Milton - PR3550 .D77 1777 M1

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1 \ A PARADISE LOST. A P E N TWELVE BOOKS. ************************0100

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PARADISE LOST. ."' A &-""" E M, I N TWELVE BOOKS, THE AUTHOR 7 ()HIV' MILTON. With the LIFE of MILTON. By THOMAS NEWTON, D. D. - every greatly amiable mule, Of elder ages in thy MILTON met ; His was the treafure of two thoufand years, Seldom indulged to man ; a god like mind, Unlimited, and various, as his theme ; Altonifhing as Chaos; as the bloom Of blowing Eden fair ; loft as the talk Of our grand karents, and as Heaven fublime. THOMSON, PHIL A D EL PHI A: Printed by R O B ER T B E L L, in Third-Street. MD CCLXX VII.

ON PARADISE LOST. WH E N I beheld the Poet blind, yet bold, In limier book His vaft defign unfold : Meffiah crown'd, God's reconcil'd decree, Rebelling Angels, the Forbidden Tie; Heav'n, Hell, Earth, Chaos, All ! the argument Held me a while mifdoubting His intent That He would ruin (for I law bias flrong) The Sacred Truths to fable, and old lot* ; (So Sampfon grop'd the Temple's polls in fpight) The world o'erwhelming to revenge His fight. Yet as I read, loon growing lets fevere, I lik'd His projea, the fuccefs did fear ; Through that wide field how He His way fhould finds' O'er which lame faith leads underftanding blind ; Left He perplex'd the things He would explain, And what was eafy, He fhould render vain. Or if a work fo infinite He fpann'd, Jealous I was that fome lets fkilful hand (Such as difquiet always what is well, And by ill imitating would excel) Might hence prefume, the whole creation's day To change in fcenes, and thew it in a Play. Pardon me, Mighty Poet ! nor delpife My caufelefs, yet not impious, furmife. But I am now convinc'd, and none will dare Within Thy labours to pretend a 'hare, Thou haft not mifs'd one thought that could be fit ; And all that was improper dolt omit : So

ON PARADISE LOS 114 So that no room is here for writers left, But to detet their ignorance, or theft. That majefly which through Thy Work doth reign, Draws the devout, deterring the profane: And Things Divine Thou treat'a of in fuch ftate, As them preferves, and Thee inviolate. At once delight and horror on us feize, Thou flog'ft with in much gravity and eafe 5 And above human flight dolt boar aloft. With plume fo thong, fo equal, and fo loft I The bird nam'd from that Paradife You ling So never fl,gs, but always keeps on wing. Where could'ft Thou words of fuch a compafs find ? Whence furnith fuch a vaft expence of mind ? Juft Heav'n Thee, like Tirefias, to requite, Rewards with prophefy Thy lobs of fight. Well might't thou ;corn thy readers to allure With tinkling rime, of thy own fenfe fecure ; While the Town-Bays writes all the whileand fpells, And, like a pack-honfe, tires without his bells. Their fancies like our bufhy-points appear, The poets tag them, we for fa(hion wear. I too tranfported by the mode offend ; And while I mean to praife Thee, muff commend. Thy verfe created like Thy Theme fublime, In number, weight, and meafure, needs not rime. ANDREW MARVEL.

THE VERSES H E meafure is EngiUh Heroic Verfe without Rime, as that of Homer in Greek, and of Virgil in Latin ; Rime being no neceffary adjundt, or try ue Ornament of Poem or good Verfe ; in longer works efpecially : but the invention of a barbarous \ age, to fec of wretched matter and lame metre : graced indeed fince by the ufe of fome famous mo- dern Poets, carried away by cuflom ; but much to their own vexation, hindrance, and conflraint to ex- prefs many things otherwife, (and for the molt part worfe) than elfe they would have expreft them. Not without caufe therefore fome (both Italian and Spanifb) Poets of prime note have rejeCted Rime, both in longer and Cnorter works ; as have alfo long fince our bell Englifh Tragedies ; as a thing of itfelf, to all judicious ,,ears, trivial and of no true mufical delight : which confifis only in apt Numbers, fit quantity of fyllables, and the fenfe varioufly drawn out from one Verfe into another : not in the jingling found of like endings ; a fault avoided by the learned Antients both in Poetry, and all good Oratory. This neglect then of Rime fo little is to be taken for a defea ; (though it may feem fo perhaps to vulgar readers) that it rather is to be efleemed an example fet, the firll in Engin, of ancient liberty recpvered to Heroic Poem, from the troublefome and modern bondage of Riming. THE

THE ARGUMENTS OF THE TWELVE BOOKS: THE ARGUMENT OF THE FIRST BOOK. TH I S firft book propofes, firft in brief, the whole fubjeti, man's difobedience, and the lofs thereupon of Paradife wherein he was placed. Then touches the prime caufe of his fall, the ferpenr, or rather Satan( In the ferpent ; who revolting from God, and drawing to his fide many legions of Angels, was by the command of God driven out of Heaven with all his crew into the great deep. Which aEtion paired over, the poem haftes into the rnidft of things, prefenting Satan with his Angels now fallen into Hell, defcribed here, not in the center (for Heaven and earth may be fuppofed as yet not made, certainly not yet accurfed) but in a place of utter darknefs, fitlieft call'd chaos : Here Satan with his Angels lying on the burning lake, thunder-ftruck and aftonifh'd, after a certain fpace recovers, as from confufion, calls uji him who next in order and dignity lay by him ; they confer of their miferable fall. Satan awakens all his legions, who lay till then in the fame manner confounded ; They rife, their numbers, array of battel, their chief leaders nam'd, according to the idols known afterwards ht Canaan and the countries adjoining. To there Satan dire6ls his fpeech, comforts them with hope yet of regaining Heaven,, but tells them lafily of a new world and new kind of creature to be created, according to an antient prophecy or report in Heaven ; for that Angels were long before this vifible creation, was the opinion of many antient Fathers. To find out the truth of this prophecy, and what to deter mine thereon, he refers to a full council. What his alrociates thence attempt. Pandemonium the palace of Satan rifes, fuddenly built out of the deep : The infernal peers there fit in council. THE

