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FQ V RE TREATISES. TENDING TO DIS - SW'ADE ALL CHRISTIANS from foure no leífehainous then com. mon firmes; namely,theabufes ofSwea- ring, DrunkenneJ,Wheredome, and 'Bribery. WHEREIN THE GREATNESSE. and odioufneffeof thefevices is difcouered ; and themeanes and remedies ,whichmayeither preteruc,or weanc men from them, are propounded. WHEREUNTO IS ANNEXED aTrcatife of Anger. By LOHN D O VVN A ME Batcheler in Di- uanity,and PreAcher ofGodsword. ESAY 58.i, Crieaod(pare not-,lift vp thy voice like4 trumpet, andfhew my people their tranfgrefons , andto the houfeof Iacob their fnnes. Ar LONDON Imprintedby t; . Hai and I.B. for olltchaenTak!r,and arc tobe fold at his (hop in Pauls Church-yardtat the Eigne of the Greyhound! a -G z 3..


TO. E RIGHT HO- NORABLE, IoHrr, LORD HAR- RINGTON:, BARON O F EXTON, AND TO THE NOBLE AND VERTV- o>as LAD tE hiswife: I. D. witheth all in- cieafe.of grace,aiìd true honour this life, andeternall happinefeandGleffednef fe, in the life to corne.. F euer chère were atime ( Right Honourable ) wherein Gods Efigs8=. Miniflers fhouldcrie aloude, and lift vp theirvoice likea trumpet, to tel the peopleof their tranf. greflions,and the houfe of Tacot oftheir finites then furely it is mow in thefe ourdaies,and in this our land . For how- foeuer the light of the Gofpel bath for manyyeeres clearely fhined amongvs,fhewingvn to vs the wayof righteoufnefi'e, inwhich wewalkingmay 5 traîne vnto happineffe; and the manifold by-paths of errorand finne,to theend we mayauoid them and thoughwe haue had Gods faithfull Miuuiíiers,fometimcs piping vnto vs the fweettunes of the Gofpell,toallurevs vn- toholy obedience; and fometimes thundring out the dreadful found of Gods f'careful iudgerents due to

Cor.si6 THE Er Tittii DfiDiCATORY finne, to refiraine vs from run iv on in v. .ked courtes ; yet there is little reforrn,vn and amend- rent,but rather weare growne from 111 toworfetand waxe eueryday more fecure and fenfual inour finnes. And becaufe men haue not imbraced and loued Gods truth nor fubmitted themfelues tobee ruled with this fcepter of hiskinglome ;thereforemany are giucn vpof God to their owne filthy lufi , and to a re. probateminde , and through the hardnef a of their hearts,al the meanes of their conuerfion and faluati onbecome not onely vneffeeival and vnprofitable, but rather caute them to beemore obdurate in their fames . The refplendent light of the Gofpell Both make them moreblind, Sò as they goe groping in ig. norancecuen at noone daies; the foundof theword, . and loudcries of GodsMinifters in their cares calling them to repentance,doe makethem moredeafe toall inflruionand admonition; the comfortablebeanies ofGods gracious promifes shining vpon their hearts, doenot hippie and (oftenthem,but rathermake them morehard and obdurate ; and as the Apoflle fpeak- eth,the wordofGod , which in it owne nature is the fauorof life unto life, becommethvnto them the fa-e uour ofdeath to their deeper condemnation. And as this is the fiate of all themwho haue fold themfelues toworke wickèdneífe, and lie frozen in the dregs of their finnes; foeuen the better fort who hauegiuen their namesvnto Chrift, haue beene fo intoxicated with thefweetecupsofproíperity, and through long reft,peace, andpienty,haue to rutted in their corrupt tions,that it is to be feared,theywill not recouer their ancient purity and brightneffe , vntill the file ofatfli- ¿ion with an heauy hand bath come often ouer them.

THE EPISTLE DEDIGATORx". them. But neither thecrying firmes of thofe whoarc notorioufly wicked , nor yet the groífe corruptions of fuck as make profefl:ionof religion , doe caufe the {}ate of our land tobee fo dangerous andalmoft def- perate,as the nice wantonneffeof finne, whichma- keth it impatient ofthe leali touch; for howfoeuer it is 'in it felfeof the moll flauifh nature, yet is it foback- ed in thefe times with the numerous multitudeofof- fenders,and focountenanced and befriended by men ofbell quality , and greateil power that it is growne tobe a matter fare more dangerous to reprooue fin then to commit it, efpecially when it is cunningly a1ed , and plainely reprehended . Gods fpirituall Chirurgionsmay indeed in thefe times make as ma- ny corrafiues as theywill ,but if they loue their peace and lífe,they mull take heed that theydoe not apply them; for patients woundedwith the fores offinne, when they admit them to the cure, hold thedagger of reuenge in their hands , ready to flab them , ifthey but touch them to the quicke . And therefore needs mull thefe impatient patients feller in their corrupti- ons to the verydeathofbody and foule , feeing they . will bynomeanes ïndure tohaue their wounds fear- ched . Neuertheleffe all this mutt not daunt anddif- courage thofe whom theLord bath called to thefun- ¿lion of the Miniflery , from theperforming of theix dutie, but the more dangerous and dcfperate their flare is who arecommitted to their charge., the more earnefl and diligent fhould they new themfelues in feeking their preferuation.For they ought to pi cferre the fpirituall health of thofe who are by God corn., mitted to their cure, before their owrae temporary life; and being appointed the Lords watchmen ,the A 2 more

THri EPISTLE DEDICATORY. more fecurely the peoplefleepe in finne , the louder mutt theycrie till they haue awakened them , wheat Ezech.33.70 they fee Gods iudgcments approchingand ready to feize vpon them : otherwife the people (hall die in their Pinnes, but their bloud (hall be required at the watchmens hands. Theconfederation of which duty, and the intire lone which I beare to my deare coun- try, hath made me willing , whom the Lord hath vouchfafed this great and excellent calling to becte downe, as much as in me lieth , fourecapitali fins of this land,prophane Swearing , beatify Drunkenneffc, filthy VVhordome,and corruptingBribery; bothbe. caufe they are fo odious and abominable in Gods fight, that theymake our whole country Iiable to his wrath, and to Rand indangered to the. fearefullett of bis iudgements; and al fo becaufè I perceíue that they are in the wane ,but in the increafe; and that like frettingcankers,they fpread further andfurtherin the bodyof our State ; fo that if thole members which are already infeEed bee not either cured by Gods Minitiers, or cut off by his lawful' Magiftrates, it is tobe feared that thefe fores offinne will grow defpe- rate, and part hope ofany cure. The whichmy poo~e labours I defired fhould offer themfelues veto the publike view vider the fafe-guard of your honora. ble patronage, beeing mooued thereunto both by mine owne lone , and your fitneffe : my loue towards your Honours, being chiefelygrounded upon your loue towardsGod , and to his true religion , fhewed both in your holy profeflion and ChriftianpraCtife, bath imboldnedme tokaue veto the worldthis per- petual; teftimonyof your worth , and mygoodwill, and 'naked) me beleeue, that thefe my workes fhrow- ded

