Baxter - Houston-Packer Collection BT70 .B397 1675

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RICHARD BAXTER'S Catholick Theologie PLAIIOT, PURE, PEACEABLE: PACIFICATI0N Of the DOGMATICAL WORD-WARRIOURS, Who, i. By contending about things unreveaied or not unìderfiood , 2. And by taking VERBAL differences for R EAL, and their arbitrary Notions for neceffàry sacred Truths, deceived and deceiving by Ambiguous unexplainedW O RD S, have long been the shame of the Chi c rigianReligion, a Scandal and hardning to unbelievers, the In- cendiaries, Dividers andDiftraéters of the Church, the òccafion of State Difcords and Wars, theCorrupters of the ChriftianFaith, and the Subverters of their Own Souls, and their followers, calling them to a blind Zeal, and Wrathful Warfare, againft truePiety, Love and Peace, and teaching them to cenfure, backbite, ílander, and pram againft each other, for things which they never underftood. In Ehree B00 I(S. I. PACIFYING PRINCIPLES,. about Gods Decrees , Fore Knowledge, Providence,Operations,Redemption, Grace , MansPower, Free-will, Juftification,Merits, Certainty of Salvation, Perfeverance, íf-c. I I. A PACIFYING PRAXIS or Dialogue, about the Five Articles, Juftifica- tion 6.c. Proving that men here contend almoft only about Ambiguous words, and ten- revealed things. III. PACIFYING DISPUTATIONS againftTome Rea/Errorswhich hinder Reconciliation, viz. About Phyfical Predetermination, Original Sin, the extent of Re- demption, Sufficient Grace, Imputation of Righteoufnefs, &c. Written chiefly forPofterit', when fad Expérience bath taught men to hate Theological Logical Wars, and to love, and feek, and call for Peace. (Ex Bello Pax. ) LO n(7)0AC, Printed 'oy `?obert White , for Nevi!' Simmons a the Princes Arras in St. Pauls Church-yard. MDCLXXV.

I intreat the WRATHFUL, CONTEN- TIOUS, ZEALOUS DOGMATISTS confcientiouíis to Rudy thefe Texts ofScripture A TT H.2,8: r 9, 26. Go, Teach all Nations, Baptiz- ing them into the Name of the Father, and of theSon, andof the Holy Ghoft ; Teaching them to obferve all things whatfoever 1 have commanded you. Mar.i6.16ä He that believeth and ii Baptized ¡hall be. faved. Ads, r i. z6. The Difeiples were called Chriftians. z Cor. r 5. 1, ì 3, 4. .1 declare to you the Gofeel Which Ipreached toyou, Which alfo youhave received, and whereinye!land; by which alto ye are faved, ifye keep in memory what 1preached to you, . Milefs ye have believed in vain That Chrift dyedfor ourfins, --z and that he was boryed, andthat he ro(e again the thirdday s Tim. r. r 3. Hold fall the FORM of found words, which thou haft heard of me, inFAITH andLOVE which is inChr refus. i John 4. r5. whofoever!hall confers that Mu: is the Son of God, God . dwelleth inhim, and he in God. Rom. 16: 9, to. If thou confefi with thy Mouth the Lord fetus, and be litee in thyHeart that God bath raifed him from thedead, thou (halt be fäved : For with the Heart man believeth unto Righteoùfnefs) andwith the Mouth. confeffion is made to fálvation: Ails 8. 37. If thou believeft with all thyheart thou maift ( bebaptized)' Andhefail- - --I believe that JefusChrift is theSonofGod. Rom. 14.1.17, r 8, r 9. Him that isWeak in the Faith reieive, but not to doubtful difputations For the Kingdom ofGod is not meat and drink, butRighteoufnefs, Peace and fay in the Holy Giso fi : For he that in thefe things ferveth Chrift, osacceptable to God; and approved ofmen: Let us therefore follow after the things which make forpeace , and things wherewith one may edife another. Rom. 15. 5, 6, 7. Now the God ofpa- tience and confolation .grant you to be likeminded onetowards another(or; Mind the fame thing one with another) according to Chrift 7efus, That ye maywith one mind and one mouth glorifie God -wherefore Receiveye one anotheras chrift alfo receivedno, to the glory ofCod. r Tim. r. 3, 4i 5. Charge force that they teach NO OTHER doctrine; nor give heed to fables and endlcfs Genealogies, whichminifler Queflions, rather than godly edifying, which is in faith : Now theEndoftheCom- mandment is Charity, cut ofa pure heart and of a good tonfcience, and of faith unfeigned: From which force having Pickled, have turned . afide to vain janglings. i Titnó A 2

I Tim. 6. 3, 4, 5, 6. If any man teach OTHERWISE, and confent not to wholfomewords, the words ofour Lordrefus Chrtfi, and to thedot-trine which is according to Godlinefs, he is PROUD, KNOWING NOTHING , but ur DOTING about ions, and ,STRIFES of WORDS, whereof comethen- vy, ferife,railings, evil furmifings, perverfe difputings of men of corrupt minds, and deftituteof the truth, fúppoftng that gain isgodltnefi,( orthink- 'ing thatgodlinefs is advantage ;) from fuch torn away. 2 Tim. 2. 22, 23, 24. Followrighteoufnefs, faith, charity, peace, with them that call on the Lord out of a pure heart : ,But foolifh andunlearned Qjoeffions avoid, knowing that they do gender ffrifes : and the fervant of theLord muff not ffrive. V. 15,16, 17. Study to thew thy felf approved untoGod, aworkman thatneedeth not be afbawed, RIGHTLY DIVIDING the word of truth: ButPun profane and vain bablings: for tiey will in- creafe tb more ungodlinefs, and their wordwill eat as dash a canker. 2 Tim. 2. 14. charging them before the Lord, that they STRIVE not about WORDS, to no profit,. to the fubverting of thehearers. I Cor. 8. 2, 3.. If any man think that he knoweth any thing , he buonieth nothing as he ought to know : But if any man LOVE GOD, the fame is KNOWN OF HIM. Jam.3. 1, 13, &c. My Brethren, Be not ManyMeet's , knowing that we (ball receive the greater condemnation who is a wifeman, and indeed with knowledge amongyou? Let hire thew out of a good converfa- tion his WORKSwith meeknefs ofwifdom. But ifye havebitter zeal(or envying) and Pile in your hearts, Glorynot, andLye not againff the truth. This WISDOMdefcendeth notfrom above, but is earthly,fenfual, devilifh For where envying anditrife is, there is confufion andevery evil work: But the wifdom from above is frrff pure, then peaceable, gentle, cafe to be intreated, full ofmercy and good fruits , without partiality, and without hypocrite: And the fruitofRghteoufnefsis fawnin Peace ofthem that make Peace. *But not to Church-Ty- Ads 15.28. It feemed good tó the Holy Ghoft and to us ° to lay upon rants, o or fu- per(titious greater burden than the fe neceffary things ones. y ou no g Phil. 3. 15,16, 17. Let as as. many as be perfect be thus minded: and if in any thingye be otherwife (or diverfly, or contrarily) minded, God (ball reveal even this unto you. Ne?erthelefs whereto we have alrea- dy attained , let us walk by the fame rule , let us mind the fame thing. Phil. 2. I, 2, 3, 4. If there be any confolation inChriff, if anycomfort of love, if any fellowfhip of theSpirit, if any bowels and mercies, fulfil ye my joy- that ye be like minded , having the fame Love, being ofone accord,. ofone mind: Let nothing be done through ftrife, or vain glory; but iii lowlinefs of mind, let each effeem other better than themfelves Look not every man on his own things, but every man alfo on the things of others : Let this mind be in you, which was alfa in Chr refus Whc . made bimfelf ofno reputation. t Cor, a . t o, t I, 12,13,14. NowI befeech youbrethren by the name of our Lordrefus chrifi that ye (peak the fame thing, and that there be no divifions among you : but that ye beperfectly joyned together in.the fame mind; and in the fame judgement : For it bath been declared to we of you brethren . that there. are contentions amongyou that every. one ofyoufaith, I am ofPaul, and I ofApollos, andI ofCephas, and I ofChriff : Is Chrifi divided? Was Paul crucifiedfor you'? or were you baptized into the name of Paul: I thank God, that t baptizednone ofyou, &C. rCe,,