io THE ARGUMENTS THE ARGUMENT OF Tan SECOND nOOK4 TH E confultation begun, Satan debates whether another battel be to be hazarded for the recovery of Heaven : Some advife it, others cliffuade: A third propofal is preferr'd, mention'd before by Satan, to fearch the truth of that prophecy or tradidon in Heaven concerning another world, and another kind of creature equal or not much in- ferior to themfelves, about this time to be created : Their doubt who shall be fent on this difficult fearch : Satan their chief undertakes alone the voyage, is honour'd and applauded. The council thus ceded, the reft betake them feveral ways, and to feveral employments, as their inclinations lead them, to entertain the time till Satan return. He paffes on his journey to Hell gates, finds them Phut, and who fate there to guard them, by whom at length they are open'd, and drfcci,er to him the great gulph between Hell and Heaven ; with what (1,6- culty he paffes through, direaed by Chaos, the Power of that place, to the fight of this new world which he fought. THE ARGUMENT OF THE THIRD BOOK. 0D fitting on his throne fees Satan flying towards this world, then newly created ; fhows him to the Son who fat at his right hand ; foretels the fuccefs of Satan in perverting mankind ; clears his own juaice and wifdom from all imputation, having created Man free and able enough to have withflood his tempter ; yet declares his purpofe of grace towards him, in regard he fell not of his own malice, as did Satan, but by him (educed. The Son of God renders praifes to his. Father for the manifeftation of his gracious purpofe towards Man ; but God again declares, that grace cannot be extended towards Man without the fatisfaaion of divine juflice ; Man hath offended the majefty of God by afpiring to Godhead, and therefore with all his progeny devoted to death mutt die, unlefs fome one can be found fufficient to anfwer for his offence, and undergo his punifhment. The Son of God freely offers himfelf a ranfome for man : the Father ac- cepts him, ordains his incarnation, pronounces his exaltation above all names in Heaven and Earth ; commands all the Angels to adore him ; they obey, and hymning to their harps in full quire, celebrate the Father and the Son. Mean while Satan alights upon the bare convex

OF THE TWELVE BOOKS xi convex of this world's outermoft orb ; where wand'ring he firft finds a place, fince call'd The Limbo of Vanity ; what perfons and things fly up thither ; thence comes to the gate of Heaven, defcrib'd afcencling by 'lairs, and the waters above the firmament that flow about it : His paffage thence to the orb of the fun ; he finds there Uriel the regent of that orb, but firft changes himfelf into the fhape of a meaner Angel ; and pretending a zealous defire to behold the new creation, and Man whom God had plac'd here, inquires of him the place of his habita. tion, and is direeted; alights hilt on mount Niphates. THE ARGUMENT OF THE FOURTH BOOK. A TAN now in profpeEt of Eden, and nigh the Place where he mini now attempt the bold enterprife which he undertook alone againft God and Man, fails into many doubts with himfelf, and many paflions, ft: r, envy, and defpair ; but at length confirms himfelf in evil, inurneys on to Paradife whofe outward profpe& and lituation is de- ferined, overleaps the bounds, fits in the fhape of a cormorant on the tree of 1,fe, as highelt in the garden, to look about hint The garden defcrib'd ; Satan's firft fight of Adam and Eve ; his wonder at their excellent form and happy Elate, but with refolution to work their fall; overhears their difcourfe, thence gathers that the tree of knowleelge was fornidden them to eat of, under penalty of death ; and thereon intends to found his temptation by feducing them to tranfgrefs : then leaves them a while, to know further of their hate by Tome other means. Mean while Uriel defeending on a funbeam warns Gabriel, who had in charge the gate of Paradife, that force evil Spirit had eicap'd the deep, and pafs'd at noon by his fphere in the fhape of a good Angel down to Paradife, dif_overed after by his furious geflures in the mount. Gabriel promifes to find him ere morning. Night coming on, Adam and Eve difcourfe of going to their reh : their bower defcrib'd ; their evening worship. Gabriel drawing forth his hands of night-watch to walk the round of Paradife, appoints two ftrong Angels to Adam's bower, left the evil Spirit fhonld be there doing fume harm to Adam or Eve fleeping ; there they rind him at the ear of Eve, tempting her in a dream, and bring him, though unwilling, to Gabriel ; by whom queftion'd, he fcornfully anfwers, prepares refillance, but hinder'd by fign fromHeaven, flies out of Paradife. T

TZ THE ARGUMENTS HE ARGUMENT OF THE FIFTH 13001. O R N I NG approach'd, Eve relates to Adam her trouble., Tome, dream ; he likes it not, yet comforts her : They come forth to th.-ir day labors : Their morning hymn at the door of their bower. God to render man inexcufable fends Raphael to admonifh him of his Obedience, of his free eftate, of his enemy near at hand, who he is, and why his enemy, and whatever elle may avail Adam to know. Raphael comes down to Paradife, his appearance defcrib'd, his coming difcern'd by Adam afar cif fitting at the door of his bower ; he goes out to meet him, brings him to his lodge, entertains him with the choiceft fruits of Paradife got together by Eve ; their difcourfe at table : Raphael performs his meffage, minds Adam of his date and of his enemy ; relates at Adam's requed who that enemy is, and how he came to be fo, beginning from his &ft revolt in Heaven, and the occafion thereof; how he drew his legions after him to the parts of the north, and there incited them to rebel with him, perfuading all but only Abdiel a Seraph, who in argument diffuades and oppofes him, then forfakes him. THE ARGUMENT OF THE SIXTH BOOR. A PH AJEL continues to relate how Michael and Gabriel were fent forth to battel again f} Satan and his Angels. The firft fight de- fcrib'd : Satan and his Powers retire under night : He calls a council' invents devilifh engines, which in the fecond day's fight put Michael and his Angels to force diforder but thy at length pulling up moun- tains overwhelm'cl both the force and machines-of Satan : Yet the tumult not fo ending, God on the third day fends Mefliah his Son, for whom he had referv'd the glory of that victory : Hein the power of his 'ztLer coming to the place, and caufing all his 'legions to fland fill on either fide, with his chariot and thunder driving into the midit of his enemies, purfu:s them unable to refill towards the wall of Heaven ; which ope:;ing, they leap down with horror and confufion into the place of punifliment prepar'd for them in the deep rvieffiah returns with triumph to his Father. THE