THE EPISTLE DEDICATORY. ded vnderyournames Thal find withyou kindaccep= tance,notvpon prefumption of their worth, but be- caufe it is thenatureof loue tocaufe a man hopefully to expeâ for correfpondency of affehion in them whom it loueth,thoagh there be almofl no proporti- on in defers . Neither could I find fitter patrons for treatifes of this nature; forwho are more fit then the vertuous and religious to defend and countenance fuch difcourfesas tend to the vpholdingand aduan- cingofvertue and pietie , and to the fuppreßîng and beating downe of vice and wickedneffe?andwhoare more able to daunt the courages of the vicious and malicious, which aredaily ready towreck their fpight vpon thofe who inueigh againfl their darling firmes, then they, wholevertuous difpofition is bothgraced and ftrengthened with honour and eminency of place, andalfo with the gracious :fauour ofour dread Soueraigne .? As therefore I haue refpe6iuelydedi- cated thefemy labours vnto your Honours,toaccept them with your wonted kindneffe, and vouchfafe themat your leafures your perufall , andme your ho-, nourable fauours; fo fhail I be more and more boúd topray vnto the Lord, that hewil grant vnto your Honors a daily increafe ofgrace_ and true gonor in this world,and eter- nail gloryandhappineffe inthe world to come. Your Honoursin all bumble dutietobecommanded, 'JOHN DOVVNAMFc.

tsT tomimto. vigez TO THECHRISTIAN READER. Hrillian Reader, I haue endeuoured to difeouer and lay open the vglie filthi- ne,and hainous wickednefe of foure fumes, wherewith our land is much corrupted anddefiled ;namely, the abu- f s of Uthes in vaine fwearing and impious forfwearing , Drunkennef lvhoredome, and Briberie . I am not ignorant how dfl.flfull theft difcourfs will he to their palats, whohauealreadie relli fhed thefweetnefofthefeftones, anddoeJlillnuzzle them in their bofomes , as their dearefl darlings . But Ihaue al- readie learned, that ifit bee the chiefeend ofmylabours to plea fmen,IJhall but therebyget this tefimonievntomine owneconfcience, that Iam nottheferuant of I efitsChrifl: yet mayI truely fay thusmuch for the anfwering ofallcam uilsandcalumniations , that I hauenot willingly intended todifleafe anyman,but haue labouredto aduance thegood efall . For Godand mine owne confcience can bearemee witnef, that I hauenot in anyfpleneticke andftyricall humour, aimed at the difrace of any mans perfon, profef?ion,or callmg,bat hauebadmineonely guarel againfl theirfinne, nor yet difoueredtheir nakednef that they may be laughedto [corne; but that themfelues taking notice ofit,may hide it , and turning fromtheirfinnes by true re- pentance,

Att.10.33. To the ChriflianReader. tance,may efcape thofe judgements which they haue defer= tied inthedaieofGods viftation . Ifany notwithtanding rrly juts apologiefhallyet take exceptions, they Mall but by their kickingPhew that I rubon theirfore,andby their com.- playning manifefs their guiltinef ; for inparticular Iac- cufe none,whodoenotJiandaccufedbeforeGod , by the te- Jlzmcnie of their ovine confcciences. And theftofall others baue leafscauJè tobe ofended, f eing ifatall 1handle them roughly, it isnot tohurt ,but to cure themoftheir wounds offinne, which otherwife mightfefser to their defsruttion. eAnd thuspraying that thefeand all other my laboursmay tendto Godsglorie , andthefaivationofhis eleét , I corn mend thee to gods protetíion, andunto thewordof his grace,which is able tobuild thee further, and togiue thee an inheritance among themwhich are fantlfied. From Lothburiein ,London the thirtith ofoetober. 4nno Dorn. 1608. rhinein theLord. D;

á A TREATISE OF SWEARING :WHEREIN IS SHEWED THE LAWFVL VSE OF an oth,andalfo thediners abufes thereof, both by vaine fwearing , and im- pious forfwearing. CHAP. I. whatanoth is,snd o f thedistersformes,ceremoniesandends thereof. Lthough it is not my purpofe, in this my $. SeEt, r: difcourfeof fwearing, t-o irrtreate copioufly The maine and fully of the dottrine ofothes, and of lope ofihis all queílions coincident thereunto, which treatufe. would require a larger tra6tate , then one fo bounded within the flraits of time, and di- flraetedwith multitude ofbufineffe can conueniently pub- lifh; and isnot fo neceffary, °becaufe manyothers haue ex- cellently and happily laboured in this argument; but prin- cipally to fpeake againfl theabufeof othes , byvaine fwea- ring and impious forfwearing, whereby the glorious name ofGod is exceedingly difhonoured in our times: yet for- afinuch as contraries compared and oppofed doe bell il- luttrate one another , and left together with the lawleffe a- bufe,I fhould feeme to take away the laudable and lawfull vfe of (wearing; l will briefly touch the principal) points ofthis common place , and efpecially thofe whichmake ,way to that difcourfe of vnlawfull othes, which I chiefly intend. And

2 Ceremonies andrites vfed in(wearing. § SeEt.2. Andfir[I to begin with the generall definition : An oth tr What aft ct{, a religiousandfolemne atteftattonof gods holyname, whereby ° we inuocate him as awitnefe andfurety to confirme the truthof our f#eech;and ar a lodge to puntfh vs ifweBeak!falfcy. Ofthis there are diners formes,and diuers ceremonics.In repe&ofthe diners formes,an oth is either Pimple & dire&, or compound and indire&. Simple,when aswe plainly and direó }1y call God to witneffe . So the Apo[Ile,Rom.1.9. God is my witnefewhom Iferise inmy (j'irit. &c. Compound, when as there is a praier or-pawne annexed. The praier annexed to an oth is either the defire of fome good; as,Sogod helpe,faue,orprofperme:orthe imprecatió offome euill ifwe fweare falfely,as, Goddoefo,orfovnto me, if I doe not fpeake the truth. So alfo inour othes we fome- times pawne and pledge vntoGod thofe things which are deere vnto vs,as it were fureties ofour truth;:as,Bymyfoule, by myfaith, &c. that is,I pawne my foule & faithvnto God, for the confirmationof this truth So lofeph fwoe by the life Gcn.4i..t ç. ofPharaoh, Gen. 1.2. 15. and Paul,t. Cor.15.3 i . By ourre- i,Cor ts, ;t. tvycing which l,hasein Chrit term our Lord,' die daily. §. SeE1.3. The ccremonici,vfed in fwearinghaue bin diners indicers Ceremonies & times.In 4brahams time when they took an oth they lifted rite vfedin vp their hand towards heauen; thereby fignifying that they (wearing. fwore by him whofe thronewas feated in the higheil hea- Gen.tq.zz uens. The like ceremony wasvfed by the Angel,Dan.i 2.7. .9bcn. So alfo inferiours inthe fame time fwearingvnto their fupe. Ezra. riours and Mailers, put their hand udder their thigh, by Gen za, z. & which ceremony they fignified their fubie&ion, and that 4'2=9 they bound themfelues to perpetual) feruitude,if they did not fpeake truly. InSalomons timewhen as,they took an oth they touched i,King 8, 31. theAltar, thewhich ceremony was alfo vfed amongeil the Gentiles; whereby was fignihed that they did call him to witneffewhowas worfhippcdwith facrifices offeredvpon thofeAltars. The lewes ashen they folemnly fvvore by Gods holy name,vfed to touch theBible , the which ceremony is alfo in vfe in thefe times;whereby is fignified that they çall him

