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T H E D I V NE Inftitution, Order and Government, O F AVISIBLE CHURCH OF CHRIST, ACCORDINO TO The Dire &ion left byHim in the New Tefament, ASSERTED, EXPLAINED, AND VINDICATEDt By JOHN WILLIAMS, Late MINISTER OF THE GOSPEL. Ezek. xliii. I I. If they he afhamed of all that they have done, !hew them the Form of the Houfe, and the Faf iox thereof, &e. 1 Tim. iii. 15. That thou mayefl know how thou oubhtefí to hehave thyfelf in the Houfe of God, which is the Church of the living God, the Pillar and Ground of Truth. L O N D O N: Printed by J. W.PASHAM, BLACK- FRIARS d` !And Sold by VALLANCE and SIMMONS, CHEAPSIDE; and MARTNAGURNEY, in BELL-YARD, near TEMPLE-BAR. [Price Stitched One Shilling] A

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To all that love the Lord Jefus Chri/t in Sincerity and Truth. Dearly Beloved, THE Love of God, which hath been shed abroad in your Hearts by the Holy Ghoft, through the Knowledge of Jefus Chris, in dying for you, to redeem you from all Ini- quity, and bring you nigh to God by his Blood, I hope does fill your Souls with an earneft De ire of being found fully walking in all the Ways of his Appointments in his Houfe, which is the Place where his Honour dwells, and where he records his Name, and where he will come and bief you. And that you may the better be enabled thereunto, it is highly neceffary to know the Nature of the Houfe, as to the Matter and Form,the Comings in and the Goings out thereof, and what ought to be your Behaviour and De- portment therein. Ignorance and Indifferency on the one Hand, and Pride and Selfifhnefs on the other, have been the great Reafon of the Calamities that have befallen the Churches of Chrift. Hence has come theDishonourofChrift inthe World; hence the Want of Love among the Saints, and the Decay of Pu- rity and Holinefs. And to that Height it is arrived, that ever. tome of thofe Churches that feem to be moil: feparate from the World and Antichriftian Worship in the Administration of Ordinances, are too much departed from the Purity of God's Worship, and from the Order of his Haufe ; who in.. bead of obferving all that the Head of the Church hath. commanded, have modelled the Churches to their own car- nal Fancy and worldly Intereft; from whence has pro- ceeded the unfaithful AdmiffionofMembersinto the Church, (efpecially if they be rich) and the little inquiring after their growingin Faith, and the Knowledge Jefus. H n ce eh 41.7 .4ú..m h-' A. . .

iv DEDICATION. the 'trolling of Officers of Churches from one flock to an- other (to do good they fay) with many other little unworthy Practices. Thefe things, Dearly Beloved, with many others too many to be enumerated in this Place, are the Grief of many fincere Chriftians, whole Defire it is that God would give the Spirit of Wildom and Knowledge of himfelf, and the Way of his Houle, fo that the Breaches may be repaired : and the Houfe of the Lord clean fed, and reftored to that Beauty and Splendor as become it, that thofe who are with- out may fee the Excellency of the Ways of the Lord, that they may have a Defire of a Place and a Name therein, and dwell in the Houfe of the Lord all their Days, and inquire in his Temple; when on the contrary the Selfifhnefs and Worldlinefs of thofe that fhould be Watchmen therein, like the Sons of Eli, have made many to abhor the Ordinances of theLord, i Sam. ü. 12 -17. Therefore it concerns you all, that have tailed that the Lord is gracious, to be zealous and alive for his Glory, and to ftir up one another to this Work, ai Nehemiah in Chap. ìi. 17. And if thofe that fhould go before you in it, refufe, laying, It is not Time, do you put your Shoulders to the Work, the Lord will be with you, for his Name is con- cerned. And left any lhould fay, We underhand not the Way and Order of it, I may fay the. Lord hath furred up the Spirit of this Servant of his, the Author now in Glory, plainly to lay down the Nature and Order of God's Houfe, with a folid Confirmation of it deduced from plain Texts of Scripture, and a Vindication of it from the Oppofition made againfl it, with prauical Improvements of it, fitted to the meaneft Capacity of every one that defires to be found in the Ways of the Lord, by which it feems to be the Mind of God that the leaft in his Houfe might be left without Excufe. And therefore I heartily commend it to the Confideration of every fincere- hearted Chriftian, as very inflruëtive and teaching; and as exalt, according to the Pattern laid down in Scripture, as any Book of this Kind I have met with, the Author appearing to have a more than ordinary Guidance of the Spirit of God in the penning of it. I am your's in. the Lord, J. NOBLE.

I V PR F. P A C E. THE D fgn of the enfuing Difcourfe is to difeover the Nature of an inflituted Church of Chrifl, in refpeéi both of Matter and Form, wherein you have the fe- veral Branches of Church- Government di/linaly handled, (hew - ing the Laws, Forms and Ordinances of the Houle of God, With the going in and going out thereof, that every Thing may be done according to Rule, and nothing merely human maintained therein. There is no part of the Temple, or Temple- worßip, or Di': cipline, but what the meajùring Line of the Wordfhould be draw.,un over ; Rev. xi. 1. And there was given me a Reed Iike to a Rod; and the Angel faid, A rife, and meafure the Temple of God, and the Altar, and them that wórfhip therein. There is no Temple under the new Di/ e; fation, but an in/lituted Church, nor any Reed or Rod to meafure it with- al, but the Reed of the Word. When John had a Vi/ion of the holy Jerufalem, he obferved that the Wall of the City had twelve Foundations, and in them the Names of the twelve flpoflles. The Foundation, the Groundwork ofit was 4ofio- heal: So mull the Foundation of an inf ituted Church be. .rind 'when the City was meafisred, the Length, and the Breadth, and the Heighth of it were equal, twelve thoufand Furlongs. Here again, the Root of the Number is twelve, whether you take the Meafilre of the Height, or the Breadth, or the Length: And he meafured the Wall thereof, a hundred and forty four Cubits. The Root is in twelve, and the Multiplication is by twelve; twelve Times twelve make a Hundred forty ana four. Every Thing appertaining to this Ho ÿ City muß be Apof tolical as to the Foundation, and allo to the Superßruthire. 1. If we take a View of the Worfhip of God, we find that every Branch of that bath the Stamp of Divinefluthority upon it. The Ordinances that are to be adminitred in an inßi- tuted Church are of Chriß's own flppointment, to be proved either by exprefs Precept, or by flpoßolical Precedent. It was Chriß that ordained Baptifm to be adminißred to Difciples, as a regular Prequalification to Church- memberfhip, Mat. xxviii. 19. He it is that ordained Prayer to be made in his Name, A 3 ,tbi