OF THE TWELVE BOOKS.' THE ARGUMENT OF THE SEVENTH BOOK; RAPHAEL at the requeft of Adam relates how and wherefore this world was firft created ; that God, after the expelling of Satan and his Angels out of Heaven, declared his pleafure to create another world and other creatures to dwell therein ; fends his Son with glory and attendance of Angels to perform the work of creation in fix days : the Angels celebrate with hymns the performance thereof, and his reafcen- lion into Heaven. THE ARGUMENT OF THE EIGHTH BOOK. ADAM inquires concerning celeftial motions, is doubtfully anfwer'd, and exhorted to fearch rather things more worthy ofknow- ledge : Adam affents, and. Hill delirous to detain Raphael, relates to him what he remember'd fence his own creation, his placing in Paradife, his talk with God concerning folitude and fit fociety, his firft meeting and nuptials with Eve, his difcourfe with the Angel thereupon ; who after admonitions repeated departs. THE ARGUMENT OF THE NINTH BOOK. SATAN having compafs'd the Earth, with meditated guile returns as a mitt by night into Paradife, enters into the Serpent fleeping. Adam and Eve in the morning go forth to their labors, which Eve propcfes to divide in feveral places, each laboring apart : Adam confents not, alledging the danger, left that enemy, of whom they were forwarn'd, mould attempt her found alone : Eve loath to be thought not circumfpe& or firm enough, urges her going apart, the rather defirous to make trial of her ftrength ; Adam at Taft yields : The Serpent finds her alone ; his fubtle approach, firft gazing, then fpeaking, with much flattery extolling Eve above all other creatures. Eve wondering to hear the Serpent fpcak, afks how he attain'd to human fpeech and Inch underflanding not till now ; the Serpent an- fwers, that by tailing of a certain tree in the garden he attain'd both to fpeech and reafon, till then void of both: Eve requires him to bring her to that tree, and finds it to be the tree of knowledge forbidden : The Serpent now grown bolder, with many wiles and arguments in- duces

14 THE ARGUMENTS duces her at length to eat ; the pleas'd with the mile deliberates a while whether to impart thereof to Adam or not, at left brings him of the fruit, relates what perluaded her to eat thereof : Adam at firft amaz'd, but perceiving her loft, refolves through vehemence of love to perifh with her ; and extenuating the trefpafs eats alfo of the fruit ; The effeds thereof in them both ; they leek to cover their nakednefs ; then fall to variance and accufation of one another. THE ARGUMENT OF THE TENTH BOOK. MAN's tranfgrellion known, the guardian Angels forfak e Paradife, and return up to Heaven to approve their vigilance, and are apps ov'd, God declaring that the entrance of Satan could not be by them pre- vemted. He fends his Son to judge the tranfgeeffors, who defcends and gives fentence accordingly ; then in pity clothes them both, and reafcends. Sin and Death fitting till then at the gates of Hell, by wondrous fympathy feeling the fuccefs of Satan in this new world, and the fin by Man there committed, refolv'd to fit no longer confin'd in Hell, but to follow Satan their fire up to the place of Man : To make the way eafier from Hell to this world to and fro, they pave a broad high-way or bridge over Chaos, according to the Track that Satan firft made ; then preparing for Earth, they meet him proud of his fuccefs returning to Hell ; their mutual gratulation. Satan arrives at Pandemonium, in full affembly relates with boafting his fuccefs againif Man ; inilead of applaufe is entertained with d general hits by all his audience, transform'd with himfelf alfo feddenlv into Serpents, according to his doom given in Paradife ; then deluded with a Phew of the forbidden tree fpringing up before them, they greedily reaching to take of the fruit, chew dull and bitter afhes. The proceedings of Sin and Death ; God foretels the final vidory of his Son over them, and the renewing of all things; but for the prefent commands his Angels to make feveral alterations in the Heavens and elements. Adam more and More perceiving his fali'n condition heavily be. wails, taj-ds the condolement of Eve ; the perfifls, and at length appeafes him . then to evade the curie likely to fall on their offspring, propofes to Adam violent ways, which he approves not, but conceiv- ing better hope, puts her in mind of the late promife made them, that her feed fhould be reveng'd on the Serpent, and exhorts her with him to feek peace of the offended Deity, by repentance And fupplication. T H E

OF TI-It TWELVE BOOKS. is THE ARGUMENT OF THE ELEVENTH BOOK. TH E Son of God prefents to his Father the prayers of our firft parents now repenting, and intercedes for them : God accepts hem, but declares that they mull no longer abide in Paradife ; fends Michael with a band of Cherubims to difpoffefs them ; but &ft to reveal to Adam future things : Michael's coming down. Adam thaws to Eve certain omi- nous figns ; he difcerns Michael's approach, goes out to meet him ; the Angel denounces their departure. Eve's Lamentation. Adam pleads, but fubmits : The Angel leads him up to a high hill, fets before him in vifion what fhall happen till the flood. THE ARGUMENT OF THE TWELFTH BOOK. TH E Angel Michael continues from the flood to relate what (hall fucceed ; then, in the mention of Abraham, comes by degrees to ex- plain, who that Seed of the Woman than be, which was promifed Adam and Eve in the fall ; his incarnation, death, refurrettion, and afcenfion ; the flare of the church till his fecond coming. Adam greatly fatisfied and recomforted by thefe relations and promifes de- fcends the hill with Michael ; wakens Eve, who all this while had flept, but with gentle dreams compos'd to quietnefs of mind and fub- million, Michael in either hand leads them out of Paradife, the fiery fword waving behind them, and the Cherubims taking their nations to guard the place. T H