The time ends ofa lawful! oth. 3 as witnef{1e, who is the author ofthefe holyScriptures ; and that as the contents of this holy bookeare of vndoubted and certaine truth , fo that whichthey deliuer is oflike na- ture,and free froth all vntruth and falfhood. And thus haue I briefly (hewed what an odi is,together § Sea+ with the formes and ceremonies thereof.Now theends why The endsofaa it was infiituted and ordained,were firfl and principally that oth. Godmight be glorified , whenas by anothhe is appealed ontoas the fupreme Iudge ofheauen and earth, and his om- nifcience,truth, iuf}ice &powerisacknowledged. Second- ly,that truthand iufiice might-be maintained and preferued in things fecret and vnknowne for when all other argu- mentsand reafons arewanting to demonfiratea waighty and neceffary truth , then God, whois the fearcher ofthc heart and reines,the patrone of truth and reuengeroffalfe- hoód,is inuocatedas a witneffeaboueall exceptions.Third- ly,anóthwas ordained to maintaine truth, peace, concord and iuflice,and to put an end toall doubts & controuerfies, as the Apofile fheweth, Heb. 6.16. Forwe canhaueno fur- Heb.6,, therappeale when as the matterbath beene decided before the fupreme Iudge ofheauen andearth;neither canwe bring any fironger argument for proofe , then when we produce God as ourwitneffe toglue teltimony toour fpeeches,who is the alone fearcher ofthe heart and fecretthoughts . And thereforean oth is fitly called the greateft proofeamong(} men to confirme theirfpeeches , and the Chriflians rack e, Plartareb. wherby thoughhebe the Lords freeman,he mayneuerthe- om.gKSft leffe beenforced to confeffe anyhidden truth.And lafily,for the commongood ofmankind,bothofourneighbours,and anour felues : for our neighbourshaue good and benefit by our othes,when as therby theyare perfwaded tobcleeue a neceffary truth, or when their right is defended, and their good name preferued fromRanders and fallimputati ons; in which refpe1allo the benefit of ouroth redoundeth toour felucs,when either our owne name or right is called in que- flion, we wanting other reafons andmeans tomaintaine them againft iniuryand iniufiice. B 2 CHAP.

4 That it is lawful! to take anoth inforcecafes. CHAP. IT. That it is lawful to take an oth contrary to thedoctrine of the cilfantchees and e4nabaptifs. Euertheleffe ,howfoeuer alawfull oth is the ordinance of God, & apart ofhis worship, tending to the aduancement of his glory,& to the furtheringof our own,& our .neigh- , hors good,yet the -Manichces ofold, & the Anahaptifl:s oflatter daies,haue firnply con-: deinned ai maner of fwearing both publike and private , as euil and vnlawful.But that this their opinion is falfe,hereti- call and wicked,it may euidently appcare by thefe reafons: Firff,becaufe a lawful! ot1i is a part ofGodsworffhip and fer= uice,which is exprefly commanded in his word. 'Forv\ here as in the third Commandementhee forb.iddeth to takehis name in vaineby vfuall or falle fwearing,there in the afhr- matiue part he inioyneth thatwe should vfe the holy name ofGód in a lawful! oth , for the letting forth of his glory: and thus this commandement is expounded by Mofesand the Prophets.So Deut.6.t 3.Thoufhaltfeare the Lord thy God andfertie him,and¡haltfweare by his name. AndDeut. to.2o. Efa. 65. t6. 11ethat'hall bleffein the earth,(hall bieffe himfelfe in the true God , andhe thatfweareth in theearth,fhall f veare icrem.4.4 by the true God. Iere.q.z.Thou shaltfirearethe Lord liueth,in trot h,in iudgement,and in righteoufneffe. Yea fo excellent and neceffary a part of Gods feruice is a lawful! oth,that fometimes it is put for his whole worship. pfal.63 Pfal.63..1 t. All thatfweare by himfhalreioyce before him,that is,all that wòrfhip'and ferne him So Efa. t 9.t 8. it is laid that the Egyptians f all f eake the language ofCanaan, andfhall swear' by theLord of hof'es'; that is, shall make profeflion of his true religion.And çhap.48. t .Hearo this O houfe oflatcob, whichfweareby oftheLord: that is,profefíc the. reli- gion ofthe trueGod. So that alawfuil oth is a finguIar p" art of his worship, which,. 11 S. Sea. t. That all maner offroearing is notcondemned. Deut.6.13. and t o.zo. Esa 65.16, Efa 19.18. and 48.1.

Pat it is lawfall to take anoth infame cafes. 5 which,as occafion ferueth , he will mot haue omitted : and ' 14 'fa tieb therefore he not only commandeth it but alfo hath fworne Ü apmrt; of y 'God: wvIf oft that thole whoworship him fhall fweare byhis name : Efa. 45 Z 3 I hauefworne by myfelfe , &c. that emeryknee/hakbow Efa 45.23, 'untome,andeuery tongue8íallfweare6/ me.Whickdutie that they may be incouraged to performe , he hath promifed to reward it in this life : Ierenr.I2.i6.Iftheywil`learne the waies ¡eresmo. ofmypeople,tofweareby myname, the Lord lineth &c.thenJ'4l they de built in themiddeft ofmypeople: and in the life to come with eternalbhappineile : for he that fweareth and changeth not , though it be to his ovine hindrance, he ihall.dwell in Gods holieuiountaine.Pfal. I' Secondly ,a lawful' othis commendable, becaufe ir ten- § Sec`l3 -deth; to the aduancernent of Gods glorie,andthe good of°;,'',.;;;;d3 pwuü mankinde. God in a.lawfull oth is glorified : firft,becaufe . therein we acknowledge his omniprefence ; for in vainedo wecal God to:witnefhe,vnleffe he were-prefent euerywhere and readie to heave vs.. Secondly,hisomnifaence : for when we cal God to wit - neffe of our fecret a6 ions, thoughtsand intentions , which can by. noother meanes bedemonflrated, we acknowledge that lie is ofinfinite knowledge , and that nothing is hid fob4Zz from htrn,that he is the fearrher.of the heart and reines,and t fal.i39;2' that all things -lie naked in his view. Ierc.i7.Io Hcb.4.1 3, Thirdly,his truth is acknowledged when as men appeale vnto him as vnto avvitneffe who cannot deceiucnor bede- ceiued , andwho (peaking the truth himfelfeBoth alsode- fend it inothers,andpunifh the contrary falfhood. Laflly, his iuflice andpower is ina lawfull oth confeffed and acknowledged , whenas we appeale veto him as a wit neffe of infallible truth,and vrapartiial.l iuflice,whowill giue a 41(1 t,eftinronie without refpcel ofperfons ; and as vnto an vpright and molipowerfall Iudge, who is able topatronize and reward truth,and to punifh falihoodand vntrutha. Secondly, it is profitable for men, becaufe it is the chicfc confirmation of our affurance in any truth, and more to be"! 1::f a oth. profitable credited, and, refpeaed.,then the, molt manife( arguments f11f yea, and tzucft witneffes that can be produced: 4ndítherefore the B ipof{l

