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T H E REASONABLENESS O F CONFORMITY T O T H E CHURCH of ENGLAND, Reprefented to the- DISSENTING MINISTERS. In Anfwer to the Tenth Chapter of Mr. Calamy's Abridgment of Mr. Bax- ter's Hifiory of his Life and Times. PART I. By BENJAMINHOADLY, M.A. r ebe berm!) t bítfon Cofeceb. All this began but in 'Unwarrantable Separations, and too muchaggravating the Faultsof the Churches, and Common People, and Common- PrayerBook, andMinifiry. í712r. Bax- ter in his Account of the Salaries, Abridg. p. 96. LONDON, Printed for Tim. Childe, at the Mite Hart at the Weft-End of St. Paul's Church- lard, 1703.

THE PREFACE. HEN I frf read the Tenth Chapter of Mr. Calamy'sAbridgment of the Hiflory of Mr. Baxter's Life, and Times, I confef Iwas not a little concerned to find fuch accu, tions brought againft Conformity to the Church of England, and efpea ciallyMinisterial Conformity. This co r n led me ferioufly and impar tially o examine whatever l found there alleged ; which, I thought was a duty Iowed to my fif and my own private peace andfatesfa¿ion. And as VVe are naturalt apt to think that A a what

The Preface. what appears veryfatisfactory to our (elves, may pofbly bring fatisfaction to the minds ofothers ; fo I was wil- ling to hope (but not upon in own judgment only) that a fair repre- f Ztation o f thole e arguments, which iemed fo convincing to my fel f in this caul, might prove offul to f me others ; and help to remove their pre- judices, and recommend Conformity to them. With this view Ifrrf drew up thefe papers in this form ; and now pubi1fh partofthem to the VVorld for thefe two ends. Firíl, To vindicate the Conform- ingClergy,by vindicating the Terms o f their Conformity to theChurchof Englandfrom allfall reprefentations,, and objeaions that have no juffound- ation. Vile who f rioufly conform as Miniflers to this Church cannot be willing to be accounted what no Chriflian ought to be ; and cannot be

The Preface. be content tofit down, andfufr our praelice to be reprefnted as a com- plication of the blackefl and moil un- pardonable crimes. We owe f me- thing to our own reputation as we are Men ; and more as we are Mini- fters : as the fuccef of that great charge We have undertaken depends verymuch upon it; and as the blemi- fhes that are call upon it, reflea a dill honour upon Religion it fill: Ifthof accufations which Mr. Calamyhath brought againf Minifterial Con- formity be receivedas built upongood rea f ns, the con f quence will he, that We mull be accounted guilty ofas many and great crimes as it is well poffible for any men to be guilty of: I do notfair that it was this Author's defign in reviving theft heads ofNon- conformity, to lefty the reputation, or blac!en the charatler of any ofhis Neighbours : for I have too good an A 3 op

The ?reface. opinion ofhirn to think him capable con- of a fuck a defign. But If y, that dering the manner in which they are reptefnfed to his Readers, and the injinuations often drop'd in their way, it is too probable that multitudes will embrace them as Truth, and be led by them to judge Ministerial Con- formity a fin o f a very high nature : which indeed it mu, f be, if thefe re- prefntations be realnable. It cannot therefore be thought an unbecoming attempt, to endeavour to convince the world that they are not reafonable that fo th reputation of a wa-ole fo- ciety rf Men may not finer unja[ ly in the tenderefr point : I mean their Honefty and Integrity. Secondl What Ifarther propof by the publication o thefe Papers is, y f To fatisfie thofe who fill continue to difont from us. Imeanfilch of them as Mr. Calamy, and thofe whofe caul

The Preface. caufe he pleads in a peculiar manner whofè feparation, tho' not accompa- niedwithfilch violence and heat, yet carries along with it more ofmyfiery, and ismore unaccountable than the fe- parationof thorwbo are at agreater clfance from us. But how unac. countable foever it appear, it cannot but become us to do all we can for their fatisfacciion. For ifwe think they are very much to blame in continuing theirfiparation, We cannot but hear- tily with they would unite with us. And if we heartily wifh this, We 'hall not infult or triumph over them, but endeavour to convince them ; to remove what we judge to beprejudi- ces, and tofit things in a due light before their eyes. This ig what I have attempted : and there is rme- what both in the principles andpra- dice ofthefe pertns, which )(Ups me not to think it altogether an hope-. 1 f attempt. A 4. This

The Preface. This Caufe indeed hath been fuf ficienty managed by very able and great hands ; and hath, in truth, but little need ofany,fuch fupports ebs can give it. But ifthe Pleas for Separation be again rel 'v'd, and repreferated to the world ire t moving manner ; and the Charge a,gainft Conformity be repeated as if no- thing had ever been urged in its de- fence, a Reply becomes neceffary. Every new book ofthis nature leaves an imprefon upon the minds of thole who read it and efpecially when it is recommended to the People even from the Pulpits, and openly declar- edby Per f ns very nearly concerned to be the bell` and moff compleat jufi'ift- cation of the Caufe it defends. And we knowwhat is commonly given out, and generally believed, ifno anfwer be return'd. Theft'