***************clogo******* T H E FIRST BOOK 0 F ;.! PARADISE LOST. ***************40400190310*******

THE ARGUMENT OF THE FIRST BOOK. H I S fira book propofes, fira in brier, the whole fubje0c, man's difobedience, and the lots thereupon of Paradife wherein he was placed. Then touches the prime caufe of his fall, the ferpent, or rather Satan in the ferpent ; who revolting from God, and drawing to his fide many legions of Angels, was by the command of God driven out of Heaven with all his crew into the great deep. Which a&ion paired over, the poem haftes into the midtt of things, prefenting Satan with his Angels now fallen into Hell, defcribed here, not in the center (for Heaven and earth may be fuppofed as yet not made, certainly not yet accurfed) hut in a place of utter darknefs, fitlieft call'd chaos Here Satan with his Angels lying on the burning lake, thunder-ftruck and afionifh'd, after a certain fpace recovers, as from confufion, calls up him who next in order and dignity lay by him ; they confer of their miferable fall. Satan awakens all his legions, who lay till then in the fame manner confounded ; They rife, their numbers, array of battel, their chief leaders nam'd, according to the idols known afterwards in Canaan and the countries adjoining. To thefe Satan dire&s his fpeech; comforts them with hope yet regaining Heaven, but tells ern laftly of a new world and new kind of creature to be created, according to an antient prophecy or report in Heaven ; for that Angels Were long before this vifible creation, was the opinion of many antient Fathers. To find out the truth of this prophecy, and what to deter- mine thereon, he refers to a full council. What his affociates thence attempt. Pandemonium the palace of Satan rifes, fuddenly built out of the deep : The infernal peers there fit in council.

MILTON's PARADISE LOST: I N TWEL VE BOOKS; BOOK I. 0 F Man's &ft difobedience, and the fruit Of that forbidden tree, whole mortal mite Brought death into the world and all our woe, With lois of Eden, till one greater Man Reftore us, and regain the blifsful feat, Sing heav'nly Mufe, that on the fecret top Of Oreb, or of Sinai, didft infpire That ihepherd, who firit taught the chofen feed, In the beginning how the heav'ns and earth Role out of Chaos : Or if Sion hill Delight thee more, and Siloa's brook that How'd Fait by the oracle of God ; I thence Invoke thy aid to my advent'rous long, That with no middle flight intends to foar Above th' Aonian mount, while it purfues Things unattempted yet in prole or rime. 10 I And

PARADISE LOST. Book I. And chiefly thou 0 Spirit, that dolt prefer Before all temples th' upright heart and pure, Inftrua me, for thou know'ft : thou from the firft Waft prefent, and with mighty wings out-fpread, 20 Dove-like fafft brooding on the vaft Abyfs, And mad'it it pregnant what in me is dark Illumine, what is low mile and fupport ; That to the height of this great argument I may affst eternal Providence, And juflify the ways of God to Men. Say tuft, for heav'n hides nothing from thy view, Nor the deep tract of hell, fay firft what cattle Mov'd our grand Parents, in that happy ftate Favour'd of heav'n fo highly, to fall off 30 From their creator, and tranfgrefs his will For one reftraint, lords of the world betides Who firft feduc'd them to that foul revolt ? Th' infernal ferpent ! he it was, whole guile, Stirr'd up with envy and revenge, deceiv'd 35 The mother of mankind, what time his pride Had caft him out from heav'n, with all his heft Of rebel Angels, by whole aid afpiring To let himfelf in glory above his Peers, He trufted to have equall'd the Molt High, if he oppos'd ; and with ambitious aim, 4gainft the throne and monarchy of God Ilais'd impious war in heav'n and battel proud, With vain attempt. Him the almighty power littri'd headlong flaming from tit' ethereal flay, 45 With hideous ruin and combuftion, down To bottenaleis perdition, there to dwell in adamantine chains and penal fire, Who durft defie th' Omnipotent to arms. me times the fpace that meafitres day and night so id

I3tIox,I, PARADISE LOST; To mortal men, he with his horrid crew Lay vanquifh'd, rolling in the fiery gulf, Conf ,untied though immortal : but his doom Referv'd him to more wrath ; for now the thought Both of loft happinefs and lafting pain 55 Torments him ; round he throws his baleful eyes That witnefs'd huge afflidion aQd difinay, Mix'd with obdurate pride and ftedfaft hate : At once, as far as angels ken, he views The dismal fituation wafte and wild : 6o A dungeon horrible, on all fides round, As one great furnace, flam'd, yet from thofe flames No light, but rather darknefs vifible, Serv'd only to difcover fights of woe ; Regions of forrow, doleful fhades, where peace And reft can never dwell, hope never comes That comes to all ; but torture without end urges, and a fiery deluge, fed With ever-burning fuiphur unconfum'd. Such place eternal juice had prepar'd For thofe rebellious ; here their prifon ordain'd, In utter darknefs, and their portion let As far remov'd from God and light of heav'n, As from the centre thrice to th' utmoft Pole. 0 how unlike the place from whence they fell ! 75 There the companions of his fall, o'erwhelm'd With floods and whirlwinds of tempeftuous fire, He loon difcerns ; and welt'ring by his fide One next himfelf in pow'r, and next in crime Long after known in Palxfline, and nam'd So Beelzebub : To whom th' arch-enemy, (And thence in heav'n call'd Satan) with bold words Breaking the horrid filence thus began. If thou beeft He--But 0 how fall'n I how chang'd From him, who in the happy realms of light 85 Cloath'd