6 `Tat it4 lawfull to talean oth infamecafe. iicb.6. 16. Apoffle faith , that an oth for confirmation is the end ofall flrife,Heb.6. t6. And confequently great is theprofit which itbringeth to mankinde, fceing it is a notable meanes,not only for the maintaining oftruth and iuflice,butaliofor the taking away of difcord & diffenfions, and for the eftablifhe ing ofpeace andChritlian friendíhip. § sett. Laffly,thevfe ofa law full oth is not only warranted,but the vie fa alfo commended vnto vs by manifold exáples in the Scrip.. lawf4loth tures . As firfl,the Saints and holy men ofGod,for the con.- warranted b, firmation of neceffary& vndemonftrable truths,and to put 4x1017p!er, an end tocontrouerfies anddiffenfions, hauevied to fiveare one to another: As Abraham and Ifaac toAbimelech,laco` toLaban,Iofephto Jacob, Dauidto Jonathan, Elias to Oba- diah, and manyothers. And left it fhouldbe obieted,that howfoeuer theywere holy Saints ofGod, yet theyweremc", &might therfore erre;we are further toknow, that the holy menofGod as they were the pen-men of holy Scripture, immediatly infpired by the holyGhoff, andconfequently exempted from all error and fin, did in thepenningofthe Scriptures confirme the truth of Godby a lawful' andpious Rem.z,yand oth,Examples hereofare manifold : Rom.T.9.God is mywit- 9T ne/fe,who Ifersee inmyfpirit.And9.t.1fay the truth in Chrifl, Ilienot,my confciécebearingmewitnefe in theholy Ghof.The likeplaceswe haue,T.Cor. i 5.3 t.2. Cor. z.23.and z 7.3z.and J2.19.Gal.1 .1o. Phil.t.S. t.Thef.t.ç.io.s.Thef.2.t. So likewife the holy Angels,who arepriuiledged from fin -anderror, haue vied the name of their great Lord &Mafler in fwearing by it.Dan. t 2.7. it is laid that theAngel held vp Dan.T1.'. his right hand andhis left handvnto heauen, fh-' fnare byhim thatliuethforeuer.SoApoc.t o.5.6. But what fhould I fland,6'vpon theexample of the creatures , when as the greatCrea- tor of heauen and earth hath approoued the holyvfc ofan Gen.zz.i6 oth inhis owne pradiife ? Genet; 22. t G. By my felfehaue l f rorne(faith theLord) becaufe thou hall done this thins, &c. Numb.z4. 2,13, Numb. 14.28.fls lliue (faith theLord)Iwillfïurely doeunto you euen asyehaue#uken inmineBares.So Pfal. t t o.4.and t; 2 t 1. Efa.T4.24. and 45.23. and 54.9,Iere.44. 26. Luk. 1.73. Rom,14.1 i.Heb.6.r 3.16. Againk

That it k lawf4.11 to take an oth infame cafe:. Againhl tliis the Anabaptifis obie& the rayingof our Sa- §.Sert.6. ulour,Mat.chap.s.' e.34. Ent Ifay vntayou,fwearenotat all, 4nobicóóssn neither by heauen,forit is the throne ofgod,&c. Whence they outá/ gather, that howioeuer (wearing was vfed and allowedvn- der the Law,yet no manner of othes are lawful! in the time ofthe Gofpell.Towhich I anfwere,that their interpretation ofthefe words is both wicked and abfurd:firfl,becaufc they hereby make this Scripture contradi& other places, which dir&Aly inioyne ala vfull oth. Secondly, hereby theymake Chrifl condemnc the pra6tife ofhis holy Saints,and cuen of thepen-menofthe holy Scriptures, yea of God the Father himfelfe,as before hath bin (hewed. Yea they make Chri(ts precept contrary to his owne praaife,for he himfelfe vpon waighty occafion vied that earneP and folemne afieuerati- on, Amen, Amen; Verily, verily: which though itfl;ould be nooth,as the Apofile fcemeth to imply that it is, Heb.6. Heb.8.r4.. r 4.yet is it at leali a vehement affeueration,andconfequent- ly more then , yea ,yea , and nay , nay. And moreouer,they make our Sauiour to contradi& his owne words,verfe 77. wherehe faith,that he came not to deflroy the Law or thePro phets,but tofulfili them : for ifhe fhould take away the vfe of a lawful! oth, he fhould dcPrroy part of the Morall law,. which inioyneth it as a part ofGods feruice,& confequent- lyfhould fpoile God his Father of a part of his.worfhip, which was not only required vnder the Law,bttt alto it was . foretold that the Church of Chril thould alfò vfe it in the time ofthe Gofpell :Efa. i9.i8.and 65.76 Thirdly,hereby Efa.r91'1S.& theyouerthrow the law of' natureand nations, whichefla- 65.16, blifhed a lawfull'oth in waighty and neceflary caufes,euen before the lawofMofes,as appeareth in the (lorieofthe Pa- triarchs.Laliy,they hereby weaken truth,by plucking from. it the chiefeband whereby it is (irengthened and confirmed; they take away the meanes to .end controuerfies , and toge- ther with it peace, amitie, andagreement,& fo leaue a wide.: dooreopen to icaloufe, fufpition, difcord anddiffenfione, This interpretation therefore is not tobe receiued,but ra- §,Sefi.7. thet another which admitteth no:rx of the former abfurdi- Mach.s.z4 ties,expew ded?

