Hale - BR120 H364 1684

1958 Gift of A. Marguerite Smith

(Hale (Matthew)), The Judgment of the late Lord Chief Justice Sir Matthew Hale, of the Nature of True Religion. London: Simmons, 1684. 4to. Boards. Religious opinions of the em- inent Chief Justice of England, Sir Matthew Hale, 1609 -76, edited by his friend Richard Baxter, the divine, with whom Hale discussed matters of religion and philosophy. Baxter treats Hale's strict Puritanism and anti - ritualist dogma. Wing H 247. [Leona Rostenbergts offering letter, dated December 5, 1957.]

d"(t!`; r The Judgment of the late LORD CHIEF JUSTICE t ateMtti Ipatt, Of the Nature of TRUE RELIGION, THE CAUSES of its CORRUPTION,. And the Churches Calamity, by Mens ADDITIONS and VIOLENCES: With the defired Cure. In three Difcourfes,written by himfelf at feveral times. Humbly Dedicated to the Honourable Judges and Learned Law- yers, who knew and honoured the Author, becaufe in their true Sentiments of Religion, and its Depravations, and the Cure, the wellfare of England, under his Majefty, as well as their own, is eminently concerned. By the faithful Publifher, RICHARD BAXTER. To which is annexed the Judgment of Sir Francis Bacon Lord Verdian; St.Albans, and Chancellour of England: And fome- what of Dr. Ifaack, Barrows ou the fame fubjec`l. Mat. 5.9. Blefred are the Peace-424ers ; for theyfhall be called the Children of God. Rom. 14. 17, 18. The Kingdom of God is not meat and drink; but righteoufnefs and peace, and joy in the holy ghofl. For he that in thefe things ferveth Chrifl, is ac. ceptable to God, and approved of men. LONDON, Printed for B. Simmons at the three Cocks near the Weft-end of S. Paul's Church. a 684. f o

A PREFACE, With fome Notes on thefe Dif-- courfes by thePubliíher. THe Publifhing of theft Difcourfes fhewetb the great mutability offuch weak underftandings as my own : Till very lately no Price could have hiredme to Publifh them, left it were a Violation ofhis Teftament, which faith that he [would have no Writings ofhis Publifhed, but what in his Life Time he gave tobe Publifhed] ; Andhe delivered not thefe in his Life Time tome. Inmy ignorance this,fatif- fredme. But lately opening the Cafe to fome Lawyers of known Eminence, Honour, and Integrity, they have convin- cedme that Icroft his Will, and the Commongood, by my Sup- preng them. The Cafe is this : When he was gone from us in great Weaknefs to the Place ofhis Death, in my laß Letter to him, I toldhim how muchgood theLordBacon's Book calledCon- fiderations of Matters Ecclefiaftical had done, with many that toojuftlyfufpeff Clergy Contenders of Partiality ; and that the Honour andlull Pfleem that Godhadgivenhim with all forts of Men he owed to the Service ofhim that gavait: A s

The Preface to the Reader. And therefore knowing the doleful Cafe ofthis Land, as di a voided asdfìrivrng atout Religion, I intreatedhim that he would-Write his3udgment briefly and freely of the Caufe and Cure : The rather becaufe his Contemplations were fo accep- table to many. In his lafl Letter anfwering this, He profejjeth that thofe Contemplations were Printedwithout bis Purpofe, Knowledge, or Conferit, but thanks God if they did good, though beyond his intent. But though the ref/ be full ofkindnefs, Iwill not l'irblifh it, left really it fhouldviolate his Will. But when he was dead, he whoPublifhed his Contemplations, /hewed me a Bag of his 11'lannufcripts, fmall occa/lonal Tr-a/lates, and gave me out- thrfe three, laying, that They weredirefled [For Mr. Baxter] By which I knew they were by him given me inanfiver to my forefaid Letter, which Craved the Publicationof his yudgment of our Divifions. But I conjefiure they had been long before. written by himat leveral Times, andmuch to the fame purpofe ; andfö .I fuppofe that hegave themme, and left theufe of them to ,my Difcretion. Now fay theft; Learned Lawyers, " Aman may havefeveral Wills inWriting in re- " ference to feveralThings, not repugnant tut confflent, and " all(hall /land andbe taken as his tall Will,andmay make fe " veral Executors,andgive themfeveral diftinll Powers. And "claufula generalis non porrigitur ad ea qux Specialiter " nominantur, And this Direlion toyou on that Occafion, " maketh it a Legacy bequeathedto you : And the anfwering " your Letter by it fheweth to what ufe: Andhis after like- " ing of the publifhing his Contemplations, fheweth that he was not utterly againfl appearing in Print. By this andmuch more they Satisfte me, that it was my Ignorance that made me refolve to Concealthem. I confefs the Deliverer thought it bell for me to make one Treatife out ofthem all, Becaufe being not intended for Pub- lication at the Writing of them, the fame thing is repeated, efpecially

The Preface to the Reader. efpecially in two of them. Andthat Repetitionand the Bre- vitymade me lung undervalue them. But I take it as an intollerable piaculum toput any alte- ring handofmine to the Writings offuch a Man ; which I profèfs Ihavenot done in adding, expunging, or changing one Word (fave fomefalfefellìng of the Scribe: for only the La- tin Yerfes, and an enterliningor two, are his ownhand;which I know by many a Sheetthat Ihave hadfrom him.) And as long as the Occafion of the Writing them is known, I think it no difhonour to them tohave thefe Repetitions : At lead notfo much as my alterations wouldbe : Yea it is ufe- ful ; ftrfi, as fully fhewing the Readers, that thefe are no haft) crude conceptions, but matters that long and deeply dwelt in his heart. z.. And Great matters, f ecially to dull or unwilling,or negligent Readers or hearers, muß ¡eoft re- peated; for a Tranfient touchpafferh away fromfuch without any Efell. O that the matter of thefe three Papers were Written and fpokenan hundred times, if it would make Rn- lers,andTeachers,andPeople onceitruly to confider and receive them as they deferve. Yet upon oft perufal I find that the Repetition is joyned with variety of inference and Application: And he hath too Queafy a Stomach that will Naufeate them in fo fhort drf- courfes onfogreat a Subjell, fo neceffary to a People diffolving bywilfullDivEons, by the deluflon of Abaddon that is com- monly Paintedwith a Cloven Foot. Ifhali add the Contents for the Readers help. But I/hall notprefume to animadvert on the matter, fave in thefefew Notes. z." Traci. I. pag. 3. Ifuppofe by [Common áffiflances] he meaneth not that which All men have : But which is not Miraculous, and allthat rightlyfeek may hopefor. P. 7. Some of the Controverfies which he fudged unde- terminable, I have Caufe to think he at leafi came nearer to