6 PARADISE 10 STi Bizicqc: IT* Cloath'd with tranfcendent btightnefs, didft oUt-fhine Myriads tho"bright ! If He, whom mutual league,'.` United thoughts and ccunfels, equal hope And hPzard in the glorious eriterprize, Join'd with me once, now mikry bath join'd 90 In equal ruin ! Into what pit thou feeft From what height fall'n ; fo much the ftronger prov'd He with his thunder : and till then who knew The force of thote dire arms? Yet not for thofe, Nor what the potent victor in his rage 95 Can elle inflia, do I repent, or change (Though chang'd in outward luftre) that-fix'd mind And high difdain, from tente of injur'd merit, That with the Mightiefl rais'd me to contend, And to the fierce contentiin brought along 10© Innumerable force of fpirits arm'd, That durft diflike his reign ; and me preferring, His utmoil pow'r with adverfe pow'r oppos'd, In dubious battel on the plains of heav'n, And (hook his throne. What (ho' the field be loft ? ][05 All is not loft ; th' unconquerable Will, And fludy of revenge, immortal hate, And courage never to tubmit or yield ; (And what is elle not to be overcome ?) That glory never (tall his wrath or might Extort from me, to bow and tue for grace With luppliant knee, and deifie his pow'r, Who from the terror of this arms to late Doubted his empire : that were low indeed, 'I hat were an ignominy and tharne beneath 115 This downtal ; fince by fate the flrength of Gods, And this em! yreal WM-lance cannot fad ; Since through experience of this great event, In arms not work, in forefight much advanc'd, We may with more fuccefsful hope refolve 120 IID To

BOOK I. PARADISE LOST. To wage by force or guile eternal war, Irreconcileable to our grand foe ; Who now triumphs, and in th' excels of joy Sole reigning holds the tyranny of heav'n. So tpak, the apottate Angel, though in pain ; 125 Vaunting aloud, but rack'd with deep del-pair : And him thus anfwer'd loon his hold compeer. 0 Prince, 0 Chief of many throned Powers, That led th' imbattel'd Seraphim to war Under thy conduit, and in dreadful deeds Fearlefs, endanger'd heav'n's perpetual King, And put to proof his high fupremacy ; Whether upheld by ftrength, or chance, or fate, Too well I fee and rue the dire event, That with fad overthrow and foul defeat Hath loft us heav'n, and all this mighty holt In horrible dettrudion laid thus low, As far as Gods and heav'nly effences Can perith : For the mind and fpirit remains Invincible, and vigor loon returns, Though all our glory extind, and happy Rate Here lwallow'd up in endlefs mifery. But what if he our conqu'ror (whom I now Of force believe Almighty, fence no lets Than such could have o'er power'd fuch force as Haye left us this our tpirit and strength entire, Strongly to fuffer and fupport our pains ? That we may to fuffice his vengeful ire, Or do him mightier fervice, as his thralls By right of war, whate'er his butinefs be, Here the heart of hell to wot k in fire, Or do his errands in the gloomy Deep: What can it then avail, though yet we feel 135 140 [14-5 ours) 150 Strength

8 PARADISE LOST. Book T. Strength undinainifh'd, or eternal being To undergo eternal punifhtmnt ? 155 Whereto with fpeedy words th' Arch-fiend reply'd. Fall'n Cherub, to be weak is miferable Doing or fuffering : but of this be Pure, To do ought good never will be our talk, But ever to do ill our fole delight. 16o As being the contrary to his high will Whom we refill. If then his Providence Out of our evil Peek to bring forth good, Our labour mull be to pervert that end, And out of good fill to find means of evil ; 165 Which oft-times may fucceed, fo as perhaps Shall grieve him, if I fail not, and difturb His inmoft counfels from their deflin'd aim. But fee ! the angry vilor bath recall'd His minifters of vengeance and purfuit, 170 Back to the gates of heav'n : the fulph'rous hail Shot after us in form, o'er- blown, hath laid The fiery furge, that from the precipice Of heav'n receiv'd us falling ; and the thunder, Wing'd with red lightning and impetuous rage, 17; Perhaps hath (pent his fhafts, and ceafes now To bellow through the vett and boundlefs Deep. Let us not flip th' occafion, whether fcorn, Or fatiate fury, yield it from our foe. Seeft thou you dreary plain, forlorn and wild, ISO The feat of defolation, void of light, Save what the glimmering of thefe livid flames Calls pale and dreadful ? thither let us tend From off the toiling of thefe fiery waves ; There ref}, if any ref can harbour there : 185 And re-affembling our afflided pow'rs, Confult howwe may henceforth molt offend Our

BooK I. PARADISE LOST, Our enemy, our own lois how repair, How overcome this dire calamity, What reinforcement we may gain from hope 3 y 0 If not, what refolution from defpair. Thus Satan talking to his neared mate, With head up-lift above the wave, and eyes That fparkling blaz'd ; his other parts befides Prone on the flood, extended long and large, t9S Lay floating many a rood a in bulk as huge As whom the fables name, of monflrous fine, Titanian, or Earth-born, that warr'd on Jove, Briareus or Typhon, whom the den By ancient Tarlus held, or that fea-beaft 200 Leviathan, which God of all his works Created hugeft that fwim th' ocean ftream (Him haply flumb'ring on the Norway foam, The pilot of force (mall night- founder'd skiff, Deeming fome ifland, oft, as fea-men tell, gan With fixed anchor in his fcaly rind, Moors by his fide under the Lee, while night invefts the fea, and wifhed morn delays.) So ftretch'd out huge in length the Arch-fiend lay, Chain'd on the burning lake; nor ever thence tIO Had ris'n or heav'd his head, but that the will And high permiffion of all-ruling heaven, Left him at large to his own dark defigns That with reiterated crimes he might Heap on himfelf damnation, while he fought g IS Evil to others ; and enrag'd might fee How all his malice ferv'd but to bring forth Infinite goodnefs, grace and mercy (hewn On man by him feduc'd ; but on himfelf Treble confulion, wrath and vengeance pone& 2W) Forthwith upright he rears from off the pool D