vi P R E F A C E. the Gofpel to be preached, the Supper to be adminiflred; and gave his Apoßles a Charge to teach baptized Difciples, to ob- ferve all Things whatfoever he had commanded them : And ac- cordingly the Church being taught by the Apofiles, kept clofe to his Appointment. They continued in the Apoílle's Doarine, and Fellowfhip, and breaking of Bread, and Prayer, Atfs ii. 42. 7efus Chrift did never intrufi any Man or Men to ap- point in Matter of Worfhip, under the former D fpenfation. Mofes was the principal Man that was employed, but he was i of entrufied with any Power to do, or to appoint to be done, in Matter of Werfhip. When he was about to build the Ta- bernacle, he was admonifhed of God to fee that all Things might de done according to the Pattern that was /hewed to him in the Mcunt, Heb. in i. 5. There mutt not le a Loop, nor a Pin, nor a Thread of a dfrent Colour from the Pattern; and when he locked upon al. the Work, it was done as the Lord com- mended, Exod. xxxix. 43. Mofes did not give Rules of his own, but Hill declared 'what the Lord hadfaid, what he bad appointed to be done in Matter of Worfhip. Under the New Teftament the Apoftles themfelves had no Power to appoint in Matters of Worfhip, they had Infirucions from Chrift for what they did. Ads 1. 3. Chrß was feen of them forty Days after his Refurrecion, fpeaking to them of the Things appertaining to the Kingdom of God : And when he had given them full inftruttions, he gave them their full Com- tnSion, Matt. xaviii. 19, 2o. And firidly enjoined them to teach the Obfervation of all Things whatfoever he had commanded them : which Commands of his we may read in Apoftolical Precedents. 2. Chrift bath appointed Officers in his Church, ordinary and extraordinary : Such as were extraordinary were Apofiles, Prophets. and Evangelifis. Thefe were to continue for a Sea- ton, thefè had extraordnary Gifts, which, together with their Offices, are now ceafed. Officers that are to continue in the Church, are Bifhops and Deacons, or Elders and Deacons (and Deacons, where the Cafe requires it) Andwe may not make any other Officers than theft, becaufe it would r lla on Chrifi Aim/elf, either on his Wifdam or his Faithfülnefs. On his .Wife/cm, as if he did not know what Officers his Church would need, when Apoßles and Evangelifis were ceafed: Or upon his )'aithfulnefs, if he knew that he did not appoint them. And Jet

PR E F A C E. vii yet he was Paid to be faithful in the Houfe of God, as a Son. We never law much Fruit of thole Trees that have been planted in Ofce -power in the Church, that were never planted there by Divine flppointment. We have no more Power to ap- point new Officers than we have to appoint new Ordinances in the Church. 3. 7efrts Chriß bath given out Laws for the Government of his Church : he was with the "Ipoftles (as Ilaid before) forty Days after his RefurreElion, (peaking with them about the things appertaining to the Kingdom of God, howthis King- dom muft be ordered and governed, and then commanded them to teach the Ohfervation of all Things whatfoever he had com- manded them. Now the flpcftles have accordingly declared to the Churches how they ought to rule and govern, how to pro- ceed in Cafes of Offence; what Offences are to be dealt withal; what Power the Churches have, and how they ought to exert that Power, and that what they do mull be done in the Name of yefus Chriß, z Cor. v. i t, 12, 13. 2 Theff. iii. 6, 14. Titus i. io. Rev. ii. z¢. Seeing then we have fuch a Platform of Worfhip and Dif eipline laid down in the Word, it is the great Concern of Churches to keep exaEtly to the Rule in all fldmin ?rations, both in refpeo? of Worfhip and Dif ipline, that nothing either in Matter or Form be omitted that God requires, nor done but what the Lord commands : We fhould be as exaél as Mofes was in making the Tabernacle. For (1.) we are frilly enjoined to keep clofe to Divine 21p- 'ointments. Under the legal Dif enfation, there was a Charge neither to add nordiminifh, Deut. xii. Now Chrif who had the Pre - eminency of Mofes, being faithful in God's Houfe as a Son, bath not left the Worfhip and Government of his Houfe more imperjeEí under the Gofpel, nor his People more at Liberty to add or diminifh than Mofes did under the Law, Matt. xxviii. zo. Teaching them to obferve all Things whatfo- ever I have commanded you, &c. john iv. 23. The Hour cometh, and now is, when the true Worfhippersfhall wor- fhip the Father in Spirit and in Truth. That only is Wor- fhip in Truth, that is ruled by the Word of Truth. 4nd they arejuch Worfippers that the Father Peeks for. (2)_ If we mix the Worf ip of God 2trith our own Inven- tions, vwe pollute his Infitutions; Exod. xX. zs. An Altar of