The Preface to the Reader. tofatisfadion in, after theWriting of theft Papers, as he fig. nfedto me on fame Difcourfe, fpecially after the reading my Catholick Theology. lb. Among the Points not diffinfly knowable without more Revelation than weyet have of it, one is [what is the Real Conlequenceof the Baptifm of Infants or its O- million]. But the Ad of 'Uniformity Ejetled all the Mi- nijiers of England, that would not publickly, declare that they Afient and Confent, that [It is CERTAINBI THE WORD of God,that Infants baptized, dyingbefore a&ual Sin, are VNDO?JBTEDLTfaved] (none excepted). Had the Convocationbut cited that Word of God thatfaith this, this Goodman might have been kept from taking that as un- knowable, which every Conforming `Minijter in the Church is Certain of,as anundoubted Article( ofFaith.And it would have been a great kindnefs to thefilencedMiniiiers. Pag. I a. Hispreference ofEpifcopacy before all other Go- vernments, was his real Judgment. But it was its Ef entials andnot allthe Additionals that he meant. For tomyknow- ledge he wouldhave been glad of the Primitive Model of Bithop Ufher, (Who was his much valuedfriend). In the 3d. Tra&. Pag. i 7. the Scribe left an A for a word omitted, and Idurji not fupply it by Conjetlure. Who the Authors are that befo much blameth, f ecially the Dialogift, few, willdoubt, but Iwill not name, becaufe by the Report of his goodPreaching andLife, Icannot but hope that he Repenteth ofit. Thereis one S T. that in an Invelfive ageing the Pro- teflant Reconciler (a Book like this) and againjl Dr. Stil- lingfleet, inftnuates that Iam not to be believedin myReport elfewhere given of3udge Hales words, that [A new Ad of Uniformity muff heal England, &c. In theft three Treati- f s this incredulous manmayfee much more than that, which may expugne his ?lnbelief And left any accufe me of Forge- . ry,

The Preface to the _Reader. ry, 1 hope topreferve the Manticripts,4 anddoubt not but the Lady Hale or Mr. Stevens bath a Copy of them. And le- caufé this Reverend Enemy to the Reconciler, (pleading; for their Excommunication) wasa Son of a ReverendNoncon- formiff (deceafed) and livedfòmetime with me, at Kider- minfler, andfrequently walkt with me, and therefore may be thought tohave knownmy incredibility ; Iask him, why in all that time, [if heknew me to be a Liar] would he never once tell me of it. Itake [Curfed be the Trimmers] and [ßlefïed are the Peace-makers] for direacontraries: AndChrifl to be Wifer andmore credible than allthe Enemies -of Peace. R. B. THE.

T H E CONTENTS Of the firft Difcourfe. THE ufe of Religion : By what means God made it fo common. p. i. Iow perfec`led by Chrifl. p. z. And why. i. To recover his honour to God. z. To bring man to Happpinefs. 3. For the right Government of man. p. 16. The few plain, eafy parts of Religion. Comfortable Con- fetlaries. P. 4, How Religion is corrupted and changed in the World. 1. By the fubtilties of Scholaflick Learnedmen. p f. i. By their difputes about unneceff'ary and unknowable things : 'In- flances. p. 6. z. And of Lower,yet uncertain points. p. 7. How fafe the Religious are without them. p. 8. 3. Cafuifls corrupting Morals. p. 9. z.By turning Religion intoPolitick Contrivancesfor wealth and power. Inflance in Princes. z. Specially in the Roman Church. 9. 3. In#ante, in Formes of Church Government andC- remonies. 1. Overvalued. z. Over oppofed p. 12..13.14.` 4. Difputes between Calvinifls and Arminians: of old, abut Bailer, &c: p, 1 f. 5. Contention about trivial matters: Divers Inflan- ce,,

The Contents. ces, p. 1.6..17. Mens overdoing for theft lamented. p.16.17. How different Religion is from all thefe mens. Addi- tions. P. 19. 7-he Caufes of thefe Errors. t. The weakne_fJes offame ConTientious Perfons, deferving Companion, tendernefs, and Love, rather than feverity or Contempt. p 2.2.. 2. Some to get preferment andfavour withgreat men. 3. Somefor Gain. 4. Mo.fi from overfonelnefs of their own inventions. . An affetlation of Difcrimination and fngularityby outwardBad- ger. p. 24. &c.. The Contents of the Second Difcourfe.. THE principle ofReligion fmall, yet pregnant aldpro- dutfive P. it Religion is belt in its SIMPLICITY and PURITY: But hard to be kept from corruptionby Additions. P. 2. What theft corrupting Additions are. t. Reducing it to gratify fe fe : A common corruption. p. 3.. z. Additions frommens accidental inclinations. Inflances. i. Philofophers mix their. Natural Philofophy with it. z. Beh. men makes it Chimical. 3. Sociniansfiabjefl it to their Rea- fon. 4. Some Phyficians mix corporal Conititution. S. Meta- phifcal men make it unintelligible by Subtilties. p. 4. 6. Poli- ticians, and Statef-men, and Papills Hierarchy make it bat an Engine ofPolicie. p25. 7. Politick Difcontented men ma- nage it to get a Party againfl the State. p. 6. The vio- lent zeal offuck Corrupters, Papifls,ReformedEpifcopal Cl<r- gy, Presbyterians, Independents, Anabaptifls, . &c. p. 7. In- fiances dot`trinal. P. 8 3., Lawful Additions fnfully managed. Regfons to prove them ,convenient. p. 9. Cautions to be ufed in them. a.: they:

The Contents. they be not numerous. .. Nor fuperflitious. 3. Decent, not 4. Not continued for their antiquity, when tyey become unfeafonable or hurtful. g. Not urged with rigour and too much feverity againJl confcenti0us refufers. 4« ob jet-ion of the urgers anfwered. 6. Still remomber that Re. ligion is quite another thing. p, z 2. What is true Religion, and who are religious, and who not, p. 13. The Contents of the third Difcourfe. WHat the Chriflian Religion is, andwhat men true Chriflians are. p. z. But many Additions in all ages have been made to it, by divers forts, for divers defignes andends. Some by the authority of great Names, force by infenfble gradations, force by (uppofed Congruity, fame as for Order and Decency, forcefor difcrimination otf Parties, fonle for Political Ends, emergent occafons, Civilor Ecclefaflical Santlions, &c. And the greatefl Fervor and Animofty ofmen commonly laid out on thefe additions, by forcefor them, by others again!! them. The unhappy Confequents. p.. 4. T. Diverfionfrom the true nature and ufe ofReligion, by Zealforentire Conformity to thefe additions or again!! them. 2.. Andfo the Fervour of mens Spirits let out the wrong way. P. 5. 3. Hence come Schifms andFatlions, andPerfonal Animo- Jities, difcriminations, Cenforioufnefs, eJirangednef by illad- vancing thefe opinions and little things. 4. The Bond of Charity broken, Severity, Perfecution, Irn- placablenefs, endeavouring to fupplant and dif race ters, worfe fcorns, reproach and vilifying than betweenChri- flians and Turks. p, 6. 5. Increafe

The Contents. S. Increafe of Atheifine and Contempt of all Religion, while preachers gofo muchagain/l their Dotlrine; As if-Re- ligion were of no more Moment, and of no beater Effete than thefe Additions, p. 8. . The caufes of thisfad¿iflem er, t. Sefflove andfondnefi for that which is our own. t. Pride, andReputation. 3. Plain andPure Religion uniutable to mens Curiosty and appetite. .Theymull have fomewhat thatis.pleafng p. 9. çContrariety andlealoufyy ofmen herein concerned;Specially between Power and Confcience : Both plead Gods name, and neither will yield. p. r o. 6. Specially not dealing meekly and in Love with one another. But by Palon, Violence, and Bitternef, rendring each other odious, Jceing, catching Arts, mfnter- preting each other; Difingenuous quotations,&c. p. rr. Thefe . are contrary to Chrifiianity. p, 12. The fad proof : I. Fromfuck asMartin Mar-prelate, &c. on one fide, and Epithets of Antichriflian, Babylonifh, Ido- latrous, given to Bi/hops and Liturgie. t. On the otherfide, Miniflers /hould calhiere thefe Hack Auxiliaries, or elfe pro- fefs that it is not Chrifts Caufe that they plead, but their P. 3- A Thatp reproof offome late Writers againf Di raters, fpecially the Dialogiul, as heinoufy abufing Scripture and Religion : far worfe than Ben. Johnfons prophane Play. The ill Effetls. z. It maketh differences unreconcileable 2. It difadventages their Caufe and Perins that ufe them with fober men. 3. It expofeth Religion itfelfto the der f- ofAtheills, and increafethfuch. More ofthis evil with a Con - cluding Counfel, toufe more Temperance, Prudence, andMo- deration in Contefls about the Circumflantials of Religion, pz®.2r. az The

The Contents. The Contents of the Additional Tefimonics. z He Lord Bacons words in his Advertifement of the Controvertes of theChurch ofEngland. z. His words in his Confiderations for better Pacification and Edification of the Church of England (Leg the Reader accule ¿ne of e- mitting any part, Ihad rather he would read all thole two Treatifes hisn_felf, than thofe Scraps) 3 Animadverfons of the Tranfcriber. 4. Some pajThges ofDotlor Ifaack Barrow. F,:

( I ) rART. I. O F RELIGION. The Ends and 'fifes of it, and the Errors ofMen touching it. RU E Religion is the greateft Improvement, Advantage, and Priviledge of Humane Na- ture ; and that which gives it the nobleft and highefl Pre-eminence above other vifible Creatures. We may obferve in many Bruit Beafts and Birds admi- rable inftin&s, Dexterities, and Sagacities ; and in fome of them force dark resemblances of Reafon, or Ratiocina- tion: But Religion is, fo appropriate to theHumane Nature, that there are fcarce any fort of Men , but have force Reli- gion: Nor do the molt fubtle or fagacious Bruits afford any figns thereof, as communicated to their Natures. It is one of the chiefeft Mercies and Bleflings that Al, mighty God hath afforded to the Children of Men , and that which fignally manifefts his Providential Care to- B wards

( 2 ) wards and over them, that in all. Ages and among all Na- tions hebath given to them force Means and Helps tö dif- cover unto them, though in different Degrees , tome principal Sentiments of true Religion: i. By the fecret Chara&ers, and Imprefions, and Stru&unes thereof in their. Minds and Confciences. a By his Glorious and admirable Works, commonly called the Works of Nature. 3. By lignai Providences , and Providential Regiment of the World. 4. By raifingup Men in all Ages .of greatWifdom,.,. Obfervation, and Learning, which did inftru& the more ignorant in this great Concernment, the Rudimentsof Na- tural Religion. s. By Traditionary Tranfmiffion of many important Truths and Dire&ions ofLife, from Anceítors ro their Pofterity, and others: Though in procefs of time evil Cuftoms and evil Men did in a great meafure impair. and corrupt the Sentiments and Pra&icesof Men, notwith_. ftanding theft helps. Therefore the fame Mercy and Goodnefs of God, for the prefervation and propagation of the trueReligion, was pleafed to fubffitute' a more fixed and permanent means ; namely, the Holy Scriptures , or Divine Revelations, committed to Writing in the Booksof the Old and New Teftament. Though the Religion de- livered in bothTeflaments, be in fubftance the fame yet: the true Religionwas more fully,and plainly, and diftin&ly delivered by Chriftand his Apoftles in theNewTeftament, together alfo with force additional Inftru&ions, for the better prefervation and propagation thereof to Mankind, and diversadditional Evidences to proveand manifeft the truthof this Religion, to procure its belief and accepta- tion : As the Birth , Miracles , Death , Refurrellion , and .Áfcenfion of Chrift Jefus,the great Reformer of the 5elvifb, and greatInflitutorof theChriftian Religion, fo called from Chriflthat taught and alferted it. The Chriftian Religi- mis the molt perfect Ruleofour Duty toGod, our'felves, and