PARADISE- LOST. BOOK!. His mighty flature ; on each hand the flames Driv'n backward (lope their pointing fpires, and rowl'd In billows, leave i'th' midfl a horrid vale. Then with expanded wings he (leers his flight 225 Aloft, incumbent on the du(ky air, That felt untiftia.1 weight ; till on dry land He lights, if it -were land that ever burn'd With fold, as the lake with liquid fire ; Aad fuch app.-2aii'd in hue, as when the force, 230 Uf fubterranean wind tianfports a hill Torn from Pelorus, or the thatter'd fide Of thund'rihg whole combuflible A ,d fuel'd entrails thence conceiving fire, buhlim'ci with mineral fury, aid the winds, 235 And leave a finged bottom all involv'd With Item are finoke,' loch felting found the foie Of unbleft,"chfeet Him foilow'd his next mate, Both gioryiug telihave 'fcap'd the Stygian flood, As Gods, and by their own recover'd ttrength, 240 Not by the fuff'ratice fupernal pow'r. Is this the region, thislhe foil, the clime, Said then the loft Arch-Angel, this the feat That we mull change ,for heav'n? this mournful gloom For that ? be it fo, fince he 245 Who now is tov'min can.difpole and bid What (hall be right.: .farthect from him is belt, Whom reafon hath equall'd, force hath made fupremo Above his equals: arc yvell happy fields, Where joy for ever, dwells ! hail horrors I hail 250 Infernal world ! and thou profQundeft hell Receive thy new poffeffor 1 one who brings A mind not to be chang'd by place or time. The mind is its own place, and, in it felf Can make a heav'n of hell, a hell of heav'n. 255 What

Boox I. PARADISE LOST. What matter where, if I be flill the fame, And what I fhould be, all but leis than he Whom thunder hath made greater ? here at !tail We (hall be free ; th' Almighty bath not built Here for his envy ; will not drive us hence : 260 Here we may reign fecure ; and in my choice To reign is worth ambition, tho' in hell Better to reign in hell, than ferve in heav'n. B,it wherefore let we then our faithful friends, Th' officiates and copartners of our lois, 2 s- Lye thus aftonifh'd on th' oblivious pool, And call them not to (hare with us their part In this unhappy manfion, or once more With rallied arms to try what may be yet R.egain'd in heav'n, or what more loft in hell ? 270, So Satan fpake, and him Beelzebub Thus anfwer'd : Leader of thole armies bright, Which but th' Omnipotent none could have foil'd, If once they hear that voice, their livelieft pledge Of hope in fears and dangeis, heard fo oft 275 In wort extremes, and on the perilous edge Of battel when it rag'd, in all afLults Their fureft fignal, they will loon refume New courage and revive, tho' now they lye Grov'iing and profirate on yon lake of fire, 280 As we ere while aflounded and amaz'd, No wonder, faln fuch a pernicious height. He fcarce had ceased when the fuperior fiend Was moving tow'cd the fhore ; his pond'rous ibield, Ethereal temper, maffie, large and round, 285 Behind him calf ; the broad circumference Hung on his fhoulders like the Moon, whofe orb Thro' optic glafs the Tufcan artift views At

1% PARADISE LOST: Boos; L At ev'ning from the top of Fefole, Or in Vald?n no, to defcry new lands, 290 Rivers, or mountains, in her fpotty globe. His fpear, to equal which the talleft pine Hewn on Norwegian hills, to be the mail Of fume great Admiral, were but a wand, He walk'd with to fupport uneafie Reps 295 Over the burning marle (not like thofe tieps On heaven's azure I) and the torrid clime Smote on him fore betides, vaulted with fire. Nathlefs he fo endur'd, 'till on the beach O that inflamed lea, he flood and call'd 300 His legions, Angel-forms, who lay entranc'd, Thick as autumnal leaves that flrow the brooks Ira Vallombrofa, where th' Etrurian fhades High over- arch'd embow'r ; or featter'd (edge AfiJat, when with fierce winds Orion arm'd 3nS Hach vex'd the Red-Sea coaft, whole waves o'erthrew 13ofiris and his Memphian chivalry. While with perfidious hatred they purfu'd The fojourners of Gothen, who beheld From the fafe fhore their floating carcafes 3 to And broken chariot wheels; Co thick bettrown, Abjeec and loft lay thefe, covering the flood, urder amazement of their hideous change, He call'd fo loud, that all the hollow deep Of helliefounded ; Princes, Potentates, 315 Warriors, the flow'r of heav'n, once yours, now loft, if fuch aflonifbment as this can feize sternal (piths; or have ye chos'n this place After the toil of battel to repofe our wearied virtue, for the cafe you find 320 To (lumber here, as in the vales of heaven ? Or in this abjed pofture have ye fworn adore the conqueror ? who now beholds Cherub

BOOK I PARADISE LOST. Cherub and Seraph rowling in the flood, With fcatter'd arms and enfigns, 'till anon 325. His fwift purfuers from heav'n gates difcern Th' advantage, and defcending tread us down Thus drooping, or with linked thunderbolts Transfix us to the bottom of this gulf. Awake, arife, or be for ever fan. 330 They heard and, were abafht, and up they fprung Upon the wing; as when men wont to watch On duty, flz-eping found by whom they diead, Rouze and beftir themfelves ere well awake. Nor did they not perceive the evil plight 335 In which tney were, or the fierce pains not feel; Yet to their Gneral's voice they fo-n obey'd, Innumciabnn As when the potent Rod Of Arnrarn's Sv.,;, iti .1E:vrde6 evil day, Wav'd round the n Att, uh nli'd a nitchy cloud 340 Of locufls, warping on the eaern w,nd, That o'er the realm of imnious Pharaoh hung Like night, and ciarken'd al the land of Nile : So numbetlefs were thole bad Angels leen Hov'ring on wing under the cope of b- II, 345 'Twixt upper, nether, and furrounding fires 'Till, as a fignal giv'n, th' uplifted (pear Of their great Sultan waving to direet Their court:, in even ballance down thy light On the firm brimftone, and fill all the plain: A multitude ! like which the ponulars north Pour'd never from her frozen loins, to pafs Rhene or the Danaw, when her barbarous tons Came like a deluge on the fouth, and fpread Beneath Gibralter to the Libyan lands. 355 Forthwith from every fquadron, and each band, The Heads and Leaders thither hafle where flood Their