I Cor. 3. I, 2, 3, 4. I could not (peak to you as unto fpiritual) but as unto carnal, as to babes in CIsrift For whereas there is among you envying, and(rife, and divifions, are ye not carnal and walk as men? See Epb. 4. r, Gc. after. John 17.20., 2 r, 22, 23. Ipray for them which [ball believeon me- -that they all may be one, as thou Father artin me, and IinThee, that they alfo may be One in us that the world may believe that thou haft feue me. And the glory which thougaveft me I have given them, that they may be one, even as we are one: I in them, and thou in me, that they may be made perfect in one ; and that the world may know that thou haft fent me, andhaft loved then as thou haft loved me. - Match. 5.9. Bleffed are the Peace-makers, for they (ball be called the children ofGod. Rom. 12.18. Ifit be pogible, as much as in you lyeth, live peaceably with all men, 2 Cor. 12.20, z e. I fear left when I come I [hall not find you fuck as I would left there be debates; envying:, wraths, ftrifes, back- biting:, whifperings, fwellzoogs, tumults Left God will humble me among you, and I_hall bewail many, &c. Gal. 5. 19, 2o. The works of the flefh are manifefthatred, vari ante, emulations, wrath, [trite, [editions, herefe:, envyings i Gor. 14.33. God is not theAuthor of confufion, but of Peace, as in all churches of the Saints. Ails zo. 3o. ofyour own felves ¡hall men arife, [peaking perverfe things to draw away difciples after them. Phil. r. 15,16. Some indeed preach ChrJ even of envy andffrife, and fime alfo ofgood will: The one preach Chrift of contention, notfin-, rerely Room. 16.17, 18. Now I befeech you brethren , Mark them which caufe divifions and ofnces contrary to the dotrinewhich you have learn- ed, and avoid them: For they that are fuck, ferve not our Lord efus Chrift, but their own bellies: and by good words andfair fpeeches, de- ceive the hearts of the (ample. Luke 9.55. Te know not what manner of spirit ye are of -- The Angelical Gofpel of the Ends of Chrifts Incarnation, Luke 2. r9: GLORY TO GOD, IN THE HIGHEST : ON EARTH PEACE, GOOD te"ILL TO MEN (or WELL-PLEASEDNESS IN MEN.) John zo. 26. Peace be unto you. Grace, Mercy and Peace) with all that are inchrf ---andLove Gal. 6. 16. Eph. 6.23. i Pet. 1.2. &5.r4. z Pet. i.í. rTheft:5. r3. a Cor. 13. I I. Finally, brethren, farewell: be perfect, be ofgood com- fort, be _of one mind: Live in Peace ; and the God ofLove and Peace Oa be with you. Amen. i. Affert. He BAPTISMAL COVENANT expounded in the ancient CREED is the frown and Symbol of chritianity, by which Believers were to be diftinguifhed from unbe- lievers, and the outward Profelfion of it was mensTitle toChurch-com- munion, and the Heart- content was their Title-condition of Pardon and Salvation; And to chefe ends it was made by Chrift himfelf. Matth. z8; 19, 2o, Mark I6í 16; 2; Ail