(3) and others and was deigned principally for thefeGreat Ends. r. To reflore to the Glorious God, the Honour, Duty, and Obedienceofhis Creature, Man ; teaching him to Know, to Glorifieand Serve his Creator, to be Thankful to him, tofubmit to his Will, toobey his Law and Command , to be thankful for his Mercies, to acknowledge him inall his ways, to call uponhim, to Worlhip him , to depend up- on him, to walk fincerely inhis fight, to admireand adore his Greatnefs andGoodnefs in all his works , efpecially in the great workof the Redemption of Mankind by his Son Chrift Jefus. z. To finable Man to attain everlajling Happinefs, the perpetual Vifion of the GloriousGod, and to fit and prepare him to be a partaker of the Inheritance of the Saints in Light and Glory. 3. To compote and fettle Mankind in fucha decent and becomingreáitude, order, and deportment in this World, as may be fuitable to the Exiftence of a Reafonable Nature, and the Good of Mankind : Which confiftsprincipally in a double relation: r. To a Mans felf, Sobriety. 1.To others, which confifts in thofe two great Habits or Difpofition beneficent to Mankind , viz. Righteoufnefs, or Juflice and Charity, or Love and Benefcence. Thefe three Great Ends are fuccinitly delivered, Tit. 2. xi, It. For the Grace of God, that bringeth Salvation bath appearedunto allmen, teaching us, that denying ungodlineJ. andworldly lu/ls, we fhould live Soberly, Righteoufly, and Godly in this prefent World. Here we have thefe three Ends of Chriftian Religion. z. Godlinefs, or our Duty to God. z. Salvation, or our own everlaftingHappinefs. 3. Sobrie- ty, Righteoufnefs, which alto includeth Charity, a part of Evangelical Righteoufnefs. And becaufe Chriftian Religionwas intended and insti- B tutcd.

(-4 ) tuted for the goodof Man-kind , whether Poor or Rich, Learned or Unlearned, Simple or Prudent, Wife or Weak , it was fitted with fuchplain, ea/le, and evident Directions, both for things to be known, and things to be done, in or- der to theattainment of the End for which it was defigned, . that might be underftood by any Capacity, that hadthe or- dinary and commonufe of Reafonor Humane Underftand- ing, and by the common aüìftance of the Divine Grace . might be pra&ifedby them. The Credencia, or things tobe known or believed , as. fimply neceflary to thofe Ends, are but few, and e intelligi- ble, brieflydelivered in that Summary of Chriftian Religi- on, ufually called the Apoflles Creed. The Agenda,or things to be done orforborn, are thofe few and excellent Precepts, delivered by Chrift and his Apo- files, in that little Book of the New reflament; and yet e- ven the tenth part of that little Book will contain all the Precepts of Chritian Duty and Obedience contained in that Book: And in brief the Baptifrnal Covenant, as it is contained in the Liturgy, and Explanation thereof in the ChurchCatechifm ufed amongus, together with the Pre- cepts of the Decalogue, contain in effè& a Summary or briefEpitome of our Chriftian Duty. And certainly it was neceffary and becoming the Wif- domof the molt Wife God, that that Religion and Do- ¿trine, which equally concerned Menof all Kinds and Ca- pacities, íhould be accordingly accommodated,as might be ufeful for all. If the Do&rineor Precepts of Chriftian Re ligion íhould have been delivered in over fublime or fera- phical expreflions, in high Rhetorical Raptures,in intricate and fubtile Phrafes or Stile, or if it íhould have been fur- charged, withmultitude ofparticulars, it would havebeen Like a Sealed Book, to the far greateft part of Mankind, who yet wereequally concerned in the Bufinefs and End. of

( 5 ) of Religion, with thegreateft Philofophers and Clerks in the World. Upon what hathbeenfaid, we may therefore Conclude, i. That there is not, nor indeed may not be any great difficulty in the attaining of a true laving Knowledge of ChriJlian Religion. z. That the Duties of ChriJlian Religion are not of fo vat an Extent, but the Knowledge of them may be alfa attained by an Ordinary Capacity willing to Learn. 3. That Confidering that God Almighty is never wan- ting with his Grace to Aflift thofe that fincerely endea- vour and Delire to Obey him and Serve him, it is not fa Difficult a Bufinefs to perform an Evangelical Obedience to the Precepts of the Gafpel, I fay an Evangelical Obedi- ence,though not a Peìfed Obedience ;. an Obedience that is Sincere, though many times Weak, and failings, which ne- verthelefs are forgiven, and their Sincere though Imper feet Obedience accepted by Almighty God through the Merits and InrercefìîonofChrift, and our own Humiliation and fincere Repentance for ourfailings. And, q.. That when ail is done, in this-Beliefand this 0 bedience Confifts our ChriJlian Religion. This is the One thing Nece/fary, the Magnum Oportet, which is ofhigheft Concernment and greateft Importance to Mankind. But now if we do but Ic : about us in the World, and obferve and confider the Lvlatters, wherein Men for the me part do place, Religion we (hall find quite another kindofRate. and Nature ofReligion than what Chrift In- ftituted or intended, and yet all nailed and fhrowded un- der theNameof ChriJlian Religion; and greater weight and ítrefs laid upon them than upon the True, Real, grand Im- ports ofChriftian Religion. r. I lhall begin with the Subtilties of great Scholárs; Schoolmen,. and Scholaftick Divines. Thefe have turned Chrift

(6) Chrif}ian Religion into a molt Curious and difficult Specu- lation, and that which was deignedbyChrift Jefusas aplain Direaion to every Capacity, to be a Guide to a Righteous, Holy, and Sober Life here, and to attain EverlattingLife hereafter, they have [made] a meer exercife of Wit, and a Piece ofgreater fubtilty than the abftrufeft Philofophy or Metaphyficks. And this they have done principally thefe ways : r. By Difputes about Queflions, that, as they are not in themfelves Necefary to be known, fo they are in their own Nature Impoftible for Humane Underfiandings to determine : As for inffance ; many, ifnot all, the Points controverted between the Arminians and CalviniJls,as touch- ing the manner of the Decrees of God, what kind of In- fluence he hash upon the Wills ofmen. The manner of the Divine Knowledge of things Future, Contingent, or Pojible. The Refiflability or Irriliflability of Divine Grace. The Na- ture of Eternity, and Infinitude, and Indivifbility. The manner of the Exifenceofthe Three Perfons in theVnity of Effence. The Nature of Angels and Spirits ; the Manner and Degrees, and Method oftheir knowledge of things ; their fe- veral Ranks andOrders ; and infinite more Speculations and Difputes ofthings that do not in their own Nature fall un- der the difcovery of a Humane Underftanding, by the or- dinary Courfe of Ratiocination, and are impoßïble to be known further than they are diftinftly revealed by Al- mighty God, andas it were induftrioufly kept Secret by AlmightyGod,becaufe they are not ofufe to Mankindto be known. It is far more poliible for a Child of three years old to have a true Conception of the molt abfirufe Points in Philofophy, or in the Myftical Reafons of State or Po- litick Government of a Kingdom, than for the Wifeft man that ever was, without Revelation from God, to have any tollerable Conception or Notion of things of this Nature with any tollerable Certaintyor Evidence. z. Again

