countenance of men in military command: Some that they may be lifted as foul- diers,others that they maybe employed as Laundreffes, &c. are contented to be lifted among dipped Saints, when that wafhing(with fame high invectives again ft theLords day,the order and fubfiftence of the Miniftery) is all that appears in -- them

A Preface to the Reader. them towards fanâity. Mr. Tombes is a man that pretends to argument,and would perfwade that he will convince with reafon; This is not for every mans underftanding,and thole that can underftand him are able eafily to returne anfiver to him; he is much too high for thofe that in this Controverfie know little, and as much too low for them that know any thing to purpofe : And indeed I think it a fpeciall provi- Í Bence that he fhould thus appear with a Phew of learning, a volume of words, a rhapiody of Authors,getting a name to be the ftrongeft fword and buckler that was ever lift up in this caufe ; to draw the eyes of his party towards him, and then fall fo flat. able to make good nothing; fo that men far from cenforious vanity,well able to judge(upon ferions per - ufal of his works,and,converfe with him) do conclude,that it is not poffible buthé goes againft thedic`tates of his own con - fcience.Ifhall delire no more from any that are able to judge, but that they will read Mr. Tombes Poftfcript fo farre as Iam concerned, and compare it with my Anfwer to his Letter, which in that Apology he oppofeth, and then impartially give their judgements,whether it be in any part fatisfa &ory,or in the leaft degree anfwering his Pelf- opinione HisPrxcur for being thus fent before,after feveral moneths revolution (expeEting that by this time fuch an harbinger had made all ready), he is pleated in perfon to followafter, not in full body with all his puiffance at once, but ftep by ftep, a way more becoming Rate and greatneffe; In his firft entrance making the boldeft addreífes, entering the higheft companions, frill referving to himfelf (if the fword of the Spirit have any priority in glory) the preeminence; Then fending forth one piece, that as a Lion by his paw, fo he by this may ftrike terror in his adverfaries in the thought of the formidable power of that which follows ; The mountaines havebeenlong in travell, and' the ferious Reader will no doubt admire the birth that is thus far, to his wonder, come a forth.

A Preface to the Reader. Motives indu- cingtheauthor to unde;t;ke this Traufe. forth.. But in cafe the other members hold any proportion with this (which we look upon as the head) for bulk I (hall with him in the perufal of all. i. A great deale ofleifure, fo many Tomes will not be fo eafily digefted as here is boded; He mull have much (pare time, if he fpare fo much time as to run all over. 2.More induflry and diligence to follow our Author (at, lea (t in very many places) without any clew in his labyrinth.As to inftance in hisvindication of his ten great Arguments(Secl. 2. of this firft part) from Mr. Geree's An fwer. He gives no account of the Argument it felf farther! then can be pickt out of fo much of Mr. Gerees Anfwer as he is pleafed to repeat, but his Reader muff be at the coft for his Apology, and then at pains to fearch the Seciion and page for it. He acquaints us with anfwers of Mr. Gerees, but we know not the book, where thefe anfwers are, and when we have it, we mull hunt it through to finde the bufineffe in a- gitation.The Reader that is intent upon the truth,will finde this to be a bufineffe. 3. Above all,I (hall with him patience as to bear all this bulk, (for none knows whither it may fwell) and undergo all this toil; fo to fuller all that he muff meet withal,fuch_ that can be found in few other learnedAu- thors, and being thus prepared, I (hall not fear, but by Gods affiffance, he may paffe through the work without danger of taint in his judgement. As to my fellI requeft one thing from Mr. Tombes,that in cafe hevouchfafe any Reply to that which he (hall finde in reference to himfelf in this Treatife, that he will take care that force befides himfelf may take to bean anfwer, and that when he bath anfwered, his friends may not fä11 importune him for an anriver as in his lift it fared with him, as page 49. of his Antipad. we havefrom his own hand. But to leave what is_paff, and give Come account of my- purpofe in theevork in hand,being thus farre engaged in this bufineffe, I.was unwilling to be filent, left the truth (for which,