z. All that were baptized did profefs to Believe in God the Father, Son and HolyGhoft, and devoted themfelves to him, with profeffion of Repentance for former fins, and renouncing the Lofts of the Fiefh , the World and theDevil, profeffing to begin a new and holy life, in hope of everlafting glory. 3. This form of Baptifmal Covenanting and Profeffion begun with Chriftianity ( and called our Chriftening, or making us Chriftians. ) bath been propagated anddelivered down to us to this day, by a full and certain tradition and teftimony and lefs alterations than the holyScriptures. 4. The Apoftles were never fuch formalifts and friends to ignorance and hypocrite, as to encourage the baptized to take up with the faying Elbelieve in the Father, Son andHolyGboft ] without teaching them to underftand what they faid. Thereforeundoubtedly they expoundedthofe threeArticles: And that expofition could be no other in fenfe than the Creed is. And when Paul reciteth the Articles ofChrift, t Cor. r 5. and mentioneth the Form offound words, we may be fure that they all gave the people One unchanged expofition as to the fenfe: Chriftianitywas one unchanged thing. . g. Though 1 am not of their mind, that think the twelve Apofiles each -one made anArticle of the Creed, or that they formed and tyed men to juft the very fame fyllables, and every word that is now in the Creed ; yet that they flill kept to the fame fenfe, and words fo expreffing it, asby their variation might not endanger the corrupting of the faith by a new fenfe,. is certain from the nature of the cafe, and from the Agreementof all the antient Creeds, which were ever profeffe8 at baptifm, from their dayes., that cited by me ( Append. to the Reformed Paftor) out of Ire- -new, two out ofTertalliun, that ofMarcellus inEpiph'aniüss, that expoun- ded by Cyril, that in Raffinas, the Nicene, and all mentioned by Whet' and veins agreeing thus far in fenfe5 And no one wasbaptized without theCreed profeffed. 6. As Chrift himfelf was the Author of the Baptifmal Creed and Co= venant, fo. the Apoftles-were the Authors of that Expofition which they then ufed and taught the Church to ufe : And they did that by the Holy Ghoft as muchas their inditing of the Scripture. .7. Therefore the Church had a Summary and Symbol of Chriftianiry (.asI faid before) about twelve yearsbeforeany Book of the NewTefta- ment was written, and about fixty fix years before the whole was writ- ten : And this of Gods own making : which was ever agreed on , when many Books of the New Teftament were not yet agreedon. 8. Thereforemen were then to prove the truth of the Chriffian Relì- pion, by its proper Evidences and Miracles, longbefore they were to prove that every word ( or anyBook) of the NewTeftament was the infallible. perk & Word ofGod. 9. Therefore we muft 1tí11 follow the fame Method, and take Chrifts Miracles tobe primarily the proof of the ChriftianReligion, long before the NewTeftament Books were written. tc. Therefore if a man fhould be tempted to doubt of the certainty of this or that Book, words or reading, it followeth not that he mull therefore doubt of theChriftian Faith. r r. A thoufand Texts of Scripture may be not known and underftood, byone that is Juftited : but all the Baptifmal Articlesand Covenantmutt be underftood.competently by all that will be faved. t z. Thofe Church-Tyrants, Dogmatifts or fuperfäitious ones, who deny the fufficiency of this Tell and Symbol (made by Chrift and his Spirit ) to

to its proper ufe, (to be the Symbol offuch as in Love and communion we are to take for Chriffians) do fubvert the fumm of ChriflsGofpel and Law, and do worfe than they that add to, or alter the lelfer partsof the Word of God. 13. Therefore our further 4dditionalconféfons muff be only to other fubordinate ends; As I. To fatisfie other Churches that doubt ofourright underffanding thefaith : a. To be an enumeration of verities which Preachers (hall not have leave to preach ugainfl' ;though they fubfcribe them not. ) 14. Objed. Hereticks may profefs theBaptifmal Creed. anfw. r. And Hereticks may profefs any words that you can iiimpofe on them, taking them in their own fenfe. All the Councils are not large enough to keep out fubfcribing Hereticks. We mull not make new Symbols, Rules and Laws asoft as Knaves willfalfly profefs, orbreak theold ones : there being none that may not be falfly profeffed and "violated. a. Many fubfcribe to the whole Scriptures, that yet areHereticks. 3. Church Governours are for this, to cart out thofe or punish them, who preach,. teach and live contrary to the certain and fufficient Rule which they profefs. Judicatures are not to make newLaws, but to punish men for breaking Laws. Aheart-He- retick-only is noHeretick infore Lcclefiæ. He that teachethHere* malt be proved fo to do, and judged upon proof : which may be done without new additional Symbols, Rules' or Laws of faith. So that all thiscontra- diEts not the fufficiency of the BaptifmalCreed as the Symbol ofChrifti- an Love, Communion and Concord. I thought meet to add this more fully to what I faid in theEpiffle, to convince men of the true terms of Union, and of the heinous fin of all the forts of adding andcorrupting overdoers, that divide us. 7" I-1 E

THE REFACE5 AGAINST CLERG IL~' MENS ContentionS; A N D Church-diíIraúing Controverfies. HAT the Churches of Chrilt are 'dolefully tempted and diltraé}edby Divifions, no man will deny that knoweth them : That the Clergie is not only greatly culpable herein, but the chief caufe, cannot be hid. But which part of the Clergie it is, and what be their dividing Errors and Crimes, and how they fhould be cured , is indeed eafe for the truly faithful and impartial Spectators to perceive, but exceeding hard (as experience tells us)to make the Guilty throughly know,and harder to do much effeé ually for the cure. For the errorand tin which is the true caufe, is its own defence, and repellethand fru- ftrateth thé Remedies. And To each party layeth it from themfelves, on others, andhate all that aecufe them, whilé. they are the fharpeft (and perhaps molt unjult ) accufers of the refl. I (hall here freely tell the Reader the Hiflory of my own Conceptions of thefe matters, and then my. prefent (a) thoughts

The Preface. thoughts of the Caufes of all there Calamities and the Cure. I. I was born and bred of Parents pioufly affe&ed but of no fuch knowledge or acquaintance as might engage them in anyControverfies, or difaffet them to the prefent Government of the Church, or caule them to fcrupleCon- formity to its Docîrine, Worfhip or Difcipline : In this way I was bred my fell, but taught by my Parents and God himfelf, to make confcience of fin, and to fear God, and to difcern between the Godly and the notorioufly wicked : For whichmy Parentsand I were commonly derided asPuri- tans,the Spirit ofthe Vulgar being commonly then fired with hatred and fcorn of ferious godlinefs , and ufing that name as their inflrument of reproach which was firfl forged againfl the Nonconformifts only ; And the Clergie where I lived, being moflly only Readers of the Liturgic and force others that rather countenanced than reproved this courte, I loon confined myReverence to a very few among them that were Learned and Godly ( but Conformify) and for going out of myParifh to hear them, my reproach in- created : About eighteen or nineteenyears of age I fell ac- quainted with come perlons half Conformits and half Non-conformifls, who for fear of feverities againa private Meetings, met with great fecrefie only to repeat the publick Sermons, and Pray, and by Pious Conference edifie each other. Their Spirits and Pra&ice was fo favoury to me, that it kindled in me a diflafle of the Prelates as Perfecu- tors, who troubled and ruined fuch perlons, while igno- rant Drunkards and Worldlings were tolerated in fo many Churches, yea, and countenanced for crying down fuch perfons, and crying upBifhops, Liturgieand Conformity : Before I was aware, my affetions began to folicite my un- derflanding, to judge of theThings and Cafes by the Perfone (where the difference was very great). But yet my firfl Teachers kept my judgement for Conformity as Lawful, though not Definable had we Liberty , till I was ordained. But loon after anew acquaintance provoked me toa deeper fludyof the whole Controverfie than I had undertaken before ; which left me perfwaded that the ufe of Liturgie and Ceremonies was lawful in that cafe of necefity, except the rl3apt final ufe of the Crofs, and the fubfcription to all things, &c. But in 1640. the Oath called ['Et Cetera] being offered the Miniflry, forced me to a yet more JearchingStudy of the cafe of our Diocefane