The Preface; Thefe are the Ends I propofe, and this is all Ihave tofayfor the publication of this Reply. In it I have concerned my Pelfonly with the ',relent times ; judging this . to be the propereft method towards the healing our Breaches, to freak of things as they are now : and leaving to others the glory of raking into the tranfaltions of former times, and heaping together hiflorical accounts of what fignifies nothing to the Caufe, but tends only to exafperate men's minds ; to open our wounds anew, and make them bleed atrefh ; to rait the pagions, and caft a cloud before thejudgment, of the Readers. I confefs I. could not anfwer to my own confcience anyfuch attempt, which naturally tends to perpetuate our divifaons. Characters are eaßly given, both bad andgood. A hiftory in favour of any one party is eafily compiled. It is eafy to pick out all the evil that appears inmenof different defgns from ourfelves, and topafs by all the good. It is eafy to furmife more evil thanwhat appears, and to produce thefe fufpicions where we want better proofs. And it is eafy, on allfides, to make harangues to move the pity and compafon,.Vf the People. Out what wounds can we heal in this way ? what

The Preface. ejeaed Minihers in 1662 be, in all Mi- ntfterial abilities, much above the feveral hundreds which Mr. Calamy tells us had beenejeaed before by the Parliament. Ifee not how this concerns the Qjueftion which is only this, Whether feparation from the eflablifhed Church be neceffary. And f rice this is the only point between us of any great concern, it ought to be managed with the moll artlefs °s famplicity ; and not cum- heed with what is apt to hinder a great part of the world from judging aright in it. I believe I could. produce a Catalogue ofabove two thoufand, excellent in Learn- ing and Piety, who thought it not unlaw- ful to comply with the Terms ofMinifFeri- al Conformity : and none of them either wild Enthufìahs, or Ignorant Mechanics. AndI couldofferfore reafons why this ought to be accounted a better argument for Con- formity, than the Catalogue of ejeaed Minifters is againft it. But indeed this would ferve for nothing but to amufe the Reader , and divert his mind from the main 'Queftion. 1 am certain I have here endeavoured to avoid whatever may dofo ; and therefore I can fafely fay that I write -Pot to perpetuate the difpute ; but to brim

The Preface. bring it to a good ifue , if pogible , by o, ffering what may tend to the fatisfail itn of thole , in whofe power it is to put a confiderable flop to it. Throughout the whole I have flric`hly obliged my felf to fay nothing but what apw geared to me truly fitted to the purpofe for which I produce it. And in all that I have alleged I have had only a regard to what appeared reafonable, and true, and apt to fatisfy any perfon concerned. Ifit befo, I am nót at all follicitous about any thing farther. I deftre itfhould Hand or fall as it a7-r--,r di f±frees with Reafon, and the C .1.fir' accordingly, I (hall be very f û defend it, or very ready to retra5i it. If in force infiances 1 feem to force not rigid enough , and to others too rim gid ; I de f re it may be remembred, that my bufinefs was to confider the Terms ofCon- formity as they are in themfelves, not as this or that perfon de f res theyJhould be. I have endeavoured to defend them as they are, but . t have not dared to alter them neon my own authority, either in order to make them appear more odious, or more agreable to the Diffenters. I could never permit my felf to have anypart infetting them at a great- er

The Preface. er diflance from the Church : and, on the other hand, I fhould judge it but an odd, and very unlikely way to win upon thew, to reprefent the Terms of Conformity more according to their wifhes, unlefs I couldper- fuade them to believe that they were truly what I reprefent them tobe. What Errours there are in the ilyle (for that there may beforme, I amfen f ble) I hope arefmall ; filch as will not diflnib the fenfe, or hide theforce ofthe argument ; and there- fore pardonable. The following Poflfcript is added , in anfwer to that in Mr. Calamy, and to !how the world how eafy it is to write filch Adver- tifemetts. Indeed I have altered the 'late of the Queflion at the beginning of it ; be- caufe it is very evident from every Book publifbed in the Gaufe, that theControver- fy between the Conformifts and the Diffen- ters is not, Whether the eflablifhed Church be perfeE ; but, Whether fepa- ration from it be neceilary or reafona- bie. I have nothing more to add, but my re- quefl to the Reader, that He would bring an honefi heart along with him ; and rig prayers to God, the he would give a blej fing

The Preface. ling to what Ihavehere propofed, asfar as it is fitted to the promoting his glory , and the increafing peaceand unity amongft Chri- Ihans.

POSTSCRIPT. THere being Tome who may be willing to f arch into the bottom ofthat un- happy Controverfy that hath been depending almoft ever fnce the Reformation, between the Affertors of the Unreafonablenefs of Separation from the Eftablifh'd Church, and thofe who have acted upon the Oppofite principle, andpleaded a neceffity of Sepa- ration from it : I have been defired in order to theirfatisfation, topoint out thofe Writ- ings of the Former which may be judg'd to contain the f rength of their Caufe. In compliance with which defre, I recommend the following writings to the perufal of the Curious. Hooker's Ecclefaflical Polity. John Ball's Friendly Trial ofthe Grounds of Separation. Bradfhaw's Vnreafonablenefs ofSepara0 ¡ion. 1640. Rathband's Grave andModell Confuta- tionof the Brownifis. 1644. A Letter ofmany Minifters in Old-Eng- land to others in New-England. 1637. Brinfley's Arraignment ofSchifrh. 1646.. Separation Selfcondemn'd in anfiver to Mr. Jenkins. Rob.