g That it %r lazyfull to tdl! dtfeth infOxle catch. ties , and better agreeth with the maine drift and fcope of aria in this place . Now the drift of Chritt was not to take away thevfe ofan oth, and fo to difanull a part of the law, agaìnawhich in the 'beginning ofhis fpeech he proteged, but to vindicate and free it from the corrupt gloíles &: falle expofirions ofthe Pharifies; who tooke away the fpirituall vnderftanding which is the chiefe life of law , and expoun- ded the Commandements ( like the Papifis in theredaies)in a literall and groffe fente onely,namely,ofthe outward fact alone in the groffea kinde.For example,that the fixthCoin- mandement onely forbiddeth aótuall killing; the feuenth, actuall vncleanneffe ; and the third, periurie and falfe fwea-i ringby the name ofGod.For howfoeuer they had the name ofGodhimfclf in fomeoutward reuerence,yet they taught that it was lawfull to fweare in their ordinary communica- tionby the creatures,vAhich didnot immediatly appertaine toGods worfhip and feruice,as the heauens , the earth , the altar,theirhead,and fuch like; becaufe the Commandement onely forbiddeth to take the name of the Lord our God in vaine. And fecondly, they taught that ifa man had fworne by there creatures anddid not keepe his oth,yet he finned not,becaufeit is i:aid;Leuit. 19.12. Teefhdllnotfweare by my Leuit.19.12: namefalfely,neitherfhalt thoudefile the name ofthy God. And this appearethboth in the 5.and 23.Chapters ofMat. where 14ath.5.& 23' Chrift laboureth to confute this falfe doctrine, and to re- forme there abufes.In the fifth Chapter,andverfe 3 3.he pro- poundeth'their do6Irine; Tee haue heard that it was Paid to themof"old'time,7hou(halt not forfweare thyfelfe , but (halt performe thine other to the Lord:but Ifay vntoyou, fwearenot atal,neither byheauen, for it is the throneofGod, &c. Where he fheweth that they had in their doctrine condemned for- fwearing,andnot vaine fwearing,and this falfe (wearing by the sameofGodalone,and not by thecreatures . So in the 1íat,z3,r6.17. 23. Chapter, verfe 16. 17. 18. they taught that theymight fweare by the Temple , by the Altar, and by their head,and that all this wás not`hit3g.; iieitherih regard of their vaine fwéärMg,nór yet forfwcaringby thefe .creatures . Now our Sauiour

° That it is & till to take anoth infame cafés. 9 Sauiour laboureth to free thepure law of God from thefe fpots oftheir falfe interpretations,& fheweth,that not On- lyhe who had (laine a man was a murtherer, but heewho hadbeene vniuflly angry withhint in hisheart,and hadre- uiled hirewithhis tongue,that he alto was an adulterer be- fore Godwho in his heart had lufted after a vvoman,as vvel as hewhohad lienwith her. So likewife he refuteth their falfe do&rine concerning othes,andfheweth that we muff not in our ordinary com- munication fweare at all, nonot by the creatures, beeaufe in thefe othes the name of God is obliquely & indirectly taken in vaine , there remaining in them fome prints and chara&ërs"ofGodspower &Maiefly: for they who fweare by heauen,fweare indirectly by God,becaufe heauen is his throne ; fo they that fweareby the earth,fweare altoby him,becaufeit is his footfloole;& in likemanner theTem. ple andAltar belong to his worfhip,andour heads theyare his workmanfhip ; andconfequently his name in them is taken invainebyvfual fwearing in ordinary communica- tion,andmuchmore inperjury and falfe fwearing, though not direCtly,yet indire6tly andobliquely. But they further vrge that our Sauiour expreflyforbid- §. Sett.S. dethvs to fweare at all,and thereforewemuff not fweare The farmereb- neither bythe creatures,nor byGodhimfelfe,neither truly ieelionfurther norfalfly,neither in ordinary communication, noryet be- urged and an- fore aMagiftrate. Towhich I anfwere,that thefe words,at ju'`red. al,arenot to be referred to the oth it felfe,as thoughChrifa fhould forbid to fweare in all cafes, which reference,as I hauefhewed,implieth manyabfurdities ; but it is tobere- ferred to the forme and manner ofthe oth, namely,that we muffnot fweareat all falfly,rafhly,andvfually in our ordi- nary cornmunication,neither direlyby the name ofGod, nor indire&ly by the creatures,whichnotwithf}anding the Pharifies taught to be lawful.For that our Sauiourfpeaketh here only ofprivate othes it is manifcft,in that they didnot in their publike othes before the Magifhates fweareby the creatures,but by the name ofGodalone.And fo alfo it may C be

I o That it may be lawfull tovfe aprimate oth. bee gathered out of the text it felfe : for he faitla,let your communication,or ordinary fpeechone to another be,yea yea,naynay : neither Both he forbid them tofweare by the name ofGod,whichwas vfed in publike othes, but by the creatures, namely,the heaucn,earth,altar, &c. s.SeEt.9. Yea,wil force man fay,but howfoeuer publikeothes be- "Tint anotb in fore the Magifirates , and for theconfirming ofnewCon- priiiace maybe uerts in the truth of Chriíiian religion,may be lawfull,yct rrjdlamfùlly. othesarchere vtterly condemned . Ianfwere,that Chrif{here only forbiddeth rafh,vaine andvfual (wearing, when neither the waightinefíe nor neceffity ofthe caufe re- quireth it, as being a matter which is not worth thepro- ving, by filcha foueraigne vitneffe and Iudge;,orwhich may be prouedby other arguments and witneífes . Other- wife in waighty and neceffary caufes, it is lawfull for the confirmationoftruth , the ending ofcontrouerfies,the ta- kingaway ofdoubtings, iealoufies,and fufpitions,and for thepreferuingofa mans goodname and credit, to fweare $ privatly aswel as publikely,feeing themain ends o_fa law- full othareattainedvnto,as well in theoneas in the other. Exampleshereof we haue in Abraham and Ifaacfweating to Abimelech,facob toLaban,Iofeph to Jacob,Dauidto Io- uathan,and inmany others. s.Self. zo. Laftly,theyobie6 thePayingoffames,chap,5 ver.i z But Obiet , aboueall things,my brethren.frreare not,neitherbyheaué,nor 401.5.12, byearth, nor byany otheroth : Asa letyouryeabeyea, &your nay,nay,leflyefailinto condemnation . The which words are all one in fubfiatace with thofeofour Sauiour Chrifts , and thereforeadmit ofthe fame interpretation,a.nd confequ&- ly the obie&ion needeth no other anfwere otherwife lames fhould condetnnePaul , the holyGhofi fhould bee contrary to himfelfe,and allthofe abfurdities before fpo.d kenofmuffneceííarily follow. CA Ii-Pe.