The Prefare. Diocefane rPrelacie (which elfe I had never been like to have gainíaid. ) At a meeting of Miniflers to debate the cafe, it fell to Mr. Coiflopber Cartwrights lot and mine tobe the Di- fputers; and the iffue of all ( that and my £hidies ) was, that i felled in the approbation of the Epilcopacy afferted by Ignatius, yea, and Cypriari, but fuck a diffent from the Fngliji frame, asIhave given account of inmy Dijj utations of Church Government. My genius was inquifitive, and earnef}ly defiroús to know the truth : my helps for Piety were greater than my helps for Learning, of which I had not much betides Books : ficknets helpt my ferioufnefs keeping me í1i11 in expectation of death. All my reverenced acquaintai-ice (fave one) cryed down Arminianfin as the Pelagian Herefie, and the Enemy of Grace : I quickly plunged my felf into the fludy of Dr. Milli, andAmefius, and Canero, and Pemble, andothers on that fubjeEt: By which my mind was felled in preju- dice againft Arminianifm , without a clear underfanding of the cafe : whereupon I felt prefently in my mind, a judge. ment of thofe that were for Arminianifm, as bad,or dangerous adverJaries to the Church ; and fpecially of the then ruling Bi- chops :. which yet I think I had not entertained , had I not taken them withal for the great Perfecutors ofGodly able MiniPers,. and feriousChriflians, not only for Ceremonies, but for holy practices of life. Being under thefe apprehenfions, when the Wars began; though the Caufe it felf lay in Civil Controvetfies, between King and Parliament, yet the thoughts that the Churchand Godlinefs it felf was deeply in danger by Perfecution and .Arminianifm, did muchmore to byafs me to the Parliaments fide, than the Civil intereíl ( which at the heart I little re- garded) : At laí1 (after two years abode in a quiet Garri- fon) upon. the Invitation of fome Orthodox CornmanderS f in Fairax's Army,, and by the Million ofan Atfembly ofDi- vines, Iwent ,(after NafebyFight) into that Army as the pro- f&Antagonift of theSalaries and Innovators, whowe all then ( too late) faw defigned thofe changes in the Church and State which they after made. I there met with fome Arminian) andmoreJntinomians : Thefe printedand preached as the Doarilpe of Free Grace, that all men muff prefently believe that they are Ele t and Juf}ified, and that ChriilRepented and Believed for them (as Saltmarjh writeth ). I had a little before engaged my felf as a Difputer againíl Univerfal Re: (a x) demptians

The `l'reface. demption, againfl two antient Minfflers in Coventry ( Mr. Cra= dock andMr. Diamond ) that were for it. But thete new no- tions culled me to new thoughts : which clearly !hewedme the difference between Cbr /s part and Mans, the Covenant of Innocency with its required q(ighteoufneß, and the Covenant of Grace with its required and imputed righteoufneß : I hadnever read oneSocinian, nor much of anyArminians ; but I laidby prejudice, and I went to the Scripture; where its whole cur- rent, but efpeciallyMatth.2.5. did quickly fatisfie me in the Do&rine of Juftification: and I remembred two or three things in Dr. Twe (whom I moft efleemed) which in- clined me to moderation in the five Articles: i. That he every where profeffeth, that Chrifi fo far dyed for all, as to purchafe them Juflification and Salvation conditionally to be given them, if theybelieve. i. That he reducethall the Decrees to two ,de fine ér de mediis,as the healing way. 3. That he profeffeth, that Arminius and we and all the Schoolmen are agreed, that there is no necefity corfequentis laid on us by God in Predeflination, but onlynece/3ity confequentie or Logical ( but in Elelion I fhall here fufpend. ) 4. That the Ratio Peatus in our Original Sin, is fir$ founded in our Natural 'propagation from .Adam, and but fecondarily from the po- fitive Covenant ofGod. 5. That Faith is but Caufa diJpof tiva 7uflificationis, and fo is Repentance. Thefe and fuch things more I eafilier received from him, than I could have done from another : But his Do&rine of 1ermßion and Predeter. onination, and Caufa Mali, quickly frightned me from aífent. And though Camero's moderation and great clearnefs took much with me, I loon perceived that his Refolving the caufe of fin into neceffitating objects and temptations, laid it as muchonGod (in another way) as the Predeterminants do. And I found all godly mens Prayers and Sermons run quite in another Efrain, when they chofe not the Contro- verfie as pre- engaged. In this cafe I wrote my flrPt Book calledApl,orifms ofJufi= fication and the Covenants, &c. And being young, and unexer- cifed in writing, and my thoughts yet undigefled, I put into it many uncautelous words (as young Writers ufe to do,) though I think themain dotrineof it found. I intended it only againfi the .Antinomians; But it founded as new and orange tomany. Upon whofediffent or doubtings, I print- ed my delire of my friends Animadverfions, and myJu/pens Dion of the Book, as not ownedby me, nor any more to be printed,.

`I be Preface. printed, till further confidered and corrected : Hereupon had the great benefit ofAnimadverfions frommany, whom I accounted the moll judiçious and worthy perforas that I had heard of: Firfl;sny friend -M1r. JohnWarren began; next came Mr. G. Larnon's, ( the moil judicious Divine that eyer I was acquainted with in my judgement, ( yet living ), and from whom I learned more than from any man) : next came Mr. Chriflopher Cartwright's (then ofYork ; the Author of the Zabbinical Comment. on Gen. chap. i, 2, 3. and of the;Defence of King Charles agáinft the Marquefs of Worcefler ). Anavers and Rejoinders to there took me up much time : next came a moll judiciousand friendly MS. from Dr, fohn Wallis ; and another from Mr. Tombes ; and fomewhat I extorted from Mr. Burgs : the anfwers to which two fail are publifhed. To all thefe Learned men I owe very great thanks and I never more owned or publifhed my 4phorifm s ( but the Cambridge Printer fiole an Imprellìon without my know- ledge ). And though moll of there differed as much from one another (at lean) as from me ; yet the great Learning of their various Writings, and the long Study which I was thereby engaged in, in anfwering and rejoyningto themoll; was a greater advantage tome; to receive accurate and di- gefted conceptions on thefe fubjels, than private Students can expe&. . My mind being thus many years immerfl in fludies of this nature, andI having alto long wearied my felf in fearch- ing what Fathers and SchoQlmen have Paid of fuch things before us, andmyGenius abhorringConfu f on andEquivocals; I cameby many years longer fludy toperceive, that moll of the Vo trinal Controverfies among Proteftants ( that Ifay not in the Chráf{ian World) are far more about equivocal words, than matter ; and it wounded my foul to perceive what work both. Tyrannical, and unskilful lVi[Puting Clergie-men had made thefe thirteen hundred years in the world ! And experience lince the year i 643. till this year 0675. hath loudly called to me to Repent of myown prejudices, fidings and cenfurings of cages and per/our not underflood, andof all the mifcarriages of myMinifiry and life, which have been thereby caufed and tomake it my chief work to call men that are within my hearing to more peaceable thoughts, affècîions andpratli- tes: And my endeavours have not been in vain, in that the Minii++erss,, of the Countrey where I lived, were very many of fuch a peaceable temper (though fince call out), ( and a great