Rob. Grovij Refponfio ad Celeufma. Dr. Stillingfleet's Sermonofthe Mifchief of Separation. Dr. Stillingfleet's Vnreafonablenefs of Separation. Dr. Sherlock's Defence of it. Dr. Claget's Anfwer to the Mifchief of Impo fLions. Dr. Falkner's Libertas Ecclefaflica. 1 ColleRior ofCafes, and other Difcour- d 'Vritten to recover Diffenters to the Còmmunion of the Church of England, byfame Divines of the City of London. In Folio. Mr. Bennet's Abridgment of theft Cafes. Difcourfe of Schifm. I need not add any more. Ile that will be at the pains toperafe thefe, will find that the Affertors of the Unreafonablenefs of Seperation have much to fay for their Caufe ; and little rearm to be troublefome to the World, by repeating their arguments as often as fuch as love Contention think fit to renew the Pleas for Separation, that have been f o often urged already, and as often anfwerd. THE

THE, Contents of the Whole. PART I. AView of the whole Defrgn Page r, z,, 3. I. A Defence of the Terms of Miniferial Conformity. The firff of the fcrupled Terms of Minifterial Confor- mity propofed, viz. Epifcopal Ordination. p. 4; AConfideration premifed p. 5. lteafons why this may be inffted ón, from p. 6, to p. 18. An ObjeE on taken from the invalidity ofall the Minifira- tions of the Diffenting Minifiers anfwer'd p. 18, 19, 2c. Another from the Succefs of their Minifiry p. 2o, 2 r. The liefult of what hath been Paid p. IT , 22. The Objeflions of theDiffenting Minif}ers againít Epifcopal Ordination,, coneder'd. r. Obj. from the Peace of their Confciences p, 3 ; 2. Obj, from the Credit of Foreign Churches P. 24. 3. Obj. from the Scruples of their People. p. 25, 26, 27. The Summ of the drgument p° i8. a The

The Contents. The Secondof the Scrupled Terms of Miníf%erial Conformi- ty , propofed, viz. The Declaration of Affent and Confent, and theSubfcription, p 29° An Obj. from the Comprehenfivenefs of the required De- claration anfwer'd from p. 30. top. 36. That this Affent, and Confent, can be only to the Vfe of the Common- Prayer-Book, proved I. From the exprefs Words of the Aft ofParl. IN 3.6 37. z. From the Authority of Dr. Bates, and other Noncon- formifís p 38. 3. From the Form of Law- Deeds, and Publick Declarati- ons P. 39 Of the Subfcription required P. 41, 42. The Principal ObjeEtions of the DifJenting Minifters a- gainft this Declaration and Subfcription. E. Obj. taken from the Do$ine of real Baptifmal Regenerati- on, and certain Salvation consequent thereupon, implied in the Office of Baptifm, and the kubrick following it. from p. 44,10 P. 5 2. II. Obj. taken from the Vfeof Godfathers and God- mothers in Baptifm, to the Exclufton of Parents.from p. 52, to p. 56. III. IV. V. Obj. taken from the Irnpo6tions, viz. the requiring Sponfours, and the Vfe of the Crofs at Baptifm, and Kneeling at the Communion, propofed 'p 56. An Anfwer to their ObjeEtions againft the Vfe of the Crofs, premiled p. 57. I. Obj. againft it, viz. The Mifienderftandings of the Vulgar and Injudicious P. 58° 2. Obj. that it looks as if Baptifm were not complete without it p. 59. 3. Obj. That it feemeth a new Sacrament p. 6o. 4. Obj. Becaufe the Papifts ufe it after a fuperflitious Manner p. 64. Of the impofing Sponfours, the Crofs , and Kneeling, and the

The Contents. themaking them Terms of Communion. t. That the Bi!hops have as much Authority to prefcribe thefe, as other Things which are notfcrupled, from p. 67, to p. 76. That thefe are no more New Terms of Communion than thofeothers with which They would comply. p. 76, 77. A farther Defence of the Governours of the Church, upon their own Principles p. 77, 78. AnQbj. from the difproportionable Penalty annexed, con- fidered p. 79, 80. Another Argument upon their own Principles p. 8r An Obi. taken from the Number of Ceremonies that may be brought in by this means. p. 82, 83. Of the Retaining thefe Impeftions P. 84, 85- The Cafe argued in the name of the Retainers upon their own Principles p. 86, 87. a. That St. Paul faith nothing againft fuch Ifnpofitions ins the i4th Chap. to the Romans. p. 88, to 96. 3. That Mr. Baxter's Prac`,tice, and the Practice of the Independents, is for, and not again/i fuch Impofitions, p. 96, to 103. VI. Obj. Becaufe this Declaration and Subfcription, would be an Approbation of that A/Jertion, that Bithops, Priejis, and Deacons, are three difünEEt Orders in the Church, by Divine ?ointment, anfroered. p. 104, to 112. Their Objefüons of !offer Confideration, againft this Decla- ration, and Subfription. i. Obj. taken from the Burial Office. p. i 12, to 122 2. Obj. taken from the`Rule to find Ea/ier-day. p. 122.. 3. Obj. taken from the Apocryphal Leffons. p. 123, to 129. 4. Obj. taken from the M;firanflation of the Pfalter. p. 129, to 132. g. Obj. taken from the Athanafran Creed. p. 132. 6. Obj. taken from the Rubric in the Confrmaticn Office. p. 134e a 2, The