viii P R E F A C E . of Earth !/fall you make to me. And ifyou will needs make it of Stone, it /hall not be of heaven Stone ; fir if you have lift up a Tool upon it, you have polluted it. The Worfhip is pol- luted, and God is difhonored ; mwe do not fanc`?ify the Name of God in our Approaches to him, if vie keep not clofe to his Ap- pointments. Nadab and Abihu did not fanélify the Name of God in their Approach to him, Lev. x. 1. Yet they were the Priefls of the Lord to whom it belonged to offer Incenfe; they had Genfers, they had Incenfe both of divine Appointment, but they took Fire which the Lord commanded them not. And God man f fled his Difpleafure againji it, he fènt a Fire from him- fell and flew them. Our God is a confùming Fire frill, and there had need be Awe and Fear in worAipping him, fo that his Name may be fanhl fed by us ; otherwife the nearer we ap- proach to him, the more Danger we are in. (3.) We cannot acs either in Obedience or in Faith in Mat- ters of Worfhip or Difcipline, unlefs we keep clofe to Divine Appointments. Every All of Obedience prefuppofeth a Pre- cept, and every All ofFaith prefuppofeth a Promife : If we at! without a Command, we may expel-? that God will fay to us, as he did to Ifrael, Who bath required this at your Hands ? °This is to do as Nadaband Abihu did, tooffer that whichGod commanded not ; And are we fare that we /hall efcape better than they ? Has not God paid, I will be fanétified in them that draw nigh me, and before all the People I will be glo- rified ? And can we lantliify the Name of God in drawing nigh to him, if we keep not clofe to Divine Appointments? And if what we do he not done in Faith, it will not be acceptable to God. Without Faith it is impoifible to pleafe God. How can we bottom on Chrif for Acceptance in any Thing that is done by us, where we have no Promife of Acceptance to look to ? Could Churches keep to the Rule both in Worfhip and Difci- pline, how amiable would they he in the Eyes of God! The Apofilefpeaks highly of the Church of Coloffe. Col. ii. 5. Tho' I am abfent in Body, yet am I prefent in Spirit, joying and rejoicing, beholding your Order, and the Stedfaiinefs of your Faith in Christ Jefus. Now that Order as well as Faith may be preferved and maintained in the Churches of the Saints, is the D fgn of this enfuing great f , and(hall be the Prayer of the Author, to him who is the God of Peace and Order, and not of Con, ìJion, in all the Churches of the Saints. A DISCOURSE +.n.. ..;.,er.w.,y.'..:,a°:ia.,.&.w.,<:,,;..r:, ...,,rE .

t 9 , A A D I S C O U R S E C O N C E R N I N G CHUR.CH- GOVERNME N T. C H A P. 1. Containing the 'various llcceptationi of the Word C x v R e H. rr HE word CHURCH is varioufly taken in Scripture. Firfl, By the wordChurch we are to under &and, the univerfal invifible Church, which contifis of all the eleE of God, that ever were, are, or (hall be in this World. Eph. V. 25. Hufbands love your Wives, as Chrifl loved the Church, and gave hirnfe f for it, that he might fan8ify and cleanfe it, with the wafhing of Water by the Word, &c. They were his Church antecedent to their Sanétification, they were united to him, they were Mem- bers of his Body, of his Flefh, and of his Bones ; ver. 3o. and there lay the great Myftery that the Apoftlewas hand- ling of, in !hewing the Union that was between a Man and his Wife ; they who were really and perfonally two, were relatively one. He faith, Thu is a great Myflery; but I fpeak concerning Chrß and the Church. And it remains a great Myftery to many of the People of God to this Day, That all the Elea of God, many of whom are not yet brought

The If f itutron and Government brought forth, Mould be confidered as the Church, and fo clofely united to Chrift: It is fuch a Myftery, that they cannot reach it, though the Scripture be plain and pofitive in this Matter : Ephef. i. to. t bat in the Difpenfation of the Fulnefs of Times he might gather together in one, all I pings, both qvhich are in Heaven and in Earth, in him, even in Chrifl 7efus. This Difpenfation was when he took our Nature on him ; then was the fulnefs of Time, Gal. iv. 4. He recon- ciled Jew and Gentile unto God in one Body (that is, all the Ele& both of Jews and Gentiles) Eph, ii, 16. Now Jew and Gentile were neverone Body politick, therefore it mutt be one Body myftical, which could be no other way but by Union with him who was the myflical Head. He abo- h u ed the Enmity, &c. to make to himfeif, of twain, one new Man, fo making peace. This Peace was made by the Blood of the Crofs, and then were they made one new Man in Chrift ; he was the Head, and they the Body, Col, i. 18. And he is the Head of the Body, the Church : This is the myflical Body, and it is from this Head that they receive Spirit and Life, and Motion. Eph. i. 22, 23. .find gave him to le Head over all `Things to the Church, the fulnefs of him that fillet hall in all. Inall thefe Places is to be underftood the Elea, which is the univerfal invifible Church. It is fuch a Church as Chrift loved and died for, antecedent to their Sanctification ; and it comprehends in it all that Chrill loved and gave himfelf for, therefore it comprehends in it all the Elect of God. Paul was one of thefe long before his Converfion ; he faith, He loved me and gave himfeif for stte. Firf, By the Church fometimes is underflood the uni- verfal vifible Church, which is made up of all Believee.s in the World, fuch as are called out of the World by the Word to embrace jefus Chrift: Eph. iii. 21. To him be Glory in the Church throughout all Ages. I cannot reftrain this to any particular Church, but mull take it of the univerfal vifible Church, which !hall continue throughout all Ages, when a particular Church !hall be removed or may be re- moved. t Cor, x. 32. Give no Offence to the Yew, nor to the Gentile, nor to the Church of God. I fee no reafon why Jew and Gentile here fhould be taken univerfally, and the Church

of a v fble Church of Chrrß. x t Church of God reflriëtively. Betides, it is the Church of Corinth which is here cautioned, that they give no Offence to the Church of God. All Believers in the World are the Church of God, though they are no otherwife embodied than as they are called in one hope of their Calling. Eph. iv. 4. There is one Body, even as ye are called in one hope of your Calling, &c. But here is one Objection that I have met withal againft this, That a People cannot have the Deno- mination of a Church, unlefs they be gathered together in one Place. To this I anfwer, if this Objection have any weight in it, then there is no fuch thing as the univerfal invifible Church, confifling of all the Elect : For though they be gathered together in one Head, the Lord Jefus Chrift, yet they were never as yet gathered together in one Place. They are called the Church, they are the Church of the Firft-born, lieb. xii. 23. that are 'written in Hea- ven. Secondly, If this Objection will hold, then a particular in- flituted Church can no otherwife be denominated a Church than as they are gathered together in one Place for the Worfhip of God : When they are parted afunder, then they are no Church; and if they are no Church, then there be no Officers ; for there can be no Shepherd, if there be no Flock. But we find them oiled the Church of God in the Epiftles that were fent to them, though they were not together in one Place when the Epifiles were written : i Cor. xiv. 23. If therefore the whole Church be come together into one Place, &c. Thefe are hill a Church, being embodied according torule, and do bear the Dono- mination of a Church, whether they are together or afun- der. The Elders of the Churchof Ephefus were the Elders of the Church, though the Church was not together in one Place. Aéls xx. 17. Aldfrom Miletus hefent and call- ed for the Elders of the Church, &c. Thirdly, By this word Chvirch we are to underhand a particular inflituted Church. Now a particular inflituted Church mull be diflinguifhed according to its Conflitution. tff. By an inflituted Church we are to underhand a Na- tional Church. Aéls. vii. 38. This is he that was in the Church in the Wildern f . The Church was the Church of the