(7) z. Again there are other Points difputed which are of a lower allay, and yet not to be diflinály known without more clear Revelation than we yet have of it, nor yet of any Necejity for us diflintlly to know: As for initance, Concerning the Nature and Manner of lranfmiion of O- riginalSin; flowfar the fins of immediate or remote Parents affe& their Pofierity withGuilt or Punifhment ; The Origina- tion of theHumaneSoul; How far the Efficacy of the Sa- crce of Chrifl was intentionally for all Men ;Concerning, the Means of Communication thereof to Infants, Ideots, and the invinfibleIgnorant ; What is the real Confejuence of Baptifm of Infants, or its Onofton; How far the Will of man is Operative to his Converfion, or Perfeverance ; Wherein theformal Nature of fu_/lification Confins; How far forth Faith Tingly is fudicient for it, without Santliffcation and Habitual Ilolinefs at !aft, and how far forth the Sincere Love ofGod by a perfon invinfibly ignorant of many or moft Points of Chriftian Religion is fulcient thereunto ; Concerning the BJlate of the feparate Soul before the Taft judgment, andhow far it enjoys the Beatiffcal Viíìon be- fore the Refurrec`lion. Difputes touching thefe and the like difficult Q`eflions, have blown upmensFancies with Speculations, inttead, of filling their Hearts with the true and genuine Etl'e&s of Chriflian Religion: It is true, that Phyficians and Naturalifls do and may make Inquiries into the Method and Progrefs ofGeneration; and Digeflion, and Sanguification, and the motions of the Chile, the Blood,the Humours : For, i . They have means of accefs to thedifcovery thereof by DilYe&ion and Obferva- tion. And, z. It isoffonieufe to them in their Science,and the Exercife thereof. Butwhen all is done,a manofa found Conflitution digefls hisMeat, and his Blood Circulates, and his feveral Veffels and Intrails perform their .offices, though he.

f ( 8 ) he know notdif}in&ly the Methodsof their Motions and Operations. But thefe Speculations above-mentioned, in Points of Divinity, as they are not poffibleto be diftinétly determined with any certainty, fo they are of little ufe to be known. If the heart be feafòned with the true knowledge of the things that are revealed, and with the Life ofthe Christian Religion, and the love or God, it will be cffe lual enough to order his Lire, and bring him to Everlasting Happinefs, though he Le not, like an exquisite Anatomift, acquainted with a diftina Con:prehenfion or Knowledge of the feve- ral difficult Inquiries of this Nature. Believe what is re- quired by the Word of God to be helieved,and do your Du- ty, as by that Word is direaed ; íò that theLife of Religi- on, and the lore of God be once fet on foot in the Soul, and there nouriíhed, and commit your felf to the Faith- fulnefs and Goodnefs of God, and this will he efle&ual to the great End ofReligion, thoughall thefe Difputes be laid alide. 3. Again, A Thirdmifchief of Scholaflicks, is in relati- on to Prac`ficks : r: Some Cafitiflical Divines have fodiflin. guifhed concerning Religious External Duties, that they have left little Pra±ical Religion or Morality in the World, and by their fubtle curious Diftinaions, have made ahñoft every thingLawful, and with the Pharifees, in the time of our Saviour, have made void the Laws of God, ( and of - Man alto) by their Traditions and Diftin&ions : So that Re- ligion towards God, and all Righteoufnefs and Sobriety, is fo thinand narrow, and fubtile, that by their Doctrine ofProbability, and Cafuiflical Di/linllions , all the Bones thereofare loaned. It would be too long to give In- ffances in particular : The late Velitations in Francebetween force of the Popish Priests and Jefuites furnilh the World with inftances enough of this kind. z. The e

(9 ) z. The Second Inftance is this, The turning of the greatefl part ofReligion into Politick Contrivances, for attaining or upholding timer, Wealth, or Interefl. Therehave been Inflances many in this kind among Se- cular Princes and States. This was the ait ofJeroloam to fet up Idolatrous Religion in Samaria, for preventing a return of the TenTribes to the Houfe of David. And we may obferve it in molt of the Religion eftablifhed by Heathe- nifh Princes, which was fo ordered to accomodate their In- tereft, though to the extreme corrupting of Natural Re- ligion. But there is not fo eminent an Inflance thereof in the whole World, as that of theEcele(iaflical State ofthe Church of Rome, whohave corrupted, as much as in them lies, the moll pure and innocent Religion that ever the world knew, namely, the Chriftian Religion, by diftorting it to Ends ofWealth andPower, and appendicating to it certain new Dotlrines and Prailices meerly to thofe Ends. And not on- ly fo, but have laid the greateft weight of Religion in the Obfervation ofthere Politick Appendicatims ; fo that a man, that either queflions or not obferves there Politick Addita- ments, runs as fevere a Cenfure and Danger among them, as he that denies the moll unqueftionablePrinciples ofChri- flian Religion. Such are their Doctrines ofthe Popes Supre- macy, the Popes Infallibility ; the nece5ty to Salvation to be of the Romifh Church, the Adoration of Images, Saints de- parted, and Angels; the Veneration of Reliques; the Do- &rine of Purgatory, Indulgences, and the Church Treafug of redundant Merits ;the Doctrine and PracticeofDifpenfations and Indulgences; their Canonizationof Saints ; their Pilgri- mages, numerous Ceremonies, Theatrical Spec`lacles; their Doctrine ofTranfubflantiation, and divers other Superaddi- tions and Appendications to Chriftian Religion,which any perfon, notcaptivatedby them, may with half an eye per- C ceive