The Contents. The Third of the ScrupledTerms of Minifterial Confor- mity, viz.. The Oathof Canonical Obedience, and the Prornife of Obedience to the Ordinary, &c. propofed, P. 135. Two 144ifakes obferved in the drawing up of this Objeflion, p. 136. The Occafion and Meaning of the Oath enquired into, p. 137, to 141. I. Obj. That this Oath carries with it a plain Obligation to comply with the Canons, without leaving Perfons at Liber- ty, anfwered,' p. 14 t, to 149. The Parallel between the Oath of a ÿufiice of Peace, and this Oath conlidered. p. 150. t z. Obj. Becaufe the Epifcopal Government is managed by Chancellour'i Courts, @jc. anfwered, p. 15z. The Interpretation of this Oath here laid down, and their Interpretation ofit, compared, p. 153, 154. Of the Obedience due to the Canons P. 155. Conclufion, P. 159 PART II. TH E Defign of this Part propofed, viz. An Anfwer H. To the Arguments propofed in Defence of the Pub- lick Miniflry of the Diffenters. III. To the Arguments propofed in Vindication óf the Diffenting Laity. p. I, 2, 3. All the Arguments propofed in Defence of their Publick .Miniftrÿ

The Contents. Mi nifiry, drawn up together, fo that they may befeenat one View. p- 5, 6, 7, 8. r. and 2. Arg. taken from their Ordination -Vom, and the guilt of Sacrilege, confidered, p. 10, to i 5. 3. Arg. taken from the guilt of Cruelty, and ruining of Souls, by their Silence, and from the Entreaties of their People, confidered p. 15. to 24. 4. Arg. taken from the Doom of the unprofitable Servant, confidered. p. 24, to 27. 5. Arg. taken from the Neceffities of the People, and the .I,VantofProvifion in theEflablifleed Church. p. 27, to 33. 6. Arg. taken from the Infufficiency offundry of the Eflab. li/hedMiniflers, confidered, p. 34, to 47. 7. Arg. taken from fome PaffagesofScripture that intimate the Durationofthe Minifierial Office. p. 47, to 60. 8. Arg. taken from fome Paffages of Scripture that plead for the Necefty of Preaching when the Magi/?rate fo '¡ds. confidered, p. 6o, to64. 9. Arg. taken from the Duty of Praying that God would fend Faithful Labourers into his Vineyard. p. 64. to67. Some farther Obfervations at the Conclufion of this Head. p. 67. 68. An Enquiry how far thefe Arguments can vindicate their Ordinations, fince the AR of Uniformity. p. 69, to 72. All the Arguments propofed in Vindication of the Diffent- ing Laity, drawn up together. p. 74, to 77. Some ferious Refexions upon the Manner of Writing in this Controver/y, p. 77, to 81. t. Arg. in Defence of the Dijfenting Laity, taken from the Benefit they had found by the Labours of the Diff'enting Minifers, confidered, p. 8r, to 85. 2. Arg. taken from the Injury done to the Ejected Minifiers, and the Inhumanityof forfaking them. p. 85, to 92. 3. Arg. taken from the Caufe in which the Diffenting Mi. nifieri

The Contents. nifhrs are engaged, viz. the preffing a farther Refor- mation, anfwered in 5 Particulars. p. 92. r. That they may Conform, and yet not forfake this Caufe. p. 94 s. That they 'communicate with Churches which need a farther Deformation as much. P. 97. 3. That to feparate in order to this End, is not a defen- fible Thing. p. 103. Some of the Confequences and Circumfiances of Separa. tion and Conformity compared, and an Argument drawn from thence. p. 106, to I17. 4. That this Separation, and their Behaviour in it, is not a likely way to obtain a farther Deformation. p. I 17, to 132. 5. That this Argument will make Separation always ne- cefrary. p. 132, to 139. A ofthe Anfwer to this Arg. p. 139, to a 142. 4: Arg. taken from the Duty of the Difrenting Miniflers. p. 142, to 147. 5. Arg. taken from their Right to chufe their own Paflors, anfwered in 5 Particulars. r. That this Right may, according to themfelves, be re- ceded from, upon Tome Confiderations; and that there are fuífcient Con/iderations in the E/lablifhment. p. 148, to 151. 2. That in thole Parifhes where this Right is continued, there are more Diforders, and more Diffenters, than in others. P. 151 3. That the Conflitution cannot be fo ordered, that every Chriflian I11a11 be under the Pallor He likes beí{. p. 153- 4. That Mr. Baxter's Direâions to his People, do im- ply, that they ought not to put this Dight_in pradlice, but upon fomeConfiderations only. p. 156. 5. Thai: the Par loners in a Pari/h where there is an x1ngttalifieti

The Contents. l inqualifed Mini ler are not in a defperate Condi- tion. pi 159- A Recapitulation. p. r 6r, 162. An Anfwer to the Queflions propofed in the Tenth Chap- ter of the Abridgment, upon this.Head. p. 163, 164. Some material Queflions propofed, upon this Head. p. 165. 6. Arg. taken from the Want of Difcipline in the Church. p. 167, to 172. 7. Arg. taken from the Scruples of many of the People. p. 173, to 179. The r(eafons of the Diffenters, to prove the Vnlawfulnefs of Confiant Communion, from the Circumflances attend- ing it; notwithifanding the Materiai-Lawfulnefs of it conhdered, and anfwered under thefe two Heads. t.' That the Circumfiances they have fixed upon Confiant Communion, either do not attend upon it ; or, ifthey do, that they do not make it unlawful ; and than he like Circumflances attend upon their Occafional Con- munion, and their Separation. p. t 83, to Zt 1e 2. Suppofing forme inconvenient Circumflances do attend upon Confiant Communion, that, befidesfuch Circum- fiances, much worfe do unavoidably attend upon Sepa ration, and make it much moreunlawful. p. 21 1, to 213, An Argument for the lawfu/nefS of Con(lant Conformity, notwithifanding theCircum/lances that attend it, drawn from the like Circumfiances which attend filch a Compli- ance with the Diffenters, as they infih: upon ; which yet, do not make it, in their opinions, unlawful. And a Pa- rallel run between the Denial of Communion, on One fide, and the Denial of Abatements , on the other. p. 214, to 224. An Argument drawn from the Experience they have had in 40 years Separation, how unlikely a method this is of accomplifhing their End : And another, taken from the Glory of a Compliance, for the falce of Peace, with thofé who refute to comply with them, P. 224, 225, Of