Thatwe ought tofweare by the nameofCodalone. t r CHAP. III. Ofthe obie.Sl oflawfull othes : where is/hewedthat it is only lawfulltofweare by thename ofGod alone. Nd thus haue I /hewed that a man may in fome cafes take a lawfull oth. In thenext placewe are §.Seí`l. r. to Phewwhat othes are lawfull , and what vn- "'thing' lawfull vnto a lawfull oth dicers things are are required to alafuuo.b required , whereof force refpe& the obie& ofour othes, force the end,andTome the manner . In refpe&of the ob- ie& it is required that we fweare onlie by the name ofwemuff!war God;as may appeare by thefe reafons; firfl, becaufe the onety by the Lordbath as ffraitly commanded vs to fweare byhim a- trueG tithe lone,as to worfhip & feruehim alone. SoDeut.6. t 3.Thou Drcut.6.r3. (haltfeare theLord thy God andferue him, and/haltfweare ly his name.Efa.45.23. I haste f rornebymyfelfe,&c. that e- Efa.45.z3. eery kneefhal bow vntome, and emery tonguefhallfweare by and 6$.m6. me.And65. t 6.Mc thatJhallblcffein-theearth,fhalblebhim. felfe in the true God, andhee thatfweareth in the earth,(hall fwearby thetrugod.And contrariwife the Lordbath f}ri&- ly forbiddenvs to fweare by anyother bekdes himfelfe,as Io£z appeareth, Iof. 23. 7. Makenomention ofthename oftheir 3' gods,nor caufe tofweare by them,neither ferue them, norbow vnto them; which when the peopleofIfrael negle&ed,the Lord threatneth topunifh them for it. Ter. 5.7. Howfhalll ier. 5 7 tare theefor this ? thychildren haueforfaken me,and f vorne 6y them that arenogods.Exod.z3.t 3. Secondly , a lawfull Exod.2,3. 13. oth is a part of Gods worfhip,as being akind ofinuocati- on,and therefore they commit grofhe Idolatrie who glue it to any other . Thirdly , all our ablions muftproceed from faith groundedvpon Gods word , but in the wholeScrip- tures we haue nowarrant, neither by precept nor exam- plc,to fweare direly by any thing fauingby the name of God , or to call either Angel or Saint as witneffe to confirme adoubtful truth. For whereas it is obiecIed that lofeph fworcby the life §. Sell.t; ofPharaob,and that therefore it is law full to fweare by the ofio1cpbs otb C 2 creatures;

§.SeE.3. Whether we may'Je the name of a creature in our 'then. ,Sae:i.t,a6. and zs,iz. §.SeEf.4. Our tithes are vnlawfull whenwe [weave by any tbingbefrdes tht tree God, or ioyneany thingwith him, 12 rhat we ought tofweareby thenameof god alone. creatures;vnto this we mayanfwere,Fitft that Iofeph to the end hemight continue vnknowne vnto his brethren, took vpon him the cuftotne ofthe Epyptians, and therein finned through infirmity, & therefore his example is no prefident for vs. Secôdly,Iofeph may be excufed by the mauer ofhis fpeech ; for he doth not fay by the life ofPharaoh, butPha- raoh liueth,or,fo let Pharaoh liue,as you (hall not go hence; which is not properly an oth , but a praier added to an oth,whereinhe defireth God to grant that Pharaoh might ascertainely liue, as they fhould not depart . Fourthly, whatfoeuer we fweareby, that we deifie , in communica- ting vnto it Gods incommunicableattributes, as his otn- niprefence , omnifcience, omnipotence, wherebyhe can powerfully prote& his truth,and punifhall falfhood , all which are fopeculiar to God as that they cannot be com- municated withany creature. But is it then fimply vnlawfull to vfe the name of any creature in our othes? I anfwere, that it is vnlawfull to fweare by them firuply& dire&ly ; neuerthelelfe theymay be lawfully vied ina compound forme ofan oth , when as Godbÿthem is inuocated,as whenwe pray for louse good tobefal vs,or themwho are deare unto vs, upon the con- ditiô ofour truth:or imprecate fonne euill,ifwe (peak fall- ly,or when we oblige thofe things of which wee make greatefl efleeme to Gods iuftice, as fureties of our truth,. Examples whereofwehaue i.Sam i.aG.and 25.22. In refpe& thenof theobie&we fweare lawfully, whêwe fweareby the true Iehoasah onely , and confequently our othes arevnlawful,whé as we fweare diree?lyby any other. thing . In which regard thereare two kinds ofvnlawfull othes ; firfi, when as we fweare by any thing befides the trueGod ; fecondly,when as in our othes we ioyne any o- ther with him, they whovfe the former kinde offwearing commit themoil impious kindeoftheft, robbingGod of his glory,tobestow it vpon an Idoli : the otherPhew their gracelefle follie in making bate Idols, andf llie creatures,. corrivals inhonour and compeeres in the throne ofiuftice, 'into the Lord, who is the Creator ofheauen & earth,and the

That Weought tofweare by the sameofrodalone. i 3 thefupreme Iudge and foie Monarch ofall theworld . Of the former the Lord accufeth the people of Iuda, Ier.5,7. Ies.5.7. Thy children haueforfakenme, CJ" fworne by them that areno Clods-. Whereby is plainly implied,that they who fwear by any thingbefides the Lord, doe renounce him andhis true worfhip;and for the latter he threatneth deflru6tion,Zeph. zeOh.t 4 5. cut ofthem that worfhip andfweareby theLord, andfweareby Malcham. For theLord being thepeerelelfe foueraigne ofheauen and earth, cannot indure that any o- ther fhould haue,or (hare with him inhis glory,as himfelfe altoprofeffeth,Eia.48. i t. Efa.48.t t. Here therefore are condemnedall othes-which arenot by §.SeEt.s. the name ofthe trueGod;ofwhich thereare many kinds: pettieand lira thofe petty,diminutiue, & childifh othes which are fo dbitd:/h cthes much in vfe in thefe daics ; bodkin , lakin , by cock, bymy vntawful4 fey,and fuch like ;; al which are the fruits ofignorance and fuperflitió : for men feeing the vnexcufableeuil ofpropha- ping the gloriousname ofGod,in their ordinarycommu. nication,vpon euery trifling occafion,and hauing fo enu- red their tongues to fwearing , that they thinke there is a kindofneceflity ofvfing fornekind ofothes,either for or. nament offpeech,or togainemore creditto their words; they imagine that Godwil excufe them ifthey donot di- redly take hisname in vaine,but vfe only thefe trifling and pettieothes in their ordinarie fpeech . But what is this but to left withholy things, and to mocke the Lord whowill not bemocked ? As thoughhe regarded thepronunciati- on and outward found more then the oth it felfe, or being difpleafed,to haue his titles &attributes commonly vied, fhould becontented to haue them nick-named in a ridica- lous manner . What is it but quite to ouerthrow the law- ful! vfe ofan othwhich is ordained byGod, onely for the confirmation ofaweighty and neceffary truth,and not to hevfed ordinarilie, and vpon euery trifling occafion ? fo that ifthe matterbe light and vaine, we muff not fweare at all; if fo mighty that we may lawfully fweare,then like- wife is it lawful! to vfe the glorious name ofGod in a holy and religious manner. C 4 5econdlyq