(io ceive tobe invented and continued meerly for the fupport of the Grandure of an Univerfal Monarch&which they mifcall The Church, and for the amafhng of WAltl) andPow- er for the fupport ofit, as might moft eafily be evinced by the particular Examination of all thole Politick Appen- dixes. And yet let any man obferve it, he fhall find as great a fervour for the upholding of thefe Doarines and Practices, and as great ajealoufe of the lean breach made upon them, as if thewholeConcern of Chriflian Religion, and the Sal- vation of Souls lay in their Belief andObfervance. 3. The third Inftance is in relation to the Forms ofChurch Government andCeremonies. That Ecclefiaflical Government is neceffary for the prefervation of Religion, is evident to any reafonable and confederate man : and that the Epifcopat Government conftituted in England,is a molt excellentForm of Ecclefiafiical Government,and exceeds all other Forms of. Ecclefialical Government, may be eafily evinced ; and that it is the belt adapted to the Civil Government in this King- dom, is vifible to any intelligent perfon : And yet 1 do not think that the Ei,ence of Chrif ian Religion Confifts in this or any other particular Formof Government. It is a great help to the prefervationof it in its Purity and Uni- ty, and may be well called Sepimentum ReligionisChriftiana, as the Yews call their Oral Traditions Sepimentum Legis, theFence of the Law. But a man may be a good and ex- cellent Chriftianunder this or any other Form of Ecclefiafti- cal Government, nay in fuch places where poilìbly there is no fettled Form of Ecclefiaftical Government eftablifh- ed. But if we obferve many perfons in the world, we null find tome fo highly devoted to this or that particular Form of Government, as ifall the weight of ChriftianReligion lay in it :Though the wife, and fober fort of Conförmifts know and

(II) and profefs this, yet there be fome rash people that will prefently Un- church all the Reformed Churches beyond theSeas which are not under Epifcopal Government . That ifthey fee a man, otherwife ofOrthodox Principles, of a Pious and Religious life, yet iffcrupling fome Points of EcclefaJli- cal Government, though peaceable, they will efteem him little better than a Heathen or Publican, a Schifmatick, He- reticle, and what not: On the other fide,if they fee a man of great fervour in aíferting the EcclefiaJlical Government, ob- fervant of ExternalCeremonies, though otherwifeofa loof andduffolute life, yet they will be ready to applaud him with theStile of a Son of the Church, and upon that account over-look the Mifcarriages of his life, as if the Effonce and Life of Chriftian Religion lay in the bare afferting of the belt Form of Ecclefiaftical Government. On the other fide, there is as great an Extremity of the other hand : there are many indifcreet perfons, as well Di- vines as others, that having either, by their Education, or by Converjation withDiffenters,or pofiibly to gain a Party, taken upon them thePatronage or Affertingoffome other Form of Church-Government, either Presbyterian or In- dependant, or fome thing fram'd by their own invention, prefently cry down the Eftablifhed Government of the Church, as Antìchriftian or Popifh, and cry up that which they have thus efpoufed as the only true Chriftian Regi- ment inftituted byChrit; and prefently among them, and their Followers, this is made the difcrimir ative Markof a True Chriftian.If they fee a man Conformable to the Ella- blifhed Government, tho' he be pious, fober, and truly Re- ligious, yet they defpife and negle& him, cenfure him as a Formalift, andwithout the Power of Godlinefs : But if a man will but revile theEftablifhed Government, and be boldagainft it,, cryit down, and cry up the New Inftitution into which they are lifted, tho' the man be Covetous, Cz Un-

I2 Uncharitable, Hard-hearted, Proud, Impetuous, and pof- fibly otherwife Loofè in his Converfation, yet fuch a man (hall be cherifhed,applauded, and cryed up for a Saint, a Pre- cious Man, and Zealous for the Truth. And although Decent Ceremonies, that are for the Pre- iirvation ofthe Dignity ofReligion, and to keep due Or- der and Regularity, arenot Eflential Parts of Chriflianity, nor were ever fo efteemed by wife and fober men, andyet are ofufe and convenience in theChurch , neverthelefs, we may eafily obferve among men the fame Extremes as are before noted : force placing thewhole weight of Religion in their fritl Obfervance, and making them the principal, it not the only Badge of a Son of the Church,"hateing and defifng thole that fcruple any thing in them, or that do not come up in everypuntlilio to their Obfervance, though they be otherwifefouled in thePrinciples of Faith, pious and firid in their lives, jolt and honefl to all men, and lober, temperate and blamelefs. On the other fide, there be a fort of men that place the greateft flrefs and difcriminating Point of Chriflian Religion in oppofng and decrying all Inflituted Ceremonies, though Innocent, Decent, and without any the leaf} touch ofSuperftition in them, yet thefe muff be decried as Po- pith, Antichriftian, deflrutive of Chriflian Liberty, and the Party that with molt boldnefs and vehemence declaims againft them, is valued by them as a molt precious man, a man of zeal and courage, and needs little elfe to juftifie and magnifie himwith his Party. On the other fide, though a man beofan holy and con- fcientious life, found in Principles, lober, blamelefs, peace- able ; yet if he obferve thefe blamelefs Ceremonies, though with great moderation and Charity to Diffenrers, he lhall be flighted and undervalued, efteemed a Formalift, a Time-ferver, or at belt, a man wanting Courage, Zeal, Lukewarm, 4

( 13 ) Lukewarm, Timorous, andwanting the Power ofGodli- nefs.Such wild and wrong Meafures domen of Extremes on all hands take of the trueEffence and Ends of Chrifianity. 4. Again, even among Profeffors of the Proteftant Religion, there are divers difputed and Controverted Points ; as between the Calvini/Is and Arminians, efpe- cially touching the Vniverjality ofthe RedemptionbyChrift, Perfeverance and Falling fromGrace ; and almoft every day there arife certain nec' Opinions, force ofgreater importance, but very commonly offmalland incnofiderable moment;and there are taken up by the feveral Parties poffibly agreeingin the fame Fundamentals of Chriftian Religion. And force times they are entertained by a Party of men, becaufe their Paftors are ofthat Opinion, or feem to be fo ; though often they are taken up,or inftilled intoa Party, to make a difcrirninative Mark betweeen Perlons offe veral Congrega- tions. And then it is wonderful to fee with what fervour eachParty maintains hisTenent, and as great weight is laid upon it, as if the whole 'tree of Chriftian Religion, and the Salvationof theSauls of men lay upon it ; when God knows they are not ofany moment in it. Such was theold Controverfie between the Eaflern and Wettern Churches about Eafier-day, and ancienter than that, in the Apoftles times, about Eating of meats offered to Idols, and among us at this day touching the five Armi- nianQueftions. And yet we fhall fee men as fervent and zealous about them, as cenforious ofDiffenters from them, as fond of thofeof the fame Opinion with them, as if all theArticles of the Chriftian Faith were immediately con- cerned in them ; when all, the while they are not of anymoment to the Salvation of men, nor of any concern- ment to the Chriftian Religion, or the Ends thereof, but are only Artifices impofedupon men to hold up Parties, or to keep up foine Man or Parties Reputation ; imaginations which