r14. PARADISE- LOST. BooxIi Their great Commander; God-like fhapes and forms Excelling human, Princely Dignities, And Pow'rs, that earft in heaven fat on thrones ; 360 Tho' of their names in heav'nly records now Be no memorial ; blotted out and ras'd By their rebellion, from the books of life. Nor had they yet among the ions of Eve 364 Got them new names; till wand'ring o'er the earth, Thro' GA's high fufferance for the tryal of man, By falfities and lies the greatefl part Of mankind they corrupted, to forfake Gcd their creator, and th' invifible Glory of him that made them, to transform 370 Oft to the image of a brute, adorn'd With gly religions full of pomp and gold, And Devils to adore for Deities : Then were they known to men by various names, And various idols thro' the heathen world. 375 Say, Mule, their names then known; who fir(}, who Rouz'd from the {lumber, on that fiery couch, [fait, At their great Emperor's call, as next in worth Came Tingly where he flood, on the bare ftrand, While the promifcuous crowd flood yet aloof ? 380 The chief were thole who from the pit of hell Roaming to leek their prey on earth, durft fix Their feats long after next the feat of God, Their altars by his altar, Gods ador'd Among the nations round, and dura abide 385 Jehovah thund'ring cut of Sion, thron'd Between the Cherubim ; yea, often plac'd Within his laatuary it left their !brines, Abominations l and with curled things His holy rites and folema feafis prophan'd, 390 And with their datknefs daft affront his light. Firft

Boon L PARADISE LOST. 15 Firft Moloch, horrid King, befmear'd with blood Of human facrifice, and parents tears, Tho' for the noife,of drums and timbrels loud Their children cries unliear!, that pa(l thro' fire 395 To his grim idol. " Him the Ammonite Worfhip'd in Rabba, and her wat'ry plain, In Argob and in Baian, to the ftream Of utmoft Arnon. Nor content with Inch Audacious neighbourhood, the wifeft heart 400 Of S,lomon he led by fraud, to build His temple right againft the temple of God, On the opprobious hill, and made his grove Tne pleafant valley of Hianon, Tophet thence And black Gehenna call'd, the type of hell. 405 Next Chernos th! oblcene dread of Moab's Ions, From Aroar to Nebo, and the Wild Ot fouthmoft Abarim ; in Hefebon And Hronaim, Seon's realm, beyond The fiow'ry dale of Sibma, clad With vines ; 410 And Eleale to th' Afphalric pool : Peor his other name, when he entic'd Ifrael in Sittim on their march from Nile, To do him wanton rites, which colt them woe. Yet thence his luftful Orgies he enlarg'd Even to that hill of fcandal, by the grove Of Moloch homicide, hitt hard by hate; 'fill good Jofi,h drove them thence to hell; With thefe came they, who from the bord'ring flood Of old Euphrates, 10 the brook that parts 420 )Egypt from Syrian ground, had general names Of Baalim and Arlicaroth ; thole male, There feminine : (For spirits when they pleafe Can either rex afTume, or both ; fo loft And uncompounded is their effence pure, 425 Not ty'd or manaci'd with joint or limb, Nor,

46 PARADISE LOST. BooK Nor founded on the brittle firength of bones, Like cumbrous fle(h ; b!!t in what (bane they chufe, Dilated or condens'd, bright or obfcure, Can execute their airy purpJfes, And works of love or enmity fulfil.) For thole the race of Ifrael oft forfook Their living iltength, and unfrequented left His righteous altar, bowing lowly down To bertial Gods; for whch their heads as low 435 Bow'd down in battel, funl . before the fpear Of delpicable foes. With thefe in troop Came Afloreth, whom the Phoenicians call'd Allarte, Qeen of heaven, with crefcent horns ; To whole bright image nightly by the moon, 440 Sidonian virgins paid their vows and longs ; In Sion alto not unfung, where flood Her temple on th' offen(ive mountain, built By that uxorious King, whole heart tho' large, Beguil'd by fair idolatreffes, fell, 445 To idols foul. Thammuz came next behind, Whofe annual wound in Lebanon allur'd The Syrian Damiels, to lament his late In am'rous ditties all a fummer's-day ; While frnooth Adonis from his native rock 450 Ran purple to the fea, fuppos'd with blood Of Thammuz yearly wounded the love-tale Infeaed Sion's daughters with like heat ; Whole wanton paffions in the facred porch Ezekiel law, when by the vifion led 455 His eyes furvey'd the dark idolatries Of alienated Judah. Next came on Whomourn'd in earner, when the captive Ark Maim'd his brute image, head and hands lopt off In his own temple, on the grunfel edge 460 Where he fell flat, and ihain'd his worfhippers, Dagon 430

Book I. PARADISE LOST. Dagon his Name ; fea-rnontler, upward man And downward flit : yet had his temple high Rear'd in Azotus, dreaded through the coati Of Palwaine, in Oath, and Afcalon, 465 And Accaron, and Gaza's frontier bounds. Him follow'd Rintmon, whole delightful feat Was fair Damalcus, on the fertile banks Of Abbana and Plr,rphar, lucid ftreams. He alto againft the houfe of G,-,c1 was bold : 476 A leper once he loll, and gain'd a King, Ahaz his fottifh conqueror, whom he drew God's altar to difparage, and difplace, For one of Syrian mode, whereon to burn His odious off'rings, and adore the Gods 473' Whom he had vanquiiht. After there appear'd A crew who under names of old renown, Ofiris, ifis, Orus, and their train, With monftrous fhapes and forceries abused Fanatic 'Egypt, and her priefts, to Peek 4! 6 Their wand'ring Gods difguis'd in brutifh forms Rather than human. Nor did Ifrael Icape Th' infetion, when their borrow'd gold compos'd The calf in Oreb ; and the rebel King Doubled that fin in Bethel, and in Dan, 485 Lik'ning his Maker to the grazed ox, Jehovah, who in one night when he pafs'd From ,Egypt marching, equal'd with one flroke Both her firft-born and all her bleating Gods. Belial came 'aft, than whom a fpirit more lewd 490 Fell not from heaven, or more grofs to love Vice for it fell: to him no temple flood, Or altar fmoak'd; yet who more oft than he In temples and at altars, when the prieft Turns atheitl, as did Ely's ions, who fill'd 495 With lull and violence the houfe :of God ? In