14 That we ought tofweitre by the name ofClad alone, Secondly,here is condemned fwearing by the creatures;. §, '5°51' 6' asby the Sunne,light,fire, bread,and fuch like:which kind Asa ofothes were in vfe among the Pharifies , as our Sauiour theCY ^atlßYei condemned. fheweth, Math. 5, and x 3. and are commonlyvied among(} Mach, ;.and ignorant worldlings in thefe daies ; wherein as they rob as- God ofhis glory, and as it were fpoile the Creator to en- rich the creature,fodoe they hereby exceedingly difhonor themfèlues,in that being their fuperiours by creatiorr,they make themfelues inferiour unto them in fwearing by them: for as theApoftle fpcaketh , menfwearebyhim that is grea- ter then themfelues , and make them their Iudges,whom .6..z6, Godhath Made their feruants,.- §.Sec`t.y. Ofthis kinde alfoare Papifticall tithes, by the Angels, Papi/ticall S.aints,andtheir reliques ; by their Idols , the Ma%,Rood, ,othei..condnn and fuchlike; for as they worfhip the Saints by inuocati- uedera vnlam- on , oblations, pilgrimages, &c. fo alfo by fwearing by ful them . The which their pra&ife is impious and.vaine ; the impiety hereofis manifeft,in that theyrob Godofhis glo- rie,and deifie the creatures by afcribingvnto them diuine worfhip;_the.yanity offuch othes herein appeareth, in that theyare idle and bootleffe ; for invaine it is,and to nopur- pole toinuocate ;any tobeare.witneffe.of our truth,and to punifnfalfhood,vnleffe weacknowledge thctirprefent e- uery where , thebeholders of the molt fecret aelions,yea cum the fearchers of the heart and reines,and almighty topatronize truth,and to infli&deferued punifhments vp- on periured perfons : but all thefe are Gods proper and peculiar attributes,whichare not communicablevnto any Saint or Angel for neither are theyomniprefent,omnifci_ ent, nor omnipotent; and therefore it is idle and vaine to inuocate them by an oth, as witneffes of truthandreuen- gersoffalfhood. Sect 8. Thirdly,here is condemned thole blafphemous othcs by is:afphemaue the feuerall parts ofChrif}s body, which arecú vied other condos- by impious men,euen inordinary communication,where- LLd. with as much as in them lieth,they teary= the precious body oflefus Chrifl in peeves andcrucifie him afrefh : or ifthefe blafphemies proceed from fuperflitious ignorance, then this

How4n oth is v111.4111011 in rejJieEt ofthe end. 5. this their prae i.fe is idolatrous , in. that theydeifie the tné- bers ofChrif , by afcribingvntothé,whilefi they fwear by thë,Gods incomunicable attributs.ior hovvfoeuer we may lawfully fweare by Chrifi man, yet it is not lawful tofwear byhis humanity,and_much-lcffe by theparts ofhis body. Lafidy ; here is condemnedHerathenifh tithes by the gods §,SeCt.90 oftheGentiles , which we.are forbidden-fo *nuch as to re- Heathenifh member by their natnes,as appeareth Exo ;2 3. z 3.Hof.2.17.othes tandem- An examplewhereofwe haue in La6an, Gen.; i the Ëdoh z Ifraclits, Ierem. 14.r6. and in many fchollers amongfl our Hof.Za 7. } fclues,who affecting the Latine elegancy,vfe in their ora- Gen.3t I. tions and exercifes Heathenifh othes, as xdipol,mehercule, (cre.14.16. per !omen.: immortalem, &c. But accurfcd be that elegancy which is ioyned with idolatry, & robbcthGodofhis glo- rie,to befiow it vpon Idol's. And fo suchconcerning theobiea'of our othes. Nov §.Sec`s i a. we are briefly to fpeakeofthe end , in regardwhereofit is 0f the ridof a' required,that our oth doth principally refpe& the glory of lawAli ask. God,and fecorxdaril_your owne, or our neighbours good. We glorifieGod inour oth,when as confirming thereby a neceffary truth, -we magnifie his omnifcience, iuftice,and power : -we benefit our (clues , when as we'-tnaintaine our owne right,or defendour owne innocency ; our neighbor, eitherwhen weperfw-ade him tobeleeuea neceffary truth,. or take away-the caufes ofdifcord and contention. In refpe&-therfore of theendwe fweare vnlawfully, whé §,SeE , r r, in taking o.ur othWe doe not refp-e& ,either the glorie OfHarp anorb God,or our oWn,or our neighbours good;as wile.' through?s vnlasrfull rage& anger men btirfi out into fwearing,as though they nd fpc °ftha' would reuenge thesnfelue's-upon God for the iniuries they haue receiued ofrnen; When in-ordinary dealing they c_oft- tenance aprofitáble'lie=bÿ afalfe-oth; and-when fluf fing their- ordin'arie talke with vaine:othes, they affe& the praife of -a generous &couragious fpirit,or leeke for-their othes fake to haue all their words credited.But that is but aweake proofeeitherofGentilitie orNobility, which is a manifeft argument that we are the fl:aues ofSatan it is no- true courage defperatly to leape intohel 6re;,and ordinary £we.aring;

z 6 Theproperties ofa lawful(oth. fwearing is no ligneoftruth ,feeing it vfuallyproceedeth from a guilty conceit oftheir owne want ofcredit : for if they thought their wordworthy refpe6 , to what purpofe mould theyvfe othes?Nay rather vfuall fwearing is afgne of the fwearers falihood ; for therefore they fwearebe- caufe their Pimple word is of no credit . And when they haue done al they can, an honeft mans word is better to be efteetned then all their othes, namq:si deierat peierat; he that often fweareth,often forfweareth. CHAP. II1I. Ofthe properties of a lawfull cth. +,01 Nd fo much for the end of our othes. In re- _ fpe6t ofthe mauer, wefweare lawful!y whé we fweare in truth,iuflicc , and fudgement; al which are required vnto a lawful oth by Iere.4.:. the Lord himfelfe : Iere. 4. z. Andthou 'halt fweare the Lordliueth,intrstth,inisadgement, and rn righteoufnefe. Firfl, it is required that we fweare in truth , that is, firft ) ive muff that in our oth,our fpeech agree with the thing : & fecond- fwearin trutb ly,our minde with our fpeech.And contrariwife we fweare vnlawfully,whenwe faile in either of thefc; that is, when we fweare a thing that is falfe,or falfly. A thing falfe,when as we fweare an vntruth , the fpeech difagreeing with the thing; which is done purpofely or vnaduifedly. Falfly,whé as we fweare the truth , but deceitfully and with a purpofe todeceiue,the heart and tongue not agreeing togethcr,the which finne is forbidden and condcmned,Leuit.z 9.1z.and Leuit.r912, punifhed withGods fearefull curfe , Zach. 5.4. Neuerthe- Zach.5.4. lefle, howfoeuer this be condemned as a great fin in Gods word,aud abhorred as a deteflable pra&ife euen arnongfl the ancient Heathens ; yet it is iuflified as lawfull by the Papil+s , both in their pralife andwritings ; who auouch that a man may vfe inhis othes , equiuocations,andmen- tali referuations,wherein oftentimes the mind and tongue are oppofed toone another in flat contrariety. And