( :14 ) which men are fondof, becaufe they are their owns at leaft theirs whom they have in great Veneration or Efleem. S. Again, the fond Miftakes ofmen in this kind, are- ob. fervabie in very flight and trivial matters, which yet are entertained with a kind of Religious Veneration, when they ferve to hold up Parties, or as difciminations of their Profeflions. Among the profeffed Monks and Fryars they have certain Habits atiìgned to feveral Orders, and as well anciently as now have feveral kinds of Tontures of their Heads, which they obferve withgreat feverity ; and place much Religion in them. And even among the various Seas, or Perfwafions a- mong thofe that at leaft abhor Popery, yet we (hall find force fuch fond things uponwhich they lay a great weight tf their Religion : fometimes in very Looks and compofing of their Countenance ; fometimes in the manner or Tone of Exprefiìons; fometimes in afeíted Phrafes ; fometimes inGeftures, fometimes inHabits and Dreffes, fometimes in ufe ofMeats andDrinks of one kind or another. I 111a11 give force few Inflances : You (hall have force that place a great point of Religion in forbearing the eating of Flefh upon Frydays, or in the time ofLent, but yet indulge thernfèlves oftentimes in the eating ofthe choiceft Fith, and the moff coftly Diet of other Meats: Others again think they mutt needs go as far on the other Extreme, Chufing thofe Seafons for Feaft- ing upon Flefh, and think it acceptable to God, becaufe it runs counter to theother Externe. Again, a time there was when it was thought that long Hair was unbecoming Profefrors ofChriftianity, and upon that account force did wear their Hair fhort, even to ex- tremity. But about thebeginning of the late Wars, many took up, as they thought, a. moreelevated way of Chrifti- anity, and as a Eadg thereofwore their Hair extreme Long. TheConformifts ufually wear Gowns orCanonical Coats; Many

(Is) Many of the Nonconformilts by way of Difcrimination ufe other Habits. The former officiate, as the Canons require them, in Surplices, and fometimes with Hoods, andLome are fo ta- ken with it, that they think the Offices want an Effential Part whenperformed without it ; tome of the latter think the folemnOrdinances are profanedby it, and rendred Su- perftitious. But among all the differingPerfwafons among us, there are none that give a man more ample Evidence ofMiftakes of this Nature, than thofe called Quakers, who place a great part of their Religion in keeping on their Hats, in uing the words Thee and Thou, in filing the Months andDays of the Week not according to the ufual Appellation, but the tuft, or fecond month,orday,in certain Habits and Poftures unlike other men ; in Silent Devotions at their Pubick Meet- tings, in revileing and crying down theEflablifhedMinifry, Churches, Sacraments, Lords-day, andall manner of Forms, whether commanded or tired by others ; in refuting to takeanOathwhen lawfully called thereunto ; and tome fuch other ,fingularities. Take away but thefe,and the likeal- fe&edSuperadditions, the menare as other men, fome in- deedvery fober, honeft, juft and plain-hearted men, and found in molt, if not all the important Do&rines and Pra- &ices of Chriftianity ; others (as it happens in all Profefii- ons) Subtle, Covetous, Uncharitable Tumultuous, Igno- rant, proud Defpifers of others, Slanderers,and yet as long as they conform to their Sed in there impertinent or un- warrantable fingularities, they pleafe themfelves with the Stile of the People ofGod, and are for the molt part eltee- med fuchby thofe ofthat Sea. By this littleSurvey, wemay eafiiy take an Eftiniate of theMiftakes ofMankind,and-even among Chriftians,touch- mg the Miftakes in point of Chriftianity and Chriftian Religion, ,

(16) Religion, and how common it is to mifplace the Named ChriftianReligion and the Nature of it, and attribute it to filch things as in truth have nothing to do with it,but many times aredirectly contrary to it. And yet even in thefe Impertinencies many men place the greateft moment of their Religion, and have as great and many times a greater zeal and fervour for them, than for the weighty Points and Duties of Chriftianity, and molt ofthe bufinefs of many men Confifis in Velitations and Defences and Invectives about them; The Pulpits and the Prefs is ingaged about them. Love, and Charity, and even common Humanity, and mutual Converfation betweenMan and Man, Church and Church, Party, and Party, is broken by the Mutual collifions and animofities concerning them. So that (theLord be merciful to us and forgive us) there is -as little love, and as great diftance and animofity between many of the Dif enting Parties a- mong Proteítants, touching thefe Matters, as there is between Papifts and Proteítants, or between Chriftians and Infidels. And by this means the true LifeofChriftian Religion, and that which was the great End of its Infti- tution, and the true genuine and natural Effe& of it upon the heart and foul, and courfe of life, is loft or negle&ed by them that profefs it, or difparaged among thofe that either have not entertained it, or at leaft enter- tained it as they do theCuftoms of the Country wherein they are educated. Thefe men, when they fee fo much Religionplaced by ProfefforsofChriftianity in thefe things, which every intelligent man values but as Forms, or In- ventions, or Modes, or Artifices, andyet as great weight laid upon them, asgreat fervour and animofity ufed for or againft them, as almoft for anyPoints of Chriftian Re- ligion, theyare prefently apt to cenfure and throw off all Religion,and reckon all of the fame make. Bat