The Preface. great number more through the Land by Gods Grace (ra- ther than any endeavours of mine) are fo minded.) But the Sons of theCoal were exafperated the more againfl me, and accounted him to be againft every man, that called all men to Love and Peace, and was for no man as in a contrary way. And now looking daily in this pofture, when God cal - leth me hence, ( fummoned by an incurable Difeafe to hallen all that ever I will do in this World,) being uncapa- ble of prevailing with the prefent Church dilturbers, I do apply my felf to polterity, leaving them the fad warning of their Anceflors diflra&tons, as a Pillar of Salt, and ac- quainting them what I have found to be the caufe of out Calamities,and therein theywill find the Cure themfelves. I I. Have oft taken the boldnefs (conflrainedly ) to fay, that I doubt not but the Contentions of the Clergie have done far more hurt to the Chriftian World, than the molt bloody WarsofPrinces. And I muff reduce the Caufes to thefe three Heads : I. TheAbufeof POWER, II.Of WISDOM, III.Df G 0 0 DNESS ; or of the Names of thefe : the three great Principles of Humanity. That is, I. ByClergie TYRANNY, I I. By 0 P I NIO= NISTS or Dogmatifts, III. By SUPEP STITION andHTPOCXISIE, or PRACTICAL BLIND ZEAL. But among all there forts, felfifh PRIDE, IGNO= R,ANCE and UNCHARITABLENESS or want of L0VE are the great eft-canal Caufes. And departing from CHRISTIAN S IMPL IC ITT, inDo&rine,Worfhip, Church- government, and Converfarion, is the grand infl}ru; mental means ofmolt of our Schfms, Diftralions and Cala- mities. I.Only by Pride cometb Contention, Prov. 13. i o. The Church- TYRANT isProud of his Superiority and Wealth : The 0 P I Ni 0NIST is Proud of his fuppofed Knowledge and Theological Wifdom ; on which account the Gnoflicks trou- bled the Church of old. The HIP 0 CRITE and the (honelter) ignorant Zealot, is Proud of his fuppoled Holi= nef? or Goodnef? : And for an eminency and precedency and praire in each of thefe , they all confpire ( while theydif- agoee

The .`Preface. agree among thetnfelves ) to trouble the Church ofChrifl : In a word, Selffhne1, Ignorance andwant of Love, are the Caufes of mens perfonal ruine and damnation, and the fame are the Caufes of the Churches divi fons, and all the miferies of the World. I I. And that IG TAI O P,ANCB is a Common caufe even iri the GnoftickDogmats that cry down Ignorance, Error andHe- retie, needs no other proof, than the diverfity of Opinions Which fuch contend for : Every fide pretend, that it is 0 THODOXNESS, F4ITH or the Great Truths of God, which they defend ; And in one Countrey or with one Party, one thing is Ortlodoxnefi and the Truth, and ano- ther thing in another Countreyor Party, and another thing with a third, drc. And did they all but know what is Truth and the Will ofGod indeed, they would ceafe their Conten- tions; and all the Sects would meet inUnity. I l I. And did men but L0 VE their neighbours as them, felves, andwere as perfwaded to think well of, and deal gently with their neighbours as themfelves, and as hardly drawn to condemn, hate, butt or injure them, I need not tell you how eafrly, quickly and univerfällÿ we fhould be healed. But before I fpeak of the Inf?rumental Means, I will frillier open the three forementioned Caufes. I. Religious Clergie.TT ANNT hath fo notórioufly, fo long, and fogreatly made havòckboth ofPiety, andPeace, that he that is not anutter oranger to ChurchHiflory cannot be ignorant of it I need not tell any Learnedman, howma- ny even moderate Papifls, much more Proteftants have thought, that Conftantine and other Emperoursthat over-ex- alted the Clergie, pouredoutPoyfon into the Church : making great preferments a bait to invite all the worfl ofmen, tobe feekers and invaders of Church Offices andPower, and to corrupt thofe that otherovifewould have been ufeful men :. efpecially when (Chriflians having firfl made them their Arbitrators, in obedience to St. Pauls counfel) they weremade the Legal judges of the Caufes of all contentious Chriftians, and fo fet upSecular Magiftratical Courts. I need not tell themwhat work almoft every General Council (2s thofe ofone Em- pire were called) did make ! what work even the firfl at Nice had made, had not Connlantineburnt their Bills of accu- fation againfl each other, and perfonally lamented their di- 'ifions;anddriven them on topeace! what workwas made in that