The Contents. of the Scripture-notion of Schifm, and the thoughts of the Fathers about it. p. 226. That the Moderate Nonconformifts are condemned by Mr. Hales. p. 2.26, to 230. That the Separation from the Church of Berne, was not founded uponfilch Principlesas theirs. p. 230. The Conclufion. p. 2,31, 232; Advertisement. ASerious Admonition to Mr. Calamy, oc= cafioned by the Firft Part of his Defence of Moderate Nonconformity. By Benj. Head- l, M. A. Printed for Tim. Childe, at the White Hart in St. Paul's Church-yard. T H

«.----.----- THE REASONABLENESS OF CONFORMITY T O THE CHURCH of ENGLAND, Reprefented to the DISSENTING MINISTERS) &C T H É Defign of the following Papers is fo juftifiable, how mean foever they be in them- (elves, that I need not ufe ma- ny Words to engage you to receive them with all Candour and Goodnefs. I am one, who fincerely delire a greater Uni- on amongft Englifb Proteftants than we B are

The Reafonablenefs are yet arrived at : And tho' the method in which I now propofe to do fomewhat towards this, be perhaps not the moil. agreeable to your Wifhes ; Yet it muff be acceptable to you, as You profefsyour (elves willing to attend to any offers that are made this way, and ready to con. form, ifyour Objections can be fairly re- moved. Now the Reafans, onwhich your whole Caufe is built, I find collecaed by Mr. Calaway in his tenth Chapter of the Life of Mr. Baxter : And they are thought to be there reprefented with the utmoil force, and after the moll convincing manner potiible. The bell method therefore I can thinkof to perfue my Defign in, will be this . I. To anfwer the Objeaions there ad- vanc'd againfl the Terms of Minifterial Conformity in our Church. II. To fhew, that the Arguments there propofed, in defence of your Selves, are not fufficient to juflify your Separation, even fuppofing thefeTerms of Minifteri- 4l Conformity to be unreafonable. III. To io

OfCONFORMITY. III. To Confider what is there ofler'd for the Vindication of the Diff"enting La- ity. Only Idefire it may bereniembred that I confine my felf to the prefent Times ; and (peak to thofe of You who continue to feparate from the Church , for the Reafons there reprefented. I. I Than confider thofe Terms of Mi- niflerial Conformity, which are there re- prefented as Vnreafonable. , Now, of the five Terms there produ= ced, there are but three which are at prefent the Terms of Minifierial Confora mity in the Church ofEngland : And they are there. I. They that will minifter in our Church rnufl be ordain'd by Bifhops. II. They muff declare their unfeigned gent, went, and Coyfent, to all and every thing contain'd, and prefcrib'd, in, and by, the Book ofCommon-Prayer, andadminiflration of the Sacraments and other Rites and Cere- monies of the Church of England: together with the Pfalter; and the Form and manner making, ordaining, and confecrating of B 2 3.

The Realnablene f Bifhops, Priefts, and Deacons. They muff likewife make an equivalent Subfcriptian., M. They muff take the Oath of Ca- nonical Obedience, and Swear SubjeEion to their Ordinary according to the Canons of the Church. L. They that will Minifter in this Church muff be ordain'd by Bifbops. The Church of England is indeed an Epifcopal .Church. We think we can demonftrate that in the Primitive times the admini ftratio:i ofEcclefiaflical Affairswas in the Hands of Bifhops, who had Presbyters fubjea to them ; that as the Apoftles main- tain'd a fuperiority over the Presbyters of the Churches they conflituted, fo upon occafion of their abfence, they fettled o- thers in this Supeiority ; that as thefe thus fucceeding theApoftles had the pow- er of Ordination committed to them, fo their Succeffours in the following Ages claim'd this Power as their Right, and look'd upon Ordinatin to be their in the regular Courfe of Things. No wonder then that we require all that come into the Miniflry, to come in at this Door, which we think open'd for that purpofe by the Apoftles. Nor do I find that any of the Objetions You here urge

of CONFORMITY. urge againft this do fignify, that Ordi- nation in the regular courfe of Things, ought to be adminiftred without Bifhops. But all that is objeaed is a difficulty a- riling from your having been before or- dain'd without Bi'hops, which Ordination you cannot renounce, as you muff do, in effeE, ifyou fubmit to Epifcopal Ordinati- on. Taking it, therefore, for granted becaufe I find nothing alleg'd againft it, that regularly Ordination is not to be ad- miniffred without the Bifhop, I fluall i. Give an account why this is infi- feed on. 2. Anfwer your Icruples againft com- plyingwith it, as I find them exprefs'd by Mr. Calamy. Premifing only this, that liince moll of You came into the Mini.. ftry face the reftauration of Epifcopacy, and therefore have brought this difficul- ty voluntarily upon your felves, refuting wittingly and confideratelyeither to con- form as Lay-men, or to be ordain'd by Bi- fhops, it feems a wonder to us that you Ihould not be more willing to .fubmit in this Point, and to makeforce recompence for this notorious neglea put upon the Epifcopal Office, than to fearch out Ob- jefLions againft it. Much more do we B3 find