PARADISE LOST. BOOK In courts and palaces he alto reigns, And in luxurious cities, where the noife Of riot afcends above their loftieft tow'rs And injury and outrage and when night Darkens the ftreets, then wander forth the Eons Of Belial, flown with infolence and wine. Witnefs the fireets of Sodom, and that night In Gibeah, when the hofpitable door Expos'd a matron to avoid worfe rape. 505 Thefe were the prime in order and in might ; The refit were long to tell, tho' far renown'd, Th' Ionian Gods, of Javan's iffue held Gods, yet confefs'd later than heav'n and earth, Their boafled parents. Titan, heav'ns firfl-born, 519 With his enormous brood, and birthright leiz'd By younger Saturn : he from mightier Jove, His own and Rhea's fon, like meafure found ; So Jove ufurping reign'd : thefe firft in Crete And Ida known, thence on the fnowy top 515 Of cold Olympus rul'd the middle air, Their higheft heav'n ; or on the Delphian Cliff, Or in Dodona, and thro' all the bounds Of Doric land ; or who with Saturn old Fled over Adria to the Hefperian fields, And o'er the Celtic roam'd the utmoft ifles. All thefe and more came flocking, but with looks Down-call and damp, yet fuch wherein appear'd Obfcure fume glitnpfe of joy, to have found their Chief Not in defpair, to have found themfelves not loft 525 In lots it Pelf ; which on his count'nance call Like doubtful hue : but he his wonted pride Soon recolletting, with high words, that bore Semblance of worth, not fubCtance, gently rais'd Their 50° 520

BOOK I. PARADISE LOST. Their fainting courage, and difpell'd their fears. 530 Then (trait commands that at the warlike found Of trumpets loud, and clarions, be uprear'd His mighty flandard : that proud honour claim'd Azazel as his right, a Cherub tall ; Who forthwith from the glittering flaff unfurl'd 535 Th' imperial enfign ; which full high advanc'd, Shone like a meteor ftreaming to the wind, With gems and golden luare rich imblaz'd, Seraphic arms and trophies ; all the while Sonorous metal blowing martial founds : 540 At which the univerfal hoft up fent A fhout that tore hell's concave ; and beyond Frighted the reign of Chaos and old Night. All in a moment thro' the gloom were feen Ten thoufand banners rife into the air, 545 With orient colours waving : with them role A foreft huge of fpears ; and thronging helms Appear'd, and ferried fhields in thick array, Of depth immeafurable : anon they move In perfed Phalanx to the Dorian mood 55c1 Of flutes, and loft recorders ; fuch as rais'd To height of nobleft temper Heroes old Arming to battel ; and inftead of rage, Deliberate valor breath'd, firm, and unmov'd With dread of death to flight or foul retreat ; 555 Nor wanting power to mitigate and fwage, With folemn touches, troubled thoughts, and chafe Anguifh, and doubt, and fear, and torrow, and pain, From mortal or immortal minds. Thus they Breathing united force, with fixed thought 56D Mov'd on in filence to loft pipes, that charm'd Their painful fteps o'er the burnt foil and now Advanc'd in view, they Band, a horrid front Of dreadful length, and dazzling arms, in guile Of

PARADISE LOST. BOOK L Of warriors old with order'd fpear and fhield, 565 Awaiting what command their mighty Chief Had to impofe: he thro' the armed files Darts his experienc'd eye, and loon traverfe The whole battalion views their order due ; Their visages and ftature as of Gods ; 57° Their number hit he fums. And now is heart Dlends with pride, and hard'ning in his flrength Glories : for never fince created man Met loch imbodied force, as nam'd with thele Could merit more than that fmall infantry 575, Warr'd co by cranes ; tho' all the Giant brood Of Phlegra whh th' Heroic race were join'd, That lought at Thebes and Ilium! on each fide MA'; with auxiliai' Gods : and what refounds or romance of Uther's fon, 580 'begirt with Britith and Armoric Knights ; And ;611 who fioce, baptiz'd or infidel, joufled in Aifhamont or Montalban, Damalco, or Marocco, or Trebifond ; (Jr whom Bilerta fent from Afric fhore, 585 When Charlemain with all his Peerage fell By Fontarabbia. Thus far there beyond Compare of mortal prowcfs, yet obferv'd 1 heir dread commander : he, above the reit to thape and getiure proudly eminent, Stood like a tow'r ; his form had yet not loft All her original brightnefs, nor appear'd Los than Arch-Angel ruin'd, and th' excels Of glory obicut'n: as when the fun new-ris'n Looks duo' Ole horizontal mifiy air, 595 bhorn ot his beams ; or from behind the moon, In dim eciipfe, ditaltrous twilight fheds On halt the nations, and with tear of change perplexes rnotiarchs'; narken'd ib, yet Phone Above 590

BOOK L PARADISE LOST., Above them all th' Arch-Angel : but his face 600 Deep fears of thunder had intrench'd, and care Sate on his faded cheek, but under brows Of dauntlefs courage, and confid'rate pride Waiting revenge : cruel his eye, b t caft Signs of remerle and pAii n to behold 605 The fellows of his crime, the followers rather, (Far ether once beheld in blefs) condemn'd For ever now to have their lot in pain ; Millions of fpicits for his fault amerc'd. Of heav'n, and from eternal fplendors flung 610 For his cevolt, yet faithful how they flood, Their glory wither'd : as when heaven's fire Hath fcath'd he fofdt oaks, or mountain pines, With fi ged tep th,:ir {lately growth tho' bare Stands on the blaiied heath. He now prepared 615 To (peak, whereat their doubled ranks they bend From wing to wing, and half inclofe him round With all his Peers : attention held them mute : Thrice he affay'd, and thrice in fpight of fcorn, TearP, fuch as Angels weep, burft forth; at fail 620 Words interwove with fighs found out their way. 0 myriads of immortal fpirits ! 0 Pow'rs Matchlefs, but with th' Almighty ! and that ftrife Was not inglorious, tho' th' event was dire, As this place teftifies, and this dire change, 625 Hateful to utter : but what pow'r of mind, Forefeeing or presaging, from the depth Of knowledge pail or prefent, could have fear'd, How Inch united force of Gods, how fuch As flood like thefe, could ever know repulfe ? 630 For who can yet believe, tho' after lois, That all thefe puiffant legions, whole exile Hath emptied heav'n,. (hall fail to re.afcend Self-