A Preface to the Reader. which I Rand, and make it my glory to own) íhould fuller. How to proceed to the heft advantage of truth, was with me the great queffìon;I law perfonal confliáls and bickerings of this nature (where ever I meet with them) to be wearifome &ungratèful,there is much time often (pent with very little fatisfadion to the Reader, even where moll fatisfaóion is given to the adverfary ; He muff be followed in fuch paths he goes, which often are nor very acceptable to the Reader to accompany.And for the bufinef e in hand,tiil the around -work be right laid, and well underflood, the fuper- &rudure in any fuch difpute (managed in the molt dextrous way that is conceivable ) will fcarce fettle thofe that are weak, and not yet well informed or eftablifhed. I judged it therefore a way molt fatisfatory, and of greateff and molt probable hopes, fo the clearing not only of this Controver- fie, but many more now in agitation, to adventure upon a full Treatife of the Covenaat,whichGod bath entered with man, and the various difpenfations, and diverfifications of it;whether fuch as were occafioned by mans fall,or thatGod according to his Sovereignty, by his juft Prerogative hath been pleafed to order ; where this is not in force meafure clear, the ftate of the Queftion about Infant- Baptifine,and many more truths of greater weight will lie obfcu re. Matter Baxters words in his Preface to the Reader before his Apho- rifines of Juftification are very remarkable: rt is not in flu- dies (faith he) « it is in manifaaures, that one man may begin where another`é t; but every man muff fetch it from the very principles him el f neither can we take the words of those that haveftudied it before us, for that is neither a found nor f atisfa- ¿tory knowledge (quoting Mr.Pemble,) thence it comes to pale e that while we are bu f e in examining our fore - fathers inventi- ons, and pofterity employed in trying our Examinations, neither -we nor they have much time to adde any thing frr the encreá fe of learned knowledge. Now the Covenant muff needs. be the a z principle

. ..._ rs- The Authours diffeet from forres A Preface to the Reader. principle where we mnfl begin to get knowledge of the Peals of the Covenant; This way therefore (refling on divine af- fiftance) I have chofen, quickened to it as by the excellen- cy and great concernment of the fubjed, fo allo by the de- fires of many that this thing in a jufiTreatife might be hand led;And when my thoughts were moll full of it, and bufieft about it, and force preparations made for the work; the Sta- tioner by letter folicited, that I would enlarge my Birth- Priviedge, and fit it to thefe prefent times, and he would fee it publifhed ; Hereupon I went on in the work (a Scheme of 1 which follows herein an Analytical Table) in which I have received help from many (as my flender furniture and Itrength with leifure to attend the perufal of them would give leave) yet I have tied my felf to follow none ; I think there is fcarce any thing in which I am fingular, I have fo Ì much childifh fear as fcarce ro dare to walk in publike where I am alone, yet in feveral things I fhallbe found todiffent !; from others, and thofe of eminent name with whom I fliould bluff) to have any thoughts of comparifòn There are diffenttings among thofe that are of highefl repute. Ia fuch cafe no inferiour can agree with both parties, and ther, fore it muff not be deemed any piece of arrogance or fingu larity, to leave the one : where I am put to it to differ, the Reader (hall finde my reafon together with my opinion..If better light lead himanother way, I (hall never defire that_. be (hail go with me blindfold, or leave the truth to have me.' his companion ; yet leaft in leaving me, he fhotld let go the. truth it felf, I (hall only requeft an unprejudiced and unby4 afs'd judgement; If he bring a blood {_hot -eye, all will ap- pear of a wrong colour. It cannot be hoped but that wa ding through fo many particulars, I (hall meet with oppo- fition from Tome hands;I would only let fuch know firfl,that. I have made ngman my adverfary out of will, as..defirous, . to be a man. of contentions,. I. fonietimes clofe with my greaten.

A Preface to the Reader. greateft adverfaries, and fometimes diflent from my moff honoured, and admired friends : I think I have-as thong an antipathy againft quarrels, as Lathers againft covetoufneffe: Q only leave where that light that for prefent I enjoy, leads me another way. 2. That I have wrote nothing but that which as I beleeve, fo I refolve (God aíliftin:g) to hold, till a more clear light detec`I my errour. There are few things that have vented, but many yeers have held my thoughts, words or (hews, will notwork me out of theirs. `3. That I am not yet fo wedded to an opinion , but am ready to yeeld up my felf to be over - ruled by reafon ; He is the happieft man that lies under the conqueft of truth. 4. That no man ! (hall difpleafe me that will deal argumentatively with me either by the clear immediate teftimony of Scripture, or ar- I gums is by juft confequence derived from them ; but in cafe Dä11 meet with fuch dealing as I have found, to have my words by enterchange made not mine,but the adverfa- ries own,my Arguments mifreprefented,and held out to the halves;I fhali give thole leave to hold up & purfue quarrels with their own fancies. My years and employments , toge- therwith my weakneffes,wil be a fufficient Apology to hold me back from intermedling in fuch trifles. And for the Rea- der that would read for fatisfaEtion,, I would acquaint him, Firít, that I have made it my bufineffe to oft the whole mould and Series of the work; that he may finde method and order in it,and if at any time through inadvertency or other - wife, he be at lofl'e, and efpecially if he take not the whole work before him (as I. fhould defire) he may foonehave re- courfe to the Analytical Table, and fee in what order that which in prefent his eye is upon , ftands- in the whole di -- courfe; If he gaine no advantage by the method into which it is caft, much paines and induftry.of mine is loft. Secondly, That I have made it my Rude to leave out'l no piece or part, which may be fairly loóke for within this a 3 Ver.e 4 Advertifeméts to the Rcader conrerningthe prefent work,.