The Preface., that atChalcedon, and that atEphefus, andfo of others ! what a horrid fcandal the cafe of jolm and Vioftorus was, and the murder of Flavianus, and many others ! nor yet how th e controverfies àgainPc the Neforians, Eutychians, andMonothelites were managed ! I need not tell them, how loon Viflorbegan at llZonze, nor what Socrates and others fay ofCyril and 'I bee, philus at Jlexandria nor yet how Nazianzene was tired at Conftantinople ; nor how copioufly and vehemently he ac- cufeth theBithops, and wifheth that there were no luch in- equalities among them, as gavethem advantage to dohurt ; nor what he faith againft their Councils : nor yet, of the quarrels of !affil and Anthymius , nor of 13afils sharp com- plaints of thePoman and other Weftern Prelates I neednot tell themof the Ufage ofChryfoftome, even by filch men as Theophilus,Epiphanius and their partakers; nor of the dividing of the Conflantinopolitan Chriflians thereupon ; nor how the violent Prelates made Separatifls and Non- conformifls of Chry/oftoms adherents, by the nameofjoannites ; and how un- likely that Schifm was to have been healed, had not wifer Bithops fucceeded who reflored Concord by honouring. Chryfo(toms Name and Bones , and dealing kindly with his followers : I need not tell them of the fad work made at ;Ariminum and Syrenium, and oft atgOne, Conftantinople and eve- ry great Epifcopal Seat : nor of the bloodfhed between Competitors, at the Eleaion of Damafus ; nor of the fepa- ration of St. Martin from theSynod ofBifitops led by Ithacius .and Idacius; nor of the difference of him and Ambrofe from the reft about the complyances with Maximus. TheWorld knoweth of, the doleful Rupture that hath continued be- tween the (Roman and the Greek Church about a thoufand years ; And of the manySchifms at Romeby various Anti - .Popes, even'at once above forty years together; And of the reafon of the callingof the Councils ofConfiance and Bap to end them ;. And how the King of Rome keeps uphis King- dom to this day; what work he hath made with Frederick, the Henries, and other German Emperours ; what divifions this caufedamong the Clergie; whatbloodhe caufed to be flied jeru/alem, and howmany thoufands ofthe Waldenfes have at divers times been flaughtered ; what work the Inquiftion hath made in Spain and Delgia and elfewh.ere ; and the flames ofPerfecution in England, and almoft in all .Ch riftian Lands ; what work the Holy Leaguedid make in France, and the Engli f1 Bithops in many a War with their Kings

The Preface. Kings ; betides the cafe of fl3ecket and fuch others ; By whofe infligation two hundred thoufand Proteflants were lately murdered in Ireland, and many again in Piedmont; I fay tó tell fuch things as thefe to thofe that are acquainted with Church Hiflory, isvain. And I would thofe that yet think cruelty the beft way to Pet up themfelves (or (eligion, if that mull bear the name) and to reprefs their adverfaries (or Schifms,) would but (among many others) read the Epiflle of great Thuanus before his Works toHenry King of France. But is it only the old Bifhops, Greeks and Papii ts, that have made fuchhavock in the Churches ? Even thofe that pre - tended to moderationdid by the German Interim make many hundred Churches defolate. And the ten years imprifon- ment ofCa f ar Ptracer (vid.Hsfloc. Carcer.) and the filencing of many and many faithful Miniflers, and the banifhment of many, dothThew with what Spirit, many of the Luthe, ram carryed on their work. And doubtlefs, had the Calvini fts in Belgia been as wife and peaceable as the Englijh Delegates . were at the Synod ofDort, and been as far frontTyranny as they fhouldhave been, matters hadnever come fo oft to Blood or Tumult among them as they have done, nor Grotius and the Árminians had fo much to fay agaìnfl them. I will not meddle With the matters of this Ifland in our times, Peeing they fuffrciently fpeak themfelves. But how cometh this ClergieTyranny to be fb common; fo long and fo powerful in the World, to make Parties, and draw Princes into Wars ? i. It mull be remembred, that trueGodlinef is not corn- mon in theWorld: Too many take up Chriflianity, as in the Eaflernparts the poflerity of the old famous Chriftians are now Mahometans. a. TheGoJJel and true Spirit ofChriflianity is contrary to the minds and worldly interefls of camal, ambitious, cove- tous, voluptuous men. So that they profefs a Religion which their own hearts abhorrasto its ferious pratice. 3. Every unrenewed manbath fuch a worldly flefhlyna- tare, and is voluptuous, proud and covetous : And none of them love to be reproved or croffedin their way. 4. Church Honours, Dignitiesand great Revenues and Clergie-eefe in an idle life, are a great bait or temptation . to a carnal mind : And the woofe men are, the more they will clef-ire andPeek Church preferments,, and make all the ( ) friends

The Preface. friends they can-to get them ; And the more felt-denying men will not do fo, (but perhaps avoid them. ) 5. The diligent feekers are liker to obtain and find, than the negle ters and avoiders And fo the Churches to be ufually in the power of the worfer fort of men, and Reli- gion to beunder theGovernment of its enemies. 6. Men in power, and the Major rote, have great advantage to execute their ownwills, and toput Laws on others, and bring them under what Chara&ers they pleafe ; and fo to affix the names ofHereticks or Schifmaticks on them, ifthey fulfil not all their wills : yea, to filence them, and fupprefs their Writings, and make them to be little underflood in the World, yea, or by their neighbours round aboutthem. 7. The Vulgar (as they are for the Conquerour in the Wars, fo) ufually are for the upper and fironger fide in peace, that have Power to hurt them, and have the Major Vote ; And affo eafily believe them, and think men that fuffer, are like to be guilty of what they are accufed. 8. Godlinefs being againfl a worldly mind and interefl,' and theRabble ufually for it, hence arifech a Confpiracy of carnal Clergie -men, and the Rabble, againfi thofe that are moll feriouflyGodly, as if they were their enemies, and a fully, proud, intratable fort of people. As Sulpitius Sea verus defcribeth íthacius and his followers, ( and even Mr. Hooker out of him Eccl. Pol. Pr e fat. ) 9. Such men in Power never want flatterers at their ears, to praife all that they do, and to exafperate them by flan- derìng and reviling fufferers. to. The long poffeflion ((-once the dayes ofCon ftantine.) ofGreat Places andPower by the Clergie, within theRoman Empire ( now the Greek andLatine Churches,) Both feem to juflifie mens Ufurpations and Tyranny, and make all Jiff-en- ters feem fingular and Schifmatical, ( which was and is the Papal flrerigth againfl the Reformed. ) r+. Too many of the Secular Rulers of the World, have much of the fame. Spirit ; And find allo their interefls fo twilled in [hewwith.the Papal Clergies, that they dare, not crofs them. rz. The faults of thofe that fuffer by them (indoctrine and imprudent carriages) ufe togive themgreat advantage, andmake all their odious characters and names of them be- lieved and received, (as the cafe of the Walden ¡es and of the Lutherans and falvini is inGermany too fully prove. ) II. The