(=7) But whenall is done, true Chriftian Religion is a thingof another kind ofMake, and is of another kind of Efficacy, and direfted unto, and effe&ive ofa nobler End, than thofe things about which, as above is faid, men fo much contend, andthat makesfo great a buftle and noife in the world. As the Credenda are but few and plain, fo the Facienda, or things tobe done, are fuch as do truly ennoble and advance the Humane Nature, and brings it to its due habitude, both to God and Man. It teacheth and tutors the foul to ahigh reverence and ve- neration ofAlmighty God, a fincere and upright walking as in the prefence of the Invifible, All-lèeing God : It makes a man truly to love, to honour, to obey him, and therefore careful to know what his will is; it renders the heart highly thankful tohim, both as his Creator, Redee- mer, and Benefactor : It makes a man entirely to depend upon, to feek to him for guidance, and direction, and prote&ion ; to fubmit to his Will with all Patience, and Refignation of Soul : It gives the law not only to his Word and Actions, but to his very Thoughts and Purpo- fes, that he dares not entertain a very thought unbecom- ing the fight and prefence of that God to whom all our thoughts are legible : It teacheth and bringeth a man to fuch a deportment both ofexternal and internal fobriety, as may be decent in thepretence of God and all his holy An- gels : It crufheth andCat's down all Pride and Haughtinefs both ina mans heart and carriage, and gives him an hum- ble frame of foul and life, both in the fight of God and men : It regulates and governs the Pafïions of the Mind, and brings them intodue moderation and frame: It gives a man a right eftimate of this prefent world, and fets the heart and hopes above it, fo that he never loves it more than it deferves : It makes the Wealth and Glory of this World, highPlaces, andgreat Preferments, but ofa low and D little

(i8) little value to him fo , that.he is neither covetous norambid tious, nor over fòllicitous concerning theadvantages of it : It brings a man to that frame that Righteottfnefs, Juflice, Honefty, andFidelity is as it were part ofhis Nature ; he can fooner dye than commit or purpofe that which is unjuft, difhoneft, or unworthy a good man: It makes him value the love of God and peace of Confcìence above all the Wealth and Honours in theWorld, andbe very vigilant to keep it inviolably : Though hebe under a due apprehenfi- on ofthe love of God to him, yet it keeps himhumble and watchful, and free fromall prefumption, fo that hedares not under avainconfidence ofthe Indulgence, and Mercy, and favour ofGod, turn abide to commit or purpofe even the leaft injury to man, he performs all hisDuties to God in ; fincerity, and integrity, and Conftancy and while he lives onEarth, yet his Converfation, his Hopes, his Treafure, and the flower of his Expectation is inHeaven, and he en- tirely endeavours toWalk futablyto fuch a Hope Infum, it reftores the Image of God unto the Soul in . Righteouf. nefsand true Holinefs. Competition jur, fafque auimifantiofque receffus mentis, Ú inceetumgenerofopetlus honeßo. Thefe, and the like to thefe, are the Ends, Defgnand Ef- feft of True ChriftianReligion, truly received and digefted in theSoul. And certainly any man that duly confidereth, will find that they areof another kind ofNature and Value, than thofe fublime Speculations, Politick Conftitutions, Forms or not Forms, . affectedSingularities, upon which many lay the weight of Religion, and for and touching which thereis fo much Contention and. Animofity in the Wo rld. So that methinks men in this regard are like to a , Company of foolifh Boys , who when the Nut is broken

(i9) .brdken, runfcrambling after thepieces of the Shell, and is themean while the Kernel is negle&ed and loft. Now touching theReafons or Caufes of thefe Mifappre- henfions touching Religion, they are various : fame de- ferve compafìiion, and others are more or lefs excufable, ac- cording to their feveral kinds : z. Some perfons truly Confcientious and zealous of any thing that they judge to be difpleafing to God, as not agreeable to his. Will, and obfer- ving themany Corruptions, that the Romifb Church have brought into the Worlhip of God, are very fufpicious of any thing that may look, as they think, that way ; and therefore, though they are otherwife men of found and Orthodox Principles, and ofa truly righteous, fober, and piousLife, yet perchance are transported fomewhat too far in fcrupling or oppofing fome Ceremonies or Forms; And pollîbly their Education and Converfation with men of fuch Perfwafions have confirmed them in it, fo that they do not oppofe out of afrowardnefs or peeviíhnefs of Mind, or out of Pride, or a Spirit of Oppofition, but in the fince- rity and fimplicityof their hearts, and out of a tendernefs for the Honour ofGod. Thefe, though they are or may bemiflaken in their Perfwafions, yet certainlydeferve Com- pamon, Tendernefs, yea and Love alfa, much rather thando Severity or Contempt. z. Others again, obferving that certain Modes and Forms, and the rigorous Obfèrvations of them, are the common road for attaining Preferments or Favours of great Perfons, upon that account exercife a marvellous fervour of mind for them, and a vigorous oppofition of all that come not up to them in every punilio, that they may thereby be takennotice of, and employed as ufefnl and fit and vigorous AfTertors and Inftruments for this purpofe. 3. Many times GainandProfit is the End and Defign of many Praíticesand Pofitions appendicated to Chriftian Re- m 2 ligion,

(20) ligion, as is before'obferved in the Rbnnifh Church, :And: it ìseafily obfervable that Intereft, Profit,- and -Teni oral Ad- vantage have a ftrong by afs upon Mens Affections, and are dearer to them than theTruth of Religion, and carry men more vigoroufly in their upholding and maintenance,. than Religion it felf loth : And becaufe the prefence of zeal for Religion carries a fair Plaufibility with all men, therefore thole very things that are but Engines of Gain and Profit are Chriftned with the fpecious Name of Reli- gion. It was the making. ofSilver Shrines for Diana, the Art whereby the Artificers got their living, - that made the. Out-cry, Great is Diana of theEphefrans. 4. Again, it isvery certain that mankind lath a huge kindnefs and partiality for matters of their own Invention, and fet a greater rate upon them, thanupon other matters handed over to them by others : And hence it comes t6 pafs that a new Fancy or Opinion, a new Form of Worfhip, Difcipline, or Government that, any man bath inventedor ftudied out, is to fuck a man ordinarily of greater value and moment than it deferves, and íhall be maintained with greater zeal, Fervour and Animofity, than Points of grea- ter truth and moment, as if the greatmoment and weight ofReligion and Chriflianity lay in it, which is in truth nothing elfe but the Effea of Selflove and Self - conceit. s. Again, though by Nature Manbe a fociableCreature, yet there is in molt Men a certain Itch of Pride, which makes them affe& a Difcrimination from others, and to be- come a kind offeparatedParty. more refined-than the refit of the fame Common Profeflìon. Ido remember in the beginning of our late Troubles, the only Partythat vìfbly appeared, werefome that dejred fame Reformation in Church-matters : And when that Party had obtained, .under theNagle of the Presbyterian Party, in a very