ri- L._ 12 The Infiitution and Government the Jews that was a National Church. They had a Na- tional Altar to offer their Sacrifices on : Exod. xxiv. 4. And Mofes budded an Altar under a Hill, and twelve Pillars, _according to the twelve Tribes of Ifrael. And Mofes _fine young Men of the Children of Ifrael, and offered Burnt -Ofer- ixgs thereon, &c. They had a National Priefthood, Aaron was their High Prieft; they had a National Place of Wor- Ibip, which was firft at Shila, after that at 7erufalem, whi- ther the Tribes went up to worship. There was but one golden Candleftick under the legal Difpenfation, Zach. iv. ult. 2d/y. By an inftituted Church we are to underftand a particular Congregation, the Matter whereof are vifible Saints, and the Form mutual Confent and Agreement. I Cor. 1. 2. Unto the Church of Corinth fanc`tified in Chris refus, called to be Saints. i Their. i. 1. Unto the Church of the Theffalonians, which is in God the Father, and in the Lord refus Chrift. Such were the feven Churches in Afia, Rev. ii. and iii. Chapters. Now this is the Church I intend to treat of, a particular inftituted Church, an incorporated Body, to the End that God may be worfhipped by themgccording to his own Ap- pointment. C H A P. II. Containing a Defcription of an inßituted Church of CHRIST. AN inftituted Church of Chrift is a competent Num- ber of vifible Saints joined together by mutual Con - fent, to worship God according to his own Appointment, to the Honour-of God through Chrift, and their own mu- tual Edification in Subordination thereunto. Firi,There muff be a competent Number, every Com- munity or incorporated Body mull confift of fo many as are capable to keep themfelves pure. The Church mull not

of a vifible Church of Chrj/?. r3 only be pure in its firft Conflitution, but they mull alto keep themfelves pure ; and the Power by which this mutt be done muff refide in themfelves : There is no foreign Power that can aEt judicially in an inftituted Church ; the moll that they can do is by way of brotherly Advice. When Perlons are embodied together, it is poffible there may be one that offends, and likewife one to whom the Offence may be known : He muff tell him his Fault in private ; if he do not hear him, he muff take two or three with him Here are three at leali ; and if he do not hear them, he mull tell it to the Church. Now it is not likely that the Offender, that was to be dealt with by a greater Number the fecond Time than he was at the firft, fhould in the third Place he dealt with by alefferNumber, or by aNum- ber equal to thofe that dealt with him in the fecond Place, feeing it is now come to the Decifion of the Matter. I can - not think there can be lefs than feven or eight to keep the Body pure in Cafe of Offence. Secondly, The Matter of a vifible Church mull be vifible Saints. This I (hall prove, Firft, Typically. Secondly, Pro- phetically: and Thirdly, Hifloricaliy. (1.) Typically. There are two Types I do apprehend, that did eminently, point at a Gofpel- inftituted Church, V. The Tabernacle. sly. The Temple. IA The Tabernacle. I fuppofe by the Tabernacle an inftituted Church is often intended. I cannot but think that David had anEye to Gofpel- Churches, Pfalm lxxxiv. i . When he cries out, How amiable are thy Tabernacles, O Lord God of Hofts ! Tabernacles in the plural Number. There was but one Tabernacle in the Time of the Law. So .Pfal. xv. 1. Who íhall dwell in thy Tabernacle, and who ./hall abide in thy Holy Hill? The Q2alifications of the -Subjeet after - mentioned, to wit, walking uprightly, work- ing Righteoufnefs, and fpeaking the Truth from theHeart, thew it to be a Gofpel- Church, there being no fuch Pre- qualifications prefcribed unto the Jews. When the Con - tell was concerning the Gentiles, whether they fhould be circumcifed, Afts xv. after Simeon had declared, how God at the firil did vifit the Gentiles, to take out of them a Peo- B plc

14. The Inßitution and Government ple for his Name, lames fpeaks and tells them, that to this agrees the Words of the Prophet, After this will I return and build again the Tabernacle. of David, which was fallen down, and I will build again the Ruins thereof, and I will jet it up. The Tabernacle of David then fell, when the National Church of the 'Yews was demorifhed ; and it was built again when the Gentiles were embodied into aChurch- State. That the Gentiles, about whom there was this great Conteft, were embodied into a Church - State, is evident, ver. 3. and being brought on their Way by the Church, ú'c. Rev. xiii. 6. And he opened his Mouth in Blafphemy againfi G d, to blafrheme his Name and his Tabernacle, and them that dwell in Heaven. zly, The Temple, that alto was a Type of a Gofpel- Church, I mean of an inítituted Church. Fill!, Such à Church was prophefied of under the Name of the Temple, Ezek. xl. and fo onward : The Temple that was there meafured was a Gofpel- Temple. z Cor. vi. i6. What Agreement bath the Temple of God with Idols? for ye are the Temple of the living God : Ye, the Church of Corinth, to whom he wrote this Epiftle. Rev. xi. 1. And there was given me a Reed like unto a Rod : and the Angel laid, Arife, ,neafure the Temple, and the Altar, and them that worJhip therein. There was no Temple in john's Time, that could have the meafuring Rod of the Word laid over it, but a Cofpel-Temple, which is no other but a Gofpel - initituted Church. Now if the Tabernacle and the Temple were Types of an initituted Church, there mutt be fome Refem- blance between the Types and the Antitype. The euef- tion then is, In what Refpeéts both thefe did referable a Gofpel- initituted Church ? I anfwer, Firfl, In Refpe& of the Matter. Secondly, In Refped of the Form. But at prefent I fhail fpeak only to the Matter, and then to the Form under the fecund Head. The Matter of the Tabernacle, and alfo of the Temple was prepared Matter, which was made fit for its Place be- fore it was joined. As for the Tabernacle, Moles was ad- monifhed of God to fee to it, that all, Things were made according to the Pattern that he had (hewed him in the Mount, and accordingly he did ; Exod, xxxix. 43. IVI And