A Preface to the Reader. Verge, but have endeavoured to take the whole into con- fideration, ttudying to avoid two extreams, the one much prejudiciall to the Reader in Treatifes of this nature, to give us a bareskeleton of bones and finewes, leaving their Readers to clothe them with skin and flefh : Thefe ferve better to help their memories that are already feen in the fubjed,then to help thofe with fatisfadion that are not al- ready verft in it, Memorix mater ingenii noverca. I would learnedAmefius in his Medulla Theologi.e,Cafes of Confcience, and other learned Works,had not,affeding brevity, herein been defeótive. Sure I am, the Reader might well with,that learned Carnero's work De triplici frdere had by his own hand been more inlarged,& that he had fpoken more fully; where his Reader may fee caufe juftly to dole with him,and given in his Reafons efpecially in feveral differences (which he afligns between the Old ( which he calls the fubfervi- ent Covenant) and the Covenant of Grace, where many fuppofe they have caule to diffent from him. The other extream might be the Readers benefit, but would have been my burden, and that is an enlarged full difcourfe on every particular Divinity - head,that may occur in thehand- ling of this Subject, a waywhich reverend Mafter Ball in- tended, I have heard it from thofe that received it from his own mouth, that his purpofe was to fpeak on this Sub jed of the Covenant, all that he had to fay in all the whole t ody of Divinity ; a°work that the whole Church might with ( had not divine providence determined otherwife) that he had enjoyed life to finifh. That which he hath left behinde gives us a tafte of it, and the advantage the Church might have received by it. I have thought it e- nough to handle each particular, fo as might well anfwer expectation in reference to the prefentfubjet: To fpeak of Chrift as a Nediatour of the Covenant, and to fet forth the dittin& parts of his work in fuch mediation without handling

. ___ ._ if Preface to the Reader. handling the whole of the work, and all the Offices inci- .dent to.his Mediatorfhip : To fpeak of his death ratifying the Covenant of grace, waving the controverfie of the extent of it, in the intention of God, or purpofe of Chrift ; It is fiifficient to me to offert Faith to be a con- dition of the Covenant neceflary to be put in by us to attain the mercies in the Covenant, to fpeak of it fo far as is here concerned without a large Treatife of the nature, requifites, and life of it ; fo I may fay of godly farrow, ceffation from fin, fincerity of obedience, and the like. Thirdly,Thofe particulars relating to this fubjeet, which are molt controverted,and in this age difputed,I have fpoke to more at large ; to inftance in force. The Conditions of the Covenant of Grace, as well to the an lint,? whe- ther there be any fuch conditions at all which in our times by feverall hands out of feveral Principles is denyed ; Or the u e tint ? what there conditions belaying down rules and helps for the better difcovery of them. The fup- pofed differences between the old and new, Whether fuch that offer injurie to the Covenant, under which the Fa thers lived, under Mofes his adminiftration, or before his dayes, making it a meer carnal Covenant , confifting of temporall promifes, as the poffeffion of the land of Cana- - an, and proteí`tion there, or at the leaft a mixt Covenant, and no pure Gofpel - Covenant,and the feals fuiteable ' Or fuch that put too great a limit to the Covenant in Gofpel- times,vefting it onely in the elec± regenerate,excluding all profeffed ones not yet regenerate, not onely from Cove -1" pant-mercies,but allCovenant- terms,not admitting any to ftand in any relation to God,but thofe onely whom hisSpi- rit hash changed,making the call of God in the largeft fenfe convertible with Election, and the foal of Baptifm to be of no greater latitude (unleffe a miftake mif-applied) then the feal_of the Spirit, and determining it in the perlons of the elect