Theproperties ofa l4wfsall otk. 17 And this is that false fwearing,which in the word ofGod is principally condemned,and therefore to be of all Clari- ftians auoided,as being a mother finde, who in her fruitfull wombe containethdiuers itnpieties,and a compound wic- kednef e,comprifing in it diuers enormous tranfgreffions; as hereafter (hall appeare. The fecohdpropertic required to a lawful oth,is that we g, 3ea.z. fweare in iufiice,which propertybathhis fpecial place in a 2..kve promifforte oth; winchwhen wemake,we are carefully to fwearen takeheed, that that which byoth we promise, be iuf}and :Mace lawful' ; otherwife we are not to fweare it, or hawing fwvrne,not to performe it :for an och ought not tobe the bond of iniquitie ; and , as one faith, thofe othes are lau- dably broken , which are vnlawfully made . In this re- fpeet therefore our oth is vnlawfull, when as thereby we promife any thingwhich is vniufi and vnhonefi , whether it appeare vntovs prcfently whenwe make the oth , or af- terwards . For this is a horrible wickedneffe,when as we make God not onelyawitnef e,but alto our furetie,that wewill performe an vniuft or vnhostefi a&ion . And fuch was theoth ofVauid, T. Sam. z5.2 i. ofGehezie,2. King.5. i.Sam.zS. 2r. Zo. of .4chab, 2. King. 6. 31. ofthe Iewes,A .23.t 2. And zKing. s :O, fuch is the oth of the Popi(h Clergie, who not hawing the ZK'''g 6'3 ' gift of continencie,vow virginity ; and ofthofe,whobe- A`'Z'lx' ingyoung,fweare themfelues to the CIoiders againfi their parents will &c. So ifafter the oth is made, we finde that there is impietie and iniufice in it ,which we did not dif- couer at the making thereof; thenfirth an oth is rather to be broken then obferued; for we finne not inbreaking, but inmaking of it . Whereas he thatperformeth fuch an oth,addeth finne vnto fume, that is to fay, veto rafhnèffe in (wearing, wickedneffe in performing : as we may fee in the example of Herod,who after hehad made a wicked oth, did performe it with greater wickedneffe And this M ßè ar,6.13* Dauid knewwell, and therefore he made no confcience of breaking that vnlaw full oth, whichhe hadvnconfcion a- bly iriade,as appeareth i.Som.z 5.21.3. .D The

g-.Sett.;. 3, We tsufi fweareán it:dg went. Itere.4 I.á. Math.5.34. PIutarcó, uRfi. Rara. Theproperties op Cow f ill oth. The third property required to a lawful! 8th is,that we fweare in iudgement, that is,that we vie the nameofGod inour othes,reuerently,and holily,confcionably,and with great deliberation and circumfpeÒtion.And fecondly,that we vfe it fparingly,vvhen as weare neceffàrily vrged there- unto.As when theperfonvnto whomwefweare,can no o therwife be perfwadedofaneceffary truth;wh-e as the truth cannot be demonfirated,by reafon,tefiimony,or other ar- guments ; when as it is neceffary for the adtiancement of Gods glory,orfor the furthering offome charitablework, either publik.eor private, refpe&tingeither our neighbour or our felues: Forfeeing an oth is not abfolutelygood but vpon the condition of neceffity, therefore we nut} not fweare but when fovne neceffary caufe confiraineth vs;for, bonasmneceffarinmextra terminas neceftatisnon ofbarium: that is, a neceflarygood is not good but when it is necef- fary. And hence it is,that the Hebrew word vied for fwea- ring being pafliue, fignifieth tobe fworne rather then to fweare whereby is implied that we are nor to take-an oth, as voluntary agents, but onlyas patients, when as necefli. ty vrgeth vs thereunto , as Pagnine hath obferued . We therefore fwearevnlawfully, when as we donot fweare iii judgement, that is, whenwe fwearevnreuerently., rafhly; and vnneceffarily; inwhichrefpe&menprincipally offend whenas noneceflityvrging them, vponeuery flight occa- fion,idely,rafhly, and vainly they prophane the holy name of God in their ordinary communication . The which manner of fwearing iuflified by the Pharifies, Chrifi con, demneth, Mat. 5.34And theApof}le !ames.diffwadeth fr6 it,Iam. 5. i 2. Yea euen the Heathens themfelues whohad only the light of nature to be their guide, did diflike this vaine and rafh fwearing by their Idols and falfe gods. And therefore, asPlutarch recordeth, the Romans would not fuffer their children to fweare by theIdol Hercules within dores , but inioined them firth to goabroad, that hereby they might refiraine them from rafh fwearing,and giue vn- to them time to deliberate oftheir ot1.i.. Nóty-

:goal other areabufed'byvain flyetring. 19 Notwith(landing,howfoeuer theLordhath flraitly for - §.Sett.4. bidden and -condemned this fnne, and though the Hea- ofnrophane (hens themfelues made force confcience ofit,yet this hor- andvame fwearing ixer. rible prophanation of Gods holy naine fo exceedingly dinaky CM. raigneth in our times , euen among(l thole whoprofeffemunication Chri(lianity,that by reafon of thefe vaine othes and impi- ous blafphemies,theland mourneth, being oppreffedwith theheauy burthen of this fin, and Gods fearefull iudge- ments whichvfually accompany it, as the Prophet Jeremy Iere.a3, ro .complaineth ofhis times. Neither bath this graceleffevice Tbatallforts ofprophaning Gods name, corrupted force fewperfons in r men c r. this our country,buthath ouerfpreadal fl:ates and conditi- thú nice fb ours of men . Our Magiftrates who fhould re(}raine men vain ¡wearing.. from this finne,by their lawes,examples,and punifhments, I.Magzflratce. make no !awesagainft fwearing , left they fhould preparea net to catch themfelues nor infli&any punilbments up- on offenders in this kind, becaufe their owne confciences are guilty ofthe fame finnes; orto fpeake the beft,becaufe -fuck is the multitude of blafphemers, that they thinke it vaine tomake lawes, feeing there is no likelihood ofexe- cution,there being not enow innocent topunifh the offen- ders And howfoeuer theyfeuerely punifh any reprochfull fpceches vttered againtt themfelues,yet whenGod is blaf- phemed theywinke at it, andkaue the reuenge wholly to himfelfe,faying in their hearts,as haft; faidoftheIdol Ba- Iud.6,3 r al,Iudg.6.3 i.Whyfhouldwe contend inGods caufe ? ifhe be God lethim plead for himfelf, againft thole who blaf- phemhis name.But let fuch know that the Lordwil furely take themat their word ; and howfoeuer throughhis pati- ence he fuffereth long,yet in the endhe wil feuerelypunifh fuchMagiflrates,as make their owne euillpra6life a perni- cious prefident to the people;andfuch alto who hauingau- thority topunifh this fin,do carry the fword in vaine, ne- uer drawing it out againft thefe impious fwearers,no nor fo much as touching them with the fcabberd. §'SeS Our Nobility likewife for themoll part aremuch infectled ö r Neb11it !sled Iv" with this vice,who morecontend to fhew their fpirit and vainefwea- valour by defperate (wearing, then by feates ofacmes; not ring. D 2 caring