of a vifible Church of Chr. TS Mofes did look upon all the Work, and behold they had done it as the Lord commanded. Secondly, The Matter of the Tem- ple was prepared Matter ; i Kings v. 17, O. alnd the King commanded, and they brought great Stones, cooly Stones, and hewed Stones to lay the Foundation of the Temple ; and Solomon's Builders, and Hiram's Builders did hew them, and .the Stone- Squarers : So they prepared `Iiml er and Stones to build the Houfe. And it was builded of Stone made ready before it was brought thither. Anfwerable unto this, an militated Church mutt be built of prepared Matter : It is a fpiritual Houfe, and mutt be built with fpiritual 1VÏátter; the Matter mutt be fpiri- tual antecedent to the Formation of the Houfe. A fpiri- tual Houle cannot be built of carnal Matter ; the Founda- tion Stone is a living Stone, and the Superftrutture mutt be living Stones that mull firft come to the Foundation Stone, and afterward be joined one to the other, by which they become a fpiritual Hour, i Pet. ii. 3. (z.) I thall prove i¢ Prophetically. The Reafon why I go back to the Prophets to prove the Matter of an inflitu- ted Church to be vifible Saints, is, becaufe fach a Church is built upon the Prophets as well as the Apoftles, Chri/i himfelf the chief Corner -Stone ; Eph. ii. 21, 22, 23. In 'whom all the Building fitly framed together, proweth to a holy Temple in the Lord, in whom ye alfo are builded together for an Habitation of God thrcugh the Spirit ; Ye, the Church of Ephefus, to whom he wrote this Epiftle, I fay I thall prove it Prophetically, that the Mattel of an inftituted Church mutt be vifible Saints: Pfal. xv. i. Who fhall abide in thy Tabernacle, and who (hall dwell in thy Holy Hill ? He that cwalketh uprightly, and doth Righteoufnef , and fpeaketh the Truthfrom his Heart, &c. Pfal. xxiv. 3. Who fhall afcend into the Hill of God, and who (hall(land in his 'Holy Place ? He that bath clean Hands, and a pure Heart, &c. That this- is prophetical of the Matter of a Gofpel- inftituted Church, is evident; for there were no fach Prequalifications re- quired under the Law. Then a Yew, as fuch, being circum- cifed, might afcend into the Hill of God ; fo that David needed not put the Queltion, with Refpeét to that Difpen- fation; it was well known who might afcend: God h xi B z declars 1

6 The Inflitutïon and Government declaredhisMind in it in Words at length, Excel. xxiii. 17. All thy Males 'hall appear before Me three Times a Year; that was at the three Feaifs, as appears in the preceding Verfes. Had the Qeftion been put with Refpeet to that Difpen- fation, it would have reduced the Congregation of Ifrael to a fmall Number, there being fomany among them that had neither clean Hands nor pureHearts; and would alto have made void the lnftitution of God, that had appointed all their Males to appear before him three Times a Year. (3.) I (hall prove it Hiftorically, that the Matter of thofe Churches, that were conftituted in the Apoftles Times, were vifible Saints. i Cor. i. I. Unto the Church of God that is at Corinth, fanflied in Chri l 7efus, called to be Saints. Philip. i. r. To all the Saints at Philippi, with the Bifops and Deacons. i Cor. xiv. 33. For God is the , u- thor of Peace and net of Confufion, as in all Churches of the Saints. Now this Sanctity confifis in inherent Holinefs, in the Judgment of Charity, and not in that which fume call federal Holinefs. 2 Theff. i. 3. Your Faith gro'weth exceeditsgly, and the Love of every one of you all aboundetb. This is inherent Holinefs : Phil. i. 5. I am perfuaded of you, my Brethren, that he that hath begun a good Work inyou, will not ceafe to perfefl it to the coining of Chrifl, as it is meet for me to think JO, of you all. Charity thinks them to be what they profefs themfelves to be, while Life and Lip go together. Thofe that were added to the Church, Alts were fach as gladly received the Word, and were bap- tized. Thirdly, Thefe vifible Saints muff be joined together by mutual Confent and Agreement, before they can have the Denomination of an inflituted Church. This I (hall prove the fame Way as I did the Former. i. Typically. The Matter that was prepared by Mofes was not the Ta- bernacle, till it was joined together : Exod. xxvi. 3, 4, 5, 6. There muff be Loops and Tacks made in the Edges of the Curtains, and Moles muff couple them together, that it might become one Tabernacle. So the Temple : The Stones and the Timber were not the Temple, till they were joined together, and every Piece put into its proper Place. A Houfe muff confiit of Matter and Form, and it receives

of a vifible` Church of Chri/1. 17 receives its Denomination from its Form. t Kings vi. 7. The Houle, when it was in Building, czaas built of Stone made ready before it was brought thither: So that there was neither Hammer nor Ax, nor any Tool of Iron heard while the Hot fé was in Building. Now as it was no Tabernacle, no Tem- ple, till the Materials were joined together : So vifible Saints make not an inftituted Church, till they are joined together by mutual Confent: They muff be builded to- gether a fpiritual Houfe, as Peter fpeaks, to offer up fpi- ritual Sacrifices acceptable to God by Jefus Chrift. z. I !hall prove it Prophetically, Ifa. lxii. 4, 5. It is a Prophefy refpe1ing the Times of the Gofpel. Ver. 2. And the Gentiles fhallfee thy Righteou/nefs, and all Kings thy Glory. Ver. 4. Thou !halt no more be termed defolate and forfaken, for thy Land /hall be married. Ver. 5. As a young Man, marrieth a Virgin, fo (hall thy Sons marry thee. In all Mar riages there is a mutual Compaét and Agreement. 3. I fhall prove it Hiftorically, that this was the Man:.. ner of embodying, and alto of receiving Additions, wheii embodied. (i) They were builded or joined together. Eph. ii. zi, zz. The Aponte fpeaks here to the Church of Ephe- fits, and tells them, that they were bitht upon the Prophets and Apofles, 7efus Chrift the chief Corner Stone, in 'Whom all the Buildingfitly framed together, groweth to a holy Tem- ple in the Lord, in whom alto ye are budded together for an Habitation of God through the Spirit : Ye, the particular Church of the Ephefians, to whom he wrevte this Epistle. 1 Pet. ii. 5. To 'whom coming, as to a living Stone, are built up a fpiritual Hot/, to e'er up ;/piritual Sacrifices acceptable unto God by Chrift. This Building was not forced, but voluntary ; they came freely unto Christ, that is the Foundation. Stone, and did by Agreement join to- gether; for two cannot Walk together to pu.rfue the fame End, except they are agreed. They were not born. Church Members : For they firft came to Chriil, before they were built up a fpiritual Floufe : They were lively Stones before they were put into the Building, therefore they muff be formed by Force ror Content ;. but there was B3,