A Prefacet to the Reader. ( about which the meer congregational men and the Antipxdobaptifts agreeing in the former, do differ ) that they excluding the feed , and leaving them in the fame condition (hope of education excepted ) with the Heathens : In thefe and force others, as the Reader may meet withall, I have been more large; in Inch things where all agree, or where it much skills not whether we agree or differ ( as in what place, whe ther on earth , or heaven,man had enjoyed immortality in cafe he had not finned ) what need we to adminifter matter of contention, our work is to make up breaches (were it poffible,fo far as it may ftand with truth ) and not to widen them. Fourthly, I have not fo tied up my felf to the expreffe immediate doórine of the Covenant, but that I have occa- fionally drawn Corollaries or Inferences leading to other 'things ofneer relation to, and neceffary dependance upon 'this-of the Covenant; I fhall not need to give inftance, the Reader all along will meet with them,fuch as I thought would be ufefull and to the judicious not ungrateful, force tof them pradicall, that the whole of the Book might not be found to be polemical, ayming at leaft at that which the Poet, fo cryes up ---omne tulit punaum, qui mifcuit utile Fifthly, For that part in which I have moft to deal with my old Antagonift ( which I am advertifed,) is leaft red,becaufe now of leaft Lire, in regard that Point to fo great fatisfadion bath been fpoken to at large. And Ma- iler rombes is generally lookt upon low enough under hatches)the Reader may fee that I have fpoken to it one- ly as ( according to my method laid down) I have beene neceffitated, and fo that the Covenant had not been vin- dicated( acccording to my duty ) in cafe that had been neg- leded. I mu 0 affert the fpirituality of the old Covenant, and maintain that the Gofpel was preached as \yell 0 t i o them, as

ter..., .0111W A Preface to the Reader. as to us, that they ate the fame fpiritual meat, and drankc the fame fpiritual drink, and here, by him I am oppofed. I muft aitert the juft latitude of the Covenant, making a difference between the Covenant as vouchlîfèd of God, and accepted by us, and our anfwer to it, as alto the ex- tent of it, not determined in their perfons that thus en- ter, but that it reaches their feed ; Here allo I am contra- dried, having no rminde,nor yet daring to quit there tru the in my vindication,togetber with other branches of this do- drine,they muft be vindicated ; If the Reader pleafe to wave this,I trait the reff will not charge his purfe to repent - ance,though Mr.Tombes his unexpected appearance while f t this was in Preffe, bath caufed it to fwell fomewhat big - ger; and yet in this let thole that pleafe to heed, know, that Firft, Here they may fee the dependance that this controverfie hath on the doL`trine of the Covenant that a Scripture Covenant cannot be afferted,but Infant-Mein- berfhip, Infant - Baptifm in the latitude, as now generally tiled by Paftors in their Congregations, muft be upheld. Secondly, the order in which this controverfie is here car - ried,may fo much the rather invite the Reader to it, feeing what is in Mafter Tombes laid down fcatteringly, without regard to any head of doctrine in the Covenant to which it doth relate, here it is reduced to its proper place, and carried on in that manner as an orderly Treatife, and not a perfonal conflia;following the adverfary no farther then as he Rands in the way,to cloud the truth that is there prole- cuted; and though many advantages are hereby négleEted, that might have been taken, which adverfaries ufe to prole- cute to the uttermoft,and my adverfary would to the height haveimproved;.yet I am very well pleated, making it my bufinefs,that my Reader may not be troubled, but edified. Thirdly, the Scriptures that are produced,. and ordina- rily agitated in this controverfie of Infant - Baptifm, are not b onély

WO* A Preface to the Reader. onely urged, but a juft Analyfis of the context opened, the full fcope and drift laid down, fo that it, may appear that the words are not enforced, but of themfelves in their native ftrength commend that doctrine to us ; that of 9 e- rome, Apol. adverfus ?ovinian much takes with me, Com- rnentatoris, o f ficiurn efl, non quod ip[e velit, fed quidfenti4t il- le Tian interpretatur exponere ; Alioqui fa contraria dixerit , j non tarn interpres erit, quàm adverfaraus e us quern nititur ex- planare ; And let the impartial) and learned judge whether fomewhat more clear light is not here added to their full meaning and the adverfaries Sophifines more cleerly de- tected. Fourthly, The leaft blow which Mr.Tombes recei- ved (purpofely intended for him) was from Mr. Baxters hand, which work contains many irrefragable Arguments to affert Infants Church- Memberfhip, and Baptifin ftárn fèveral Scripture- Texts, if not of themfelves plain, yyet made plain, fo that he needs not blufh at his Title ; but he d.oth not make it his bufineffe fully to anfwer Argu- ments on the contrary ; where he is moft full, I have been moft brief; where he is more brief, I have been more large; he bath fatisfied his Reader,' hope the Reader will fay that I. have in that part done fomewhat for fatisfadion of my adverfarie. Sixthly, The beft part of this Treatife (as the advice on the top of the leaf may liignifie) is no more then a new Edition of, with an ample addition to my Birth-Pri'viledge, which above my expcdation found fo good acceptation, onely (handling it there Sermon-wife, as fixt on a ioroper Text, and here by way of Treatife,( as a branch of this do- &rive of the Covenant,i i was put to it in a great ` part to change the method and texture of it, fo that it may rather feem to thole that comparethem, a new frame with much borrowed film it, then the fame reprinted and enlarged -and there I have endeavoured Iatisfaction to -that which Mafteb