The Realnablenefs find reafon to wonder, that inilead of . recommending Lay-Conformity to fuch whofe Confciences could heartily approve of it, and anEducation inanother way, you (till continue to advife, prepare, and ordain others to the Miniítry ; by that means laying what you account an infuä perable difficulty, which would other- wife bewanting,in the way towards fuch an Union as you fay you delire. Pardon us, ifwe cannot think, that this praEice is agreeable to that defire of Peace and Concord you exprefs, which feems to us ` as if You rather delr'd to prevent it, un- lefs it could be brought about wholly in your own way. But I return i. To give force account why this Re-ordination is infiíted upon, and pro- pofe forne reafons why it may be fubmit- ted to. Now the reafonablenefs of in(i- dingupon this appears from thisone pro- pofition, the truth of which tous is plain, acknowledg'd by Mr. Baxter, and not in the leaít call'd in que[tion in anyof your reafonings on thisHead, viz. That Epif See the A- copal Ordination is the regular orderly Ordi- bYid ment »ationfetled in the Church of Cbrift. This °f `te' being fo, as Mr. Baxter judges (in his di Yater's ¡ life, p. rum ionwith Mr. Jahufon) that the endwhy vs29. R-1

of CONFORMITY. we are obliged to feek Ordination ratherfrom an Ecclefiaflical Officer than from a Magi- firate, 6-c.. is, becaufe God bath appointed himfor orderfake, and toprevent Intrufions and Abufes ; fo we argue, that the Reafon why we are obliged to feek Ordination from a Bifhop, rather than from Presby- ters without a Bifhop, is becaufe God hash appointed Him for order fake, and to pre- vent Intrufions and ilbufes ; And becaufe thegoing out of this fetled way, tho' it be into another whichpofliblymight pre- vent Intrufions and Abufes as well, were it the fetled way, gives too much encou- ragement and too much room for Intru- fions and Abufes. As we think withMr. Baxter that Necefty only can anfwer for the irregularity of Ordination; fo we'think that where there is ñoneceflïty, or when this neceffity ceafes, God gives noencourage ment to fuch deviations, and a Regular Ordination is tobe fought for. That, there- fore, it is not thefolemnity ofthe work, the care taken, the ßtnefs ofthe Perfon, thefaflo ing and Prayer, that can excufe the negleE of this, or be accounted fufficient with- out this becaufe this is the method de- liver'd down to us from the Apofrles times, and the departing from.this tends B 4 to Iidó

Q The Reafnablenefs to the overthrow of all Order : nor can we fuppofe that Almighty God fupplies the want of it, when no neceffity can be pleaded, becaufe He is the God ofOrder, andnot ofConfufion. We judge with Mr. Baxter, that Perfons (let them be never fo well qualified) are to feek an orderly admif- fon, andmake others the yudgesof their qua- lifications : And imagining our method to be the orderly and felled method from the Primitive Ages, where we fee it ne- gleEed, when there is no neceffity, we think in Juffice, we cannot acknowledge thofe who depart from it approved of God in fetting apart themfelves for the Miniftry: We dare not think that He allows fo great a neglea caft upon the Order felled in his Church ;- and we dare not in our Cìonfciences give any encou- ragement to a method which has difu- nited a whole Nation from their Bifhops and fuck an encouragement as would be in effea, an acknowledgment that God approves ofIrregular Ordinations upon no neceffity, and would tend to introduce Will more and more Irregular Ordinations, when ever any neceffity ihould be pre-7 tended. This we dare not do, and tak- ng this to be your Cafe, that you háve iegle tec

of CONF ORM ITY. ncgleEed the way fetled in the Church; and, when no neceffity urged, put your felves into the Minifiry in another man- ner, we cannot think it hard, that you íhould receive Orders in a regular ;vay. This will indeed be an acknowledgment that you have been in an esrour : but Purely this confideration will not weigh more with good Men than the Univerf al good, and the feryice you may do by giving fo publick a teftimony to Order, and Inftitution, and fo great a ftop to ir- regularity and confufion. Upon the whole, We think that, according to Mr. Baxter, We may infrf upon this; nay, and ought, as long as we are an Epifcopal Church. For it was his opinion (as is plain from the occafon of that Paper I have now re- ': fer'd to) that nothing but neceffity can excufe thofe who neglea. Epifcopal Ordi- naion ; and that their Irregular Ordinati- on, when there is no neceffity for it, is not approv'd by God. I confefs this argument fuppofes You to have no necefty laid up- onyou, which I fhall now fay fornewhat to. You know it is an eafy thing to plead nece /ty, and there is no end ofIrre- gularities, if any Necejfity be admitted but whet is moll apparent : for it is then only