38 The Inßitution and Government no fuch Thing as Compulfion orImpofition amongChrifii- ans in the primitive Times. (z) This was the Manner of receiving Members after Churches were embodied, therefore I conclude it was the Manner of their Embodying, _Ifts y. 13. find of the Ref/ dui fl no Man joinhimfelf to them (thatis, to the Church.) This thews that the joiningwas free and voluntary : None were forced into Communion, nor could any impofe them - felves upon the Church, but muff fatisfy the Church as to theirDifciplefhip, and be received by mutual Confent. Ads ix. 26. When Paul was come to Jerufalem, he a(fayed to join Hinfelf to the D:j iples: But they wereall afraidof Him, and would not believe that he was a D f iple, till there was Sa- tisfaction given by Barnabas ; and then he was received, and was with them going in and coming out. Fourthly, This Agreement, by which vifible Saints are Joined together, mutt be to worfhip God according to his own Appointment. t. It mutt be to worfhip God: t Pet. 2. 5. clbe Endof their being built up a fpiritual Houfe is to e'er up f iritual Sacrifices. z. This Worship muff be of Divine Appointment John iv. 24. God is a Spirit, and they that Wcrfhip him muß Wor- fhip in Spirit and in Truth. In Spirit, to Oppofition to Formality of outfide Service; and in Truth, in Oppofi- tiork to human Inventions. Now that only is Worfhip in Truth, that is ruled by the Word of Truth, both in i.e- fpeF,'t of Matter and Form. Such Worfhip did the Church offer to God. Acts iï. 2. 42. They continued in the l4poßles Dot?rine and Fellcwjhip, and breaking of Bread and Prayer, all Ordinances of Divine Appointment. Fifthly, It muff be to the Honour of God through Chriff. This is the higheft End of Church - Communion : This is the higheft End of God, his own Glory ; and that which is his highest End, fhould be ours. Whether ye Eat or Drink, or whatlaeverye do, do alto the Glory of God, ¡Cor. x. 31. Sixthly, The fubordinate End of an inflituted Church, is the mutual Edification cf the Members thereof. t Cor. xiv. 31. re may all Pre; heft one ly one, that all may learn, and all may be corr forted. V er. 3. He that Praphefietb, /peak

of a vifible Church of Chriff. 19 etb unto Men to edification. Ver. 12. Seek that you may excel to the Edifying of the Church. Ver. 26. La all Things be done to Edification. C H A P. III. Containing fonte Scriptures and Reafons to prove that ,vifible Suints are the only meet Matter to be added to an inßituted Church of Chriß. IF an inftituted Church confifts of vifible Saints, then fuch only are meet Matter to be added thereunto. This I !1ìa11 prove, Firic by Scripture ; and Secondly, I. !hall offer fame Reafons for it. Firfi, I !hall proveitby Scripture. Pfal. xv. t. Whof'all abide in thy Tabernacle ? and who (hall dwellin thy holy Hill? He that Walketh uprightly, that loth Righteoufnefs, that f eak. eth the Truth from his Heart, &c. Pfal. xxiv. 3. Who fhall afcend into the Hill of God, and who (hall Rand in his holy. Place ? He that Walketh uprightly, or he that bath clean Hands and a pure Heart, &c. Aas ii. 41. Then they that gladly re- ceived the Word were baptized, and the fame Day there were added unto them (that is, the Church) about three thoufand Souls. Ver. 97. And the Lord added unto the Church Daily, fùch as fould be faved. Rev. xxii. 14. Bleed are they that keep his Commandments, that they may have Right to the Tree of Life (that is, by Way of Demonftration)andmay enter in by the Gate into the City. By the City here I underhand an inítitutedChurch, for his not the Churchtriumphant; and it is fuch a City, that a Perfon mull be duly Q.Ealified be- fore he can be a free Citizen, or can challenge a Right there. Objeí'. But forne may fay, Mufi thefe vifible Saints Le really Euch, or fach only in Appearance ? To this I have a few Things to Reply. I. None but fuch as are fincere, fuch as are indeed Be. lievers, have any Right or Title to a Place in God's Houfe. Fir. They have no Right to be baptized, which is a step antecedent to Church - Communion : Ads viii. 36. See here is Water, What f culdbinder me that I may not be baptized ? The r

40. 20 The Inítitution and Government The,Anfwer was, If thou believefl with all thy Heart, thaw mayefl. The contrary that fairly offers itfelf is this : If thou dolt not believe with all thy Heart, thou mayelt not. When Peter exhorted them to repent and be baptized, it was not a mock Repentance that he exhorted them to, but a real Repentance. Secondly, They are not within the Compafs of the Lord's Prefcription, unlefs they are fincere : They are not Hy- pocrites, but Saints, that are defcribed to be meet Sub - jeéts, fuch as have clean Hands, and a pure Heart, Pfal. xxiv. 3. And loch are wide from Hypocrites. Thirdly, Such as are not really Sanctified, can expe& no fpiritual Meiling in ftanding in a Church - State, becaufe there is no Promife that they can Poffibly take hold of. It is he that is really pure in Heart that hath the Promife, Pfal. xxiv. 3. It is he that (hall receive the BUing from the Lord, and Righteoz fnefs from the God of his Salvation. Fourthly, Such as are not really Holy, though they are outwardly joined to the Church, and are with them going in and coming out, yet in fome Senfe they are not of them. i John ii. 19. They went out from us, but they were not all of us ; for if they had been of us, they would no doubt have continued with us; but they went f gamo us, ,rsthat he might be made manifefl that they f T y were the Sons of llagar, not of Sarah, the Sons of the Bond Woman not of the Free. Fifthly, Churches can receive Members under no other Consideration, but as really Godly. 1 am perfzvaded, faith the Apoftle, that he that hath begun a good Work in you, will not ceafe to perfect the fame unto the coming of the Lord fetus, as it is meet for me to think f of you all, Püil. i. b, 7. if Perlons are not judged to be fincere, they cannot be look'd on as meet Matter for a Church. Sixthly, Churches having not a Judgment oflnfallibility, though fuch as are really Sanctified are in the itrieteft Senfe the only meet Matter to be joined to cn instituted Church, yet they may warrantably receive filch as in ;fuagment of Charity arefncere: They can no otherwife judge of the Sia- cerity of theHeart, but by the outward Appearance. That filch may be received, appears by the primitive Pra61 ten