A Preface to the Reader. Matter Fir'intiath laid in the way, admitting Infants not according to their Parents= priviledge, but qualification not as they Hand in relation to God, but as they fill up their relation ; which new limit I hope I have difcoveed to be unwarrantably put , cafting thofe out which the Church ( according to the minde of God ) from Abraham to this time hath received, to the difquiet of our Congre- gations , and multiplication of our fad, and deplorable differences.. Seventhly, I have made it mybufineffe to avoid all im- pertinencies and unneceflaty dilatations, being ambiti- ous to fpeak multa in paucis, and not to put the Reader to pains to finde out a little which may ferve his purpofe in much, .affecting brevity fo far as may be without ob- fçurity : In all which, I thall onely requeft two things of the Reader,and both of them fuch that God himfelf corn- mands. Firft, Not to have the faith of our Lord Jefus Chrifl,the Lord of glory with refped of perfons, that he do not take aneftimate of do6trinal points,orcontroverted opinions,ac- cording to the outward garb in which men appear, by rea- fonof any dignity,relation,power,or any fuch circumftance whatfoever ; If this once prevail,opinions will be taken up, not according to the ftrength of truth, that is feen in them, but according to the quality of him that vents them; they zvill judge of the faith by the men, not of the men by the faith ; and upon this account on all hands truth is in dan- ger And as men in their reputations ebbe and flow, their judgements of things inuft hold up or fall. Truths fome- ti,nes. will be ca ft off, barely on the low repute, and mean condition of filch that do deliver them. Though Chrifi' fpal eas never man fpake,and all treafures of s\ if lone were hid in him, yet it was enough againft him that he was a Carpenters.for ,Matto 13.5 5. that none orthe Pharifees b, and A donble re quell made coi the Reader.

¡ A Preface to the Reader. and Rulers beleeved in him, or fidedwith him,òhn 7.48. A poor man may lave a City, and never the lefie his wif dome defpifed, Eccicf. 9.16. fometimes becaufe they are . not men of our interefts that hold it, they make not up a party for us. The more conliderable the interefl is, the greater the hazard ( in thefe cafes) truth runs. Paul being brought before a Councel Ars 23. had not a man ofwhom we can read for him, but all againít him, for this reafon, becaufe it did not appear that his opinions` ferved any of their Intereíls ; when he obferved this, and, i law their Interefls divided, and that his adverfaries made two parties, he declares himfelf to be for the Intereft of the one a.gainft the other , and in point of the Refurre6ii- on to be for the Pharifees againff the Sadduces, bred up' in that way,a.nd fo perfifted ; hereupon having riot a friend I before, now he hath many : There arofe agreat cry; and the Scribes that were of the Pharifees part arofe, and firove, fizy- ing, We linde no fault in this man, but if fpirit, or an An- gel bath f poken to him, let us not fight again", God, Verf. 9.. now and not before he mull be heard. Upon the fame terms' that truth is call off, error is received and taken in, no -' thing mull be gainfaid,that men of narne,and men of Inter -' eft will appear to own ; yea, relations, kindred , and afe- . 'ions this way gained,are mightily prevalent, to work into Fa ion and take up Tenents. As difeafes many times run' in -a blood; fo allo opinions where they take in a kindred, of-. ten very few efcape. Twenty Sermons,were Paul,yea je- fus Chrift in the Pulpit, would not fo take to fettle men in the truth, as one poor Letter, or temple fenleleffe three - pennie Pamphlet from the hand of a childe, a brother, or filler will work to draw into Error. I will not here un- dertake to determine who are meant by children in that- fpeech of our Saviour Chrifl, Matth.12.z7. It appears that. it fpake Tome relation, that drew affeions, and therefore whereas,