The l ea fnablenef only that God can be laid plainly to re- quire Men to go out of the Common way, or to approve their Irregular Pro- ceedings. And if you can prove that a= ny fuch Neceflity was laid upon You to have recourfe to irregular ways,I promife, for my part, tobelieve that God approv'd your ordination, and does approve it as long as that neceflïty lifts. If You can- not, We cannot believe it, and are in confcience bound not to prevaricate, and caft the greateft refexion imaginable up- on regular Ordination. Let us now,therefore,confider whether there befuck an undeniable neceffity for your help; whether thefafety of the Church be at Stake, and the Salvation of Men's Souls ; or whether there beany other reafon fuf- ficient to'juftify your irregular Proceed- ing. And give me leave upon this to ask You thefe following Queftions. Are the Terms of Miniflerial Conformi- y fo unreafonable in the Church ofEng- land, that very many Confcientious, Ufe- ful, judicious, Pious, Excellent, Labori- ous Men have not conform'd, and donot daily conform as Minifters ? Mr. Baxter acknowledg'd, and all muff acknowledge, there are, and have been many fuch Men. Are

of CONFORMITY. Are there any means neceffary to the Peoples Salvation wanting in the Church of England? Is there not a pious and ufe- ful Liturgy to aflìít their publicly Devo- tions ? Are there not Chapters out of God's Word ev'ry day read to them ? Is not the whole Will ofGod declared to them ? Is there any thing in the admini- ffration of the Sacraments, contrary to the main defign of the Gofpel, or dellru- aiveofSalvation ? Is there any one thing,plainly declared to be the duty of a Minifter in the Gof- pel, and fuch a Duty as is neceffary either to the prefervation of the Church, or the Salvation of Mankind, that a Minif er in the Church of England cannot legally do ? Cannot He exhort, reprove, be inftant, inflru&, admonifh in private and in pub lick, and refufe the Holy Communion to any fcandalous Chrifiians ? Ifthere be any thing elfe You imagine convenient, which Hecannot do, Is it fc neceffary, that the State of Chriftianity, and the Salvation of the People depend upon it fo neceffary, that you are oblig- ed to be ordain'd after an irregular man- ner to make your felves capable of per- forming it ? pr, I

2 The Realnablenei Or, Is this the reafon you put your felves into the Mini{Iry, becaufe there are very few in the Church of England that take any care of Souls ; and that there is great occafion for your help ? If it be, why do ye officiate where there is no fuch occafion for you ; where nowant of the means of Salvation can be pretend- ed ? Or, if you fay there is need ev'ry where of all that will labour in the Mi- niflry, Confider whether this will not be a plea for the mofl unqualified in the world ; and give occafion, whether You ' will or no, to the greatefl irregularities imaginable ; for wherecan we {lop in ir- regularities, ifwe juffify thofe for which there is no abfolute neceffity ? Suppofing the Terms of Epifcopal Or- dination unreafonable, Can the good you propofe todo in an irregular way, coun- tervail the mifchief of fuch irregularities; taking into the account, on one fide, the good you could do in your privateCapa- cities,if you remain'd Lay-men; and,on the other fide, the dividing Principles, the Heats, the Uncharitablenefs, the Indecen- cies you encourage, andpropagate, whe- ther you defign it or no ?

...nF, OfCONFORMITY. Or, Mufl you beordain'd to theMni- fry for the benefit of thofe amongft the People who cannot fubmit to the admi- niftration of the Sacraments according to the Ufe ofthe Church ofEngland? And are you forc'd to this irregular way, on this account ? If this were truly the rea- fon, youwould certainly prefs conformity upon thofe who can fubrnit to it ; You would receive and encourage no fuch you would help in the removal of thofe prejudices and groundlefs fcruples, and teach them how to tolerate what they cannot amend ; and, agreeably to this,you would receive none but fuch as had in- vincible objeaions againfl Communion withour Church: but not feeing a Praaice correfpondent to this plea , we cannot think this to be the true Reafon. But if it be, we delire you toconfider, whether you do not by this give too much coun- tenance to a contempt of all Ecclefiaflical Authority ; whether do you not give too much encouragement to thofe who fepa: rate from us with the rankeft uncharita- blenefs ; and receive and cherifh thofe who rail at our whole worfhip as Idola- trous, Antichriflian, Popifh, and intolera- ble ; or, whether it be fit, that they who think

f . The Reafonablene f think fuch Prejudices groundlefs, Mould be fo fond of adding life and conti- nuance to them, as, rather than not do ir, to tranfgrefs the order fetled in the Church. The Qrueífion is , what neceffity is there for your Ordination in the Mini- fry ? and when you have thought ofthis neceffity, fee if the fame neceJ/ïty may not be pleaded for 'farther irregularities ; fee if it might not have been pleaded in all ages of the Church ; and confider whe- ther fuch unwarrantableOrdinations do not tend to the contempt of a1d Inflitutions and Ordinances, as we judge they do. Thefeki ieflions, and fuch like, confide. red, and anfwer'd with all the ferioufnefs the fubjea requires, if they do not fatif- fy you, yet they will ferve to give you fame account why we infifc upon Epifeo- pal Ordination, and dare not give fo open an encouragement to Irregularity as you feem to expe&. Epifcopal Ordination (fays Mr. Baxter) is to be fought for Land where there is not an abfolute neceffity God does not ap- prove of irregular Ordinations Youhave not a neceffity (as we jùdge) fo abfoluteand fo apparent, as will juftify that