of a v fble Church of Chriii. 21 even in the Apoítles Times : There were Hypocrites receiv- ed both to Baptifm, and into a Church -State alto. Simon Magus was baptized ; ílnanias and Sapphira were Church- Members, outwardly joined to them ; there were foolifh Virgins, as well as wife, outwardly walking in Communion together, Mat. xxv. But care fhould be taken, that if poiible none might be received, but fuch as are fin- cere. 2. I Ball offer Tome Reafons why fuch as are vifibie Saints are the only meet Matter to be joined to an inftitut- ed Church. The firft Reafon is. Becaufe it is the Will of God to have it fó. I apprehend that this Will of his is comprifed in the Commiflion, Mat. xxviii. 19. zo. Go difciple to me all Nations, baptizing them, &c. teaching them to obterve all Things rwhatfoever "'have commanded you. The Apostles, who well understood their Lord's Commiflion, and were never impeached of unfaithfulnefs, kept dole to the Order thereof: They firft difcipled, then baptized, and then ad- ded unto the Church, Jar 1. 41. Here were all the twelve Apoftles together when this was done, and I doubt not but they acted jointly in this method. The Order of a Commiflion muff be obferved as well as the Matter, every thing muff ftand in its proper Place; Men muff not firft baptize and add to the Church, and then try whether they can difciple them or no; there is no Commiflion for fuch a PraEtice. The firft Thing that is to be obferved in the Commiffion, is, to difciple to Chriff; and till that be done, Perfons are not fit to be baptized, nor yet to be added to the Church. A fecond Reafon is, Becaufe they are fuch only that are added by the Lord. flRs ii. 47. "Ind the Lord added to the Church daily fuch as fhould be faved: That is, fuch as were fancbfled. We can no otherwife argue the Salvation of a Per fon, than as it is the confequence of his Sandifi- cation. You never read that any are added by the Lord, but fuch as fhould be faved : There were added by the Lord's Prefcription, Pfal. xxiv. 3. As for others, the A- poftle tells you, 7ude 4. That they crept in unawares : liad they been aware of it, they would have prevented it And

,2 2 The In i tution and Government And Paul fpeaks of certain falfe Brethren that were brought in unawares, that came privily to fpy out their Liberty. Gal. ii. 4. A third Reafon is, Becaufe fuch only are fuitable Matter' to the Foundation -hone, and alfo to theSuperftru&ture that ìs already railed upon it. The Foundation -Stone is a living Stone, the Superhrulure are lively Stones ; therefore they are lively Stones that mull be added. Living Stones and dead Stones are not fuitable, how can thefe cement to- gether ? The Houfe is a fpiritual Houfe, and it is fpiritual Matter that must be added to it, by which it is en- larged. There was not one Stone put into the Temple of old, but was prepared before it was brought in Place, I Kings Vi. 7. So mull the Stones of this fpiritual Temple be prepared before they are put into the Building. A fourth Reafon is, becaufe an inilituted Church is the Houle of God, the Place where God is laid to dwell. Pfal. cxxxii. 13, 14. For the Lord bath chcfen Sion, he bath defired it for an Habitation ; there will I dwell for ever, for I have a delight in it. Eph. ii. zz. In whom alfo ye are budded to- gether for an Habitation of God through the Spirit. Now Holinefs becomes his Houfe for ever, and the Place where ,his Honour dwelleth. A fifth Reafon is, Becaufe fuch only are capable of an- fwering the End of Church - Communion, which is to offer up fpiritual Sacrifices acceptable to God through Jefus Chrift. A carnal Perfon cannot offer a fpiritual Sacrifice. The true Worshippers are fuch as worship the Father in Spirit and in Truth. yohn iv. zq.. And they are fuch Wor- íhippers that the Father feeketh for. God doth not feek for falfe Worfhippers in a Church -hate : They are true Worfhippers that Churches should endeavour to receive into their Communion, becaufe they are fuch that the Father feeketh for. A sixth Reafon is, Becaufe that Perlons that do discover themfelves to the contrary, after they be received, muff be caft out. This is a Reafon by Way of Demonftration. If they may not be continued in the Church after they are difcovered to be wicked, then they may not be received while they appear to be fuch : But they may not be con- tinued

of a vifible Chz:rch of Chri/f. 23 tinued'in the Church after they are difcovered to be wicked; therefore they may not be received while they appear to be fuch. t Cor. v. 53. Wherefore put awayfrom among you that wicked Perf n. All Leven mull be purged out of the Church. Immortalities and Heresies render Perlons liable to be re- jedled, if perfifted in ; and if inch may not be continued when discovered, than by a parity ofReafon, they may not be received in by the Church, being known to be fuch antecedent thereunto. C H A P. IV. Containing fame Arguments, by which it appears, that fueh are mil aken that look on Children to be Church Members, =while in an Infant State. IF an inflituted Church confifl of vifible Saints, fuch as in the Judgment of Charity are fincere, then fuch are greatly mistaken that do look on Children to be Members of an inflituted Church of Chrifl, whilil in an Infant State. This I shall demonftrate in a few Particulars. Firs, If Children are Church - Members in an Infant State, either they are born fuch, or elfe there is fome vifi- ble Way of Divine Appointment by which they are made fuch : But they are not born fuch, neither is there any vifible Way of Divine Appointment by which they are made fuch ; therefore there is no fuch thing as Childrens Church - memberfhip in an Infant State. I. There is no vifible Way of Divine Appointment, by which Children may be made Members while in an Infant State. If there be any fuch vifible Way, it rands on Re-. cord in the Word : But there is no fuch vifible Way fland- ing on Record in the Word : therefore there is none at all. If there were any fuch vifible Way ftanding on Record in the Word, force one or other would be able to produce it ; but there is no Perfon able to produce it, therefore there is no fuch thing on Record in the Word. 2. They