A Preface to the Reader. whereás'Chrift is cenfured to caft out Devils by Reed eáarb. the chief of Devíls, when any of thefe do fuch a work,they are cryed up in another manner. It was a true Obfervati- on of him that faid,ornnia diia tanti .eflimantur,gnantuná ee ipfe q'ui dixerit, nec tain dióhonis vim, atque virtuten ,quám diaatoris cogitent dignitatem. The fecond requeft of mine is , that men take heed of having mens perlons in admiration, becaufe of advan- tage; we have feen the mifchief that refpea of perfons works, and advantages will work men into the height of it. That way that men can either fave theinfelves from dan -1i ger, and hold where they are, or rife up to a greater height, the world is apt to take, and the Religion of that fide (hall I be theirs. Hence it is, that when godlineffe ought to be' the chiefeft gain, gain with thefe is their whole godlinef %7 and fate- Religion is àlmoft the faith of every man. Thofè of that party ftill cry out for union, not that they will :. depart the leaf from the very height of their own princi pies for it, but they will have all others upon account of their prevalency come into it : fo that felf is no other then.,, their unity paraphtafed, and fo long as providence holds' them up,they are not much miftaken rerf ans will become I Jewes, when Mordecai a Jew is the man that rules. Saul faw that that was a mighty motive to draw a party in war, to have the gift of vineyards, and oliveyards, to be the fountain of honour, able to make Captains over thou - j i finds, hundreds, fifties. It is no leffeto draw on a party in Religion, as every turn of State refpeEtive to. Religion, is a clear evidence : If thefe fumble upon truth, they yet hold it upon fuch carnal motives, that they are neither true to it, nor receive the comfort of it : Make truth then- the greateft advantage, there is glory enough in it, without i any farther garb to havé it in admiration : own it though . I [ with a fcracht face where you finde it,;.though you be o ! b 3 therw.i(e

A Preface to the Reader. therwife at loffe, it will bring an hundred fold with it. If I can but gain thefe things at thy hands, I fhall not fear that this piece fhall run the hazard of thy cenfure ; fpare no error in it, fo that thou wilt gladly take up, and reff fatis fled in all the truths that thou findeft. That truth may have the firft place in thy foul, is the define and prayers of him that can do nothing againft, but for the truth, 'Thomas Blake. Ç ,444 44- 0 4u1414+144,4 0 ç= I 1.44 g 12crt0ç14 , $4, November 27. Imprimatur, I 6 5^s. EDM. CAL; MY. 44, 46464,44 4444444' 4+:4444 4'44. 444 L` 4',7j 4, .f4A .. .. onttr....

T'his_ Treatife conmines The Introdu- thou containes z. An Introdialion, Z. The body of the Treadle. z. The various acceptation of the word. z. Requifites iri á Covenant properly fo called. 3. A diilribution of Covenants into feveral kindes. 4. Six reafons of Gods dealing with man in a Covenant-way. y. The Covenant between God and man defined. Chap; 1. The body of the Treatife The Covenant of Works, z. Joyntly. containes a diftribution chap. z. Spoken to z. The Covenant of of the Covenant into. cc The Covenant of Grace. Grace apart. i. Their Argument in 4. Particulars. Chap. z, In the joynt confederation obferve z Their differences { z, In he conditions annextelves. The Covenant of Works was entered in mans integrity. Prima.S . Chap. 3. Differences in the The Covenant of Grace was entered in mans fallen condition. Covenants are a. A prima ortie. C s of Works was for mans prefervation. - C The Covenant 2 of Grace for mans reflitution. of Works had its precedencie in time. J Afierted. C The Covenant of Grace followedafter. anCweted; The Covenant of Works, was of fmall time in ufe. of Grace is of everlafting continuance. chap. 3. 1Af erted. ( of Works had no Mediatour. l-1) .ons answered. q . L The Covenant` Affected. l of Grace was in and by a Mediatour. Works incumbent on theMedia - tour held forth: t . To,bring men into a capacity of Covenanting. z . To bring men within the verge of the Covenant. 3.. To bring the foul up to the termes of the Covenant. 4. To crown thofe that come up to the termes of it. z. By his tender of ít. z. Shaping the heart for it. Chap. 4. z. Suppofed on art. Death threatened. Afïerted. The fame . Differences inthe Gods , in both ObjeEEions anfwered. conditions. p Life z. Reali mans part.. Chap. 5, In=