The Preface. th The fecondRankofChurch-difturbers ate DOGMA.' TI STS or men that profefs exceeding zeal for 0XTHO. D o X Opinions, or Theological Knowledge. And thus: three inflances tell us of' the Caufeofour Calamities, I. That of Geoflick and Heretical perlons who account every new Conceit of theirs to be worthy the propagating, . even at the rate of Theological Wars and Church Confufions; and cryout [Buy the Truth, andfell it not], when it is fume error of their own, or fome unprofitable or unneceflary notion: .2. The cafe of the 12onani/ls ( to fay nothing of all the Old contentious Bithops and Councils, and the controverfies aboutPerfota and ,H }poflafs; and about many words and forms of fpeech ). What do theDoman Councils for many hundred years 1aí1, but on pretence of preferving the faith uncorrupted, multiply divifions and new Articles of faith (quoad nos) ? And while they cry down moll of Chrifis Church as Heretical or greatly erroneous, they have run themfelves into the groffeff errors almoft that humane na- ture is capableof ( even to the making it neceffary to fal- vation,to deny our own and all the found mens fenfes in the World inthe cafe ofTranfubflantiation ). 3. Thecafe of theScholmen, and_.fuch otherDi/piuting Milih fainTheologues : who have fpun out the Doarine of Chriflia- nitT into fo many Spiders Webs ; and filled theWorld with fo manyVolumes of Controverfies, as are fo many Engines of contention, hatred and divifion : And I would ourProte- Rant Churches, Lutherans and Calvinifs, had not too great a number offuchmen, as are far fhort of the Schoolmens fub- tiny, but much exceed them in the enviouJnefi of their seal, and the bitternef and railings of their difputes, more openly ,ferving the Prince of hatred again$$ the Caufeof Love and Peace. O how many famous Difputers, inSchools, Pulpit and Prefs, do little know what Spirit they are of, and what reward they muff expea ofChrifl,forsnaking odious his Ser- vants, deflroying Love, and dividing*his Kingdom ? How many fuch have their renown as little to their true comfort, as Alexanders andCefars for their bloodyWars ? Rut how cometh this (Dogmatical Zeal fo CO prevail ? Con- fider, ,i. Nature it felf is Delighted inKnowing much : Elfe Satan had not made it Eves temptation. WithoutGrace,even The- ological Speculations may be very pleating tomens minds. Morality andHolinefs is principally feated in the Will. (b 2) 2. Safari

The Preface..' z. Satan bath here a far fairer bait, than worldly Wealth and Pleafures and Honours, to tempt men, and keal away their hearts, from that Love and Pratice which is Holinefs indeed. All men are bound to Love Gods Word, and his Truthm.ufl be precious to us all : and now it is eafie for the hypocritical Dogmatik to take up here, and make him- felf a Religion of Zeal for thofe opinions, which he entitleth God to. And O that I could (peakthis loud enough to awa- ken the Learned Worldof Difputers, to fomuch jealoufe of their own hearts, as is neceffary to their own fafety; as well as to the Churches peace : This thing called Orthedoxnefl', Truthand Kight,,believing (precious in it felf, ifit be what it is called,) is made by Satan an ordinary means to deceive Learned men, and keep them from a holy and heavenly mind and life, whengroffer cheats would be lefs effeual Theologie is valuedby many as theMathematicks are, as a pleafant fort of knowledge ; and by others as the Jews were zealous of their Law, by a formal fort ofReligioufnefs; one fort being zealous for their Opinions, and another for their Ceremonies from the like principle of formality. 3. Yet Nature that would know much, is dull and flothful, and loth to be at that great and longkudy and labour necef- fary to obtain it. 4. And it is but few that are born with a quick natural capacity. 5. And it is not the mole that have the happinefs of very wife, experienced and throughly Learned Teachers: but moll are inftrulted'by half wittedmen. And young per- fons know not how to choofe the bell for themfelves, nor their Parents neither ordinarily. 6. Eafe and Interek, or the Veneration of certainperlons, maketh men fall in with thole Opinions that are in bell ekeem in the placeswhere they live, and among the per- fons whom theymoil value. q. Reafon is mansnoble faculty, and thereforethat which man is aptek to beProud of : And though few have much knowledge and wifdoin,almok all would be thought to have it, and are too proud to endure to be accounted ignorant or erroneous. 8.The Dignity of the Pakoral Office,and Academical De- grees, maketh men think that the Honour ofknowledge is their due, and neceffary to their work. And therefore they will expel and claim it that deferve it not : and it fha11 be

The Preitvë. be taken for Pride and Singularity for anyman to convince them of ignorance or error. 9. Many of them are godly men and excellent Preach- ers, and cryed up (defervedly) by good people : And therefore they take the reputation of more knowledge than they have, to be their due ; and the people are ready to joyn with them in reproaching all that differ from them. to. Great knowledge being rare , the half-knowing men are Will the major part by far ( alas how far !) And fo ifSynods becalled,or molt Voicesheard, thefe will Will pais for the Orthodox men, and a more judicious man will fcarce be heard among them. u. Learning is of many ages got into certain forms of words ; and he that hath got fome organical arbitrary No- tions, paffeth for a Learned man ; or he that can fpeak many Languages : while true real wifdom (which con- fifteth t. In knowing the Greatefl Things, and z. In fitting words to things) is muchnegle&ed : whereby as hypocrites deceive themfelves and others with forms of piety, fo do Scho- lars with forms and notions inflead of knowledge. tz. Thefe humane formalities of wifdom have prevail- ed to bring the Scripture, and the belt part ofwifdom, into difefteem, as a dull and low kind of knowledge ; as if Logical, Physical and Metaphylcal trifling, were a higher matter. t;. No man is fufficiently apprehenfive of the greatnefs of the Curie in the confufion ofTongues : whereby as we can preach but to fewNations in the World, fo we cannot intelligibly converfe with one another. All words (being arbitrary fgns) are fmbiguous ; And few Vmaters have the ïaioufie and skill which is neceffary to difcufs equivocations, and to agree of the meaning of all their terms before they ufe them in difputing : And fo taking Verbal differences for Material, doth keep up molt of the wretched Academical andTheological Warsof the World. 14. And nothing here undoeth all the.World in point of wifdom, fomuch as over-hafly judging or prefidence : It is natural to almoft all to fallen prefently upon the firft appearances, and to be confident before they have half tryed : In cafes where (even and (even years ferious Rudy is necelfary to a through digePted knowledge, every No vice will prefently conclude as if he were Pure; And theft as