24. The Inf itution and Gávernment 2. They are not born Church-Members. If they are', then all Children are fo born, or the Children of Believers only : But all Children are not fo born, nor yet the Chil- dren of Believer's ; therefore Children are not bora Church - Members. Firft, All Children are not fo born, that is granted by all that pretend to any thing of Religion. None do look on the Children of Turks, yews, and Pagans to be born Church- Members. The firft Part then is granted. Secondly, The Children of Believers are not fo born. If the Children of Believers are born Church - Members, it mull be by Virtue of the Faith of the Parent: But there is not Virtue enough in the Faith of the Parent to make the Child aMember; therefore theChildren ofBelievers are not fo born. That which makes not the Parent a Member of an in- flituted Church, makes not the Child a Member of an in- ftituted Church : But the Faith of the Parent makes him not aMember; therefore it makes not his Child aMember. There are two Steps that muff be taken before a Man can corne regularly to be a Member of an inflituted Church, Fill, He mutt believe. Secondly, He mull be baptized. Neither of which, nor both, make him a Member of fuch a Church. He cannot be a Member before he offereth himfelf, nor is he a Member before he is received. t. He mutt believe before he is baptized ; for this we have both Precept and Precedent. Firft, Precept : Matt. xxviii. 19. Go difciple ±te to all Nations, baptizing them, &c. He that is here called a Difciple, is in Mark xvi. 16. called a Believer. A Difciple and a Believer is the fame Thing: For it is the fame Commiffion, differing only in Terms, not in Things. Precedents there are enough. Alts xviii. S. 9-hen Crifpus the chief Ruler of the Synagogue, believed in Gcd with all his Houle, and many of the Corinthians believed and were baptized. If whole Houfholds believe, then whole Houfholds are baptized ; if a Part believe, then a Part are baptized. Alts viii. 1 a. When they believed Philip, preach- ing the 9 -hings concerning the Kingdom of God, and the Name of refus Chrifl, they were baptized both Men and Woman. Ver. 37. If thou believefl with all thy Heart, thou may ji (that is, thou mayell be baptized) otherwife not. When 5

cf a v fble Church of Chrifl. 25 2. When Ire believes he mull be baptized before he cant regularly be received a Member ; and for this there is both Precept and Precedent alto. Matt. xxviii. 19, 20. Go dif- eiple to me all Nations, baptizing them, &c. teaching them to obferve all Things whatfoever I have commandedyou, &c. As the Word (them) in the 19th Verfe is relative to all Nations difcipled : So the Word (them) in the aoth Verfe is re- lative to all Nations difcipled and baptized. A famous Precedent of this orderly Procedure we have, .REts ii. 45. 'Then they that gladly received the Word were baptized : And the fame Day there were added unto them about three thoufand Souls : Firft difcipled, then baptized, then added unto the Church. Now if Faith make not the Parent a Member of this nor that particular inftituted Church, then it makes not his Child a Member : But it makes not the Parent a Member, therefore not the Child. I would but afk what particular inftituted Church the Child Rands a Member of, whofe Parent Rands a Member cf none ? Whether the Child be a Member of this or that particular Church, whofe believing Parent is not a Member of this or that ? Object. But fome may fay, That under the legal Difpen- fation, the Children of Believers were born Church Members, and were circumcifed the eighth Day. Why may not the Chil- dren of Believers be bern Church Members now, and be bap- tized as well as then they were circumcifed? I anfwer firft, That Children were born Church Mein:- bers under that Difpenfation, is granted ; that they were the Children of Believers, confidered as fuch, that were fo born, is denied. They were the Children of the yews that were fo born, confidered as filch, among whom there were many that did not believe. John x. z6. Ye believe not, `N, becaufe ye are not my Sheep, as Ilaid unto you. And yet their Children were fo born. Secondly, The Coaítitution of the Church is now altered from National to Congregational, the Matter of which are vifible Saints. Therefore Children are not born Church Members, becaufe they are not born vifible Saints. The Church was National under the legal Difpenfation : All yudea, and all the Regions round about were but one Church. You never read of Churches in the plural C Number

26 The Infditution and Government Number, till the Difpenfation was changed : There was then but one golden Candleftick, Zach. 4. z. but now there are golden Candlefticks in the plural Number, Rev. i. ult. The feven Churches in Afia were the feven Golden Candle - flicks : And there were Churches in yudea, where there was but one before, Gal. i, and Churches in Galatia. No- thing is more clear in the Word than this, that Churches are now Congregational, and that the Matter thereof are vifible Saints. z. The Laws of that Difpenfation are repealed, 1186. vii. io. The Priefthood being changed, there is made alto of Neceffity a change of the Law, Ver. 18. For there is verily a D (annulling of the Law, for the Weaknefs and Un- profitablenefs thereof; for the Law made nothing perfea (that is, the Levitical Law.) It is ridiculous to take our Mea- fores from the Laws of that Difpenfation, feeing they are all abrogated and made void. We may as well take our Meafures thence for Officers and for Ordinances, as for Church Members, and fo form a National Church again as that was. 3. There is a new Law given out, which is the Law of this new Difpenfation, Matt. xxviii. 19, zo. This new Law we are bound iIriEly to obferve in the Conftitution of Churches, the adding of Members, and the Adminiftration of Ordinances, in refpea of Matter and Form too. 4. When Children were circumcifed the eight Day, it was done by Divine Appointment, Gen. xvii. to, it, iz. there was an exprefs Command for it, All thy Male Chil- dren mull needs be circumci/ed. Shew me the like exprefs Command for the baptizing of Children, and I will con- tend no more about ir. S. When Children were circumcifed, they alto were ad- mitted unto the Paffover; Exod. xii. 4. A Lamb for a Ioz fe. Children that were circumcifed were a Part of the House. No Church Ordinance was denied to any Member, but Circumcifion, which was never appointed but for the Males only. Why then is not the Supper of the Lord pleaded for Children from the fame Example, as well as Baptifm ? 6. No Church Member under the new Difpenfation was ever debarred one Church Ordinance, unlefs by their dr -