The Preface. as every one is apt to be confident, fo tobe tenacious s every error leading on more , and the reputation of the perfon being concerned in it, mutability being a fhamc : And fo it becometh avery difficult thing to unlearn the errors once learned ; as white Paper is eafier written on than that which is written on before. i5. And then no man knowetb bis own error ( elfe it were no error ), nor knoweth what another mans perceptions are, nor what any other man knoweth more than he. 16. And laflly, the odious names of diffenters ( the common ufage) Both quickly affright evenbeginners from thinking well of their Opinions,(yea, or of their perfons and piety ufually ). And by all theft means almoll all are of the opinion of the Countrey where they live, or of thofe that theymoll reverence, or which are moll for their ìute- re$; andboldly condemn the refl not underflood. III. And the pretence of H O LI NESS or a blindpra. focal Zeal, and Superßitious religion, both in Hypocrites and many hone$ ignorant people, hath not a littlehand in the diflraEtions of Chrifts Church. It was the appearance of more Spirituality and Stritlnei which drewTertulian tothe Montanifls, and which promoted a great part of theHerehes which havetorn the Churches. This bore up the Caufe of the Prifcillianifls, and of thofe that Bernard and Cluniacenfis fo much inveigh againft, (I flip pofeManichees with forne better perfons mixt:) This kept up the :Donàtifls ; but above all the Movatians long in great reputation : This was the flrength of the rinabaptts inter. many and, the Low Countreys , as their adverfaries confers. Saith G. Wiceliva Meth. Concord. c. t x. p. 42. CRetint1ores bac una parte duntaxat fapiunt, tenentes dot:rinam Eccle fæ Catbolic e fpeaking of theneceffity ofa holy life : This is the flrength of the lakes among us now, and of almoll all the fepa- rating and Cenlorious- Sees : And were not fo excellent a thing as Godlinef the Motive , abundance of good people durfl never have done the great evils which we have feen done in this age 'to the great fhame of our profefiion, and the fad calamities of Church and State. ( And if I my felf have formerly in my unexperienced youth , pro- tnoted any dividing -or unwarrantable wayes, it was up- on this and the former miflake ; which I beg daily of God to difcover to me to the full , and beg the pardon of the rnifcarriages which I know, and which yet I know not of) And

SThe`3ré`ce._ And if you Confider thefe things following, you will no wonder that mifakenGodlinef fhouldcaufe divifions : I. Lloliq and Gods Love orwell-pleafednefswith man; is the bell thing in this world, or that man is capable of And therefore is moil Defi eable, and moll Honourable. 2. Therefore all good men prefer it before all other things ; And are juflly more averle to any thing that is againf1 it, than to anyworldly lofs or fuffering. 3. Yea it is Gods Intereft more than their own : And all goodmen are again$ all that difpleafeth God, fo far as it is known. 4. We all know but in part, and as in a glafs and darkly : Even the moll of Teachers take abundance of things for True and Good that are Falfe and Evil, and for Palle and Dad which areTrue andGood; Much more are Godly vulgar peo- ple ignorant, and conleduentlyerre in many things. Even they thatcryout againfl the vulgar Ignorance, and inluffii- cient Teachers, know far leis than they are Ignorant of themfelves. q. He that miflakingly thinks any thing is Good ox bad; Duty or sin, which is not fo, will be zealous in purfuit of his miflake,.if he be ferious for God : A good principle will hallenhim on in a wrongway, whatever it colt him. 6. ignorance and timeroufnefs caute /uperftition, which iS a conceit that God is pleafed by overdoing in externalthings, and obfervances and laws of their own making S and fo they that make part of their .own. Religion fuperflitioufl}i (as moll good people do in Tome things through ig+ norance,) will cenfure all others as Goodor bad, by the urea+ lure of their own millakes. 7. He that thus miflakingly thinks that men fin when they do not, will have a proportionable diflike of them; and averfation from them : Andwill be ready to fpeak as he thinks of them, and fo will be guilty of calumny, and calling,Evil Good, and Good Evil. 8..TheWorld will abound (till with real evil and (can- dais; And all parties will be faulty : And ulually the greater part of the Clergie in the Chriflian World will be guilty of fo much - Ignorance, pride, contentioufnefs, "world - lineis and fenfuality, as will greatlygrieve and offend good people. And this will occafion alienation and feparations even with Godly perlons : The facrifice of the Lord was abhorred through the fins of Eli's Eons : The cafe of the Clergie

The Preface. Clergie at this day in theGreek Church in Mofcovie, Armenia; Syria, 4baffia, &c. yea among too many of the German Churches, is very lamentable, by Ignorance and fcandal: And the corruptionof theRomanClergie was it that facili- tated the revolt from the Papacy at Luther's reformation. He that readeth Corned. Mus, Perms, EJenceus, Erafmus, Alvan Pelagius, Clemangis and fuch others defcribing their own Cler- gie, and 7óf: Acofta of them in India, erc. will fee much of the Caufe of the Divifions in the World : And all the old Writers that write again$ the Waldenfes, do make us under- $and that the ignorance and wickednefsof the Clergie then, was it that drove them from the Roman Church. Saith Wicelius Meth. Concord. c. n. p. 39. Qom; tales ad nullum boa neftius vite inflitutum idonei Punt, minim fitfì bonos facerdotes prLe= fdabunt : fic itaqueprocedente tempore regeturEcclefìa ab afinis, (.7 predicabunt imperitii fimi máfero populo , quod nunquam didicerunt ipfi. Adolefcentes optimi quique abhorrent propterea ab inflituto illo, quod nolint fuam libertatem fibi eripi, c. I have oft laid, what caufedSt. Martin to feparate during life from the Synodical Bithops about him : And what Gildas faithof fuck, that no excellent Chriflian will call them 141iniflers : And it's very ob- fervablenot only as Dr.James in the Marginof Wicelius hath cited, that there are many Canons again$ wicked Priefls ce- lebrating and Mailing, but Wicelius himfelf faith (p.17. ) 1'ón admittantur facra concubinariorum, quos Deus pejus odic, atq; manifeflarios incefdus : Meminerimus in Decretis Ponti ficum pié caveri, Ne quis Mffam elus Presbyteri audiat quern fcit indubitanter con= cubinam habere, aut fubintroduEtammulierem. (And yet there are nowmen pretending to piety among Proteflants, that fpeak of, andufe thole Godly perlons more hatefully who refufe to hear fuchwicked Priefls,than they do thole Priefls themfelves.) Light and Darknefs have no Communion : And the Church will alwayes have bad Minillers and Mem- bers : Andmany good people through Ignorance will think that they fhould go further from them than they ought : And will not diflinguifh between that private familiarity which is in theirown power, and that publick ChurchCom- munionwhich the Church Paflors are the guides and judges of. Aid fo the honefly and the ignorance of thefe good men, meeting with the 'vulgar wickedneß, will be as the congrefs of fireand water, and will occafion ruptures and parties in the Churches. 9. The