of CONFORMITY. that negleE you have put upon the fet- led Order of the Church, and the irre- gular methodyou have taken ; Therefore, we dare not as as if we thought God had approv'd your Ordina- tion, till` you Thew us this manifeft and undeniable necel ity ; and fo darenot ac- knowledge you Minifters without Epif: copal Ordination. And we judge it very hard, that this Thould be nurnber'd, amongft the unrea- fonable terms of Minifterial Conformity ; whenwe think the whole point is, whe- ther the other terms be unreafonable, and fufficient to juftify a feparation, or no. For, if they be, and it can be prov'd; this will prove fuch a neceTlity as will juftify Irregular Ordinations, and demonftrate that God approv'd your Ordination :But if they be not, then no fuch necefiìty was laid upon you ; and it cannot be prov'd that God approv'd your Ordination, or that it is hard for you to fubmit to a re.- ular Ordination. Andwedelireyou toconfder,whether, whilft you argue againft this under the general name of Difenters, you do not `argue for manyignorantMechanicks,who cannot properly be faid to have had any oral-.

16 The Rea f nablenef ordination but a pretended inward Call and for a great number ofmen, of whom Mr. Baxter complain'd longago that they made too light of One thingmore I am led tó fay upon this SubjeE, and that is, fuppofng there was a neceífity of feeking Irregular Ordi- nations, fuch a neceifity as arofeonly from the badnefs of the times, when Bithops were put down in England, which we are allowed by Mr. Calarny to think was the cafe of the ejected Minifiers : yet this ne- ceffity could juifify the Ordination no ,longer than it laf[ed ; and when they " were reílor'd, the Ordination was null, and another to be fought for in a regular way. ThisI fay, fuppofing this truly the cafe, and the irregular praaice grounded only upon this reafon : and this Mr. Baxter leads me to, by the parallel in- {lances He produces in his Paper about regular Ordinations. They are thefe, in an affault ofan Enemy; and the abfence of a Commander, an experienc'd Soldier who 014 ' !II has nocommifon may fupply the place of a Commander. The neceffity anfwers for 41111 4 mander, if, when there is no necethe irregularity, while the neceffity laíhs. But wouldHe be acknowledg'd a Come fiity,He thould Abridg- rant p. 1B 7. P g31

of CONFORMITY. fhould ítill pretend tó that office without, another Commiffion in a regular way ? Neceffitygives a man a Licenfe topraaife Phyfick, in anextraordinary cafe, and when He can have no Licenfe in a regular way. Has He therefore a Licenfe to praaife when this neceffity is gone, or does that Licenfe which neceffity gives laft any longer than the neceffity it felf? At a time when it is impoffible to procure a Commiffion from the King, fuppofe any Perfon, upon the manifeft danger of that Kingdom, íhould take up- on Him to beLord Deputy of Ireland; that neceffity would make all his aas valid whiff it laí}ed: but when He couldhave a formal CommiJlion from the King, and would not , is it fit He should be ac- knowledg'd as Governur? or, Is the Pow- er, which neceffity convey'd to Him, af- ter that to be obey'd ? As, therefore, in thefe cafes,Necefjity gives a Commiffion to thefe Perfons, and we allow of this necf fity ; as they haveas much power to aE upon this neceffity as if theyhad á Corn= miffion in the mo(t regular way ; and as they cannot be acknowledg'd to as by Commifiori when they may,but will not, have it in a regular way,and the neceffity C ceafes

r, i S The Reafonablenefs ceafes : fo let it be in the cafe before us. A real neceffity gives you a Commiffion to ac%, and togo out of the regular way. This neceífity makes all your aas valid whiff it kits : and they remain valid be- caufe they depend entirely upon the Pow- er you had at the time they were done, and not at all upon the Power you have afterwards. But ifyou refufe to takeout commiífions in a regular way, when that neceffity is gone ; you have no more pre- tence toPower and Authority, than the Perfons in theCafes before-mention'd. I fee not what can be objeaed here, unlefs it be this. Since we allow you no Authority in what you donow;and donot think that God approves ofyour Ordinati- on,now you may haveEpifcopalOrdination, and refufe it ; why dowe not infift upon the rebaptizing of thole, who are baptiz'd by you 6.c.? why do we allow youraas valid now we grant no neceufity ? to which Mr. Baxter furnifhes us with a re- P 133' ply. If the Lord-Deputy of Ireland were dead,and onefhouldfo counterfeit the King's Nand andSeal, as that the Nobles and Peo- ple could not difcern it, and fhould annex this to a grant for the Place, and fhew it to the People, and claim the Power by it ; i

of CONFORMITY. 19 if this man continue the exercife of this Power for a Tear before the deceit be dif cover'd, all his actions muff be valid as to the benefit of the Common-wealth, tho' they are treafonable to Himfelf. From which it is plain, That, as the Honeft People ought not, to fuffer for the treafon of their pretendedGovernour ; fo God will takecare that the truly honeft People Than receive no hurt for the fault of others ; that, as the Ding may approve of the a- nions themfelves,as they refpe& the Peo- ple; and yet not approve of the perfon's pretenfions tohis authority; fo Almighty God may approve of the anions of Minifters as they refpea the honeft and well-meaning People; and yet not approve at all of the ifrfinifter, confider'd as fuch ; that,as the Governour's anions were valid, tho' He had really no commiffion; fo the anions of a minifler may be valid, and yet his Ordination no proper Ordination ; which was the thing I defign'd to prove from this inflance. Indeed Mr. Baxter feems jufl before, to lay it down for A truth that if the actions are not mill, nei- ther tan the ordinations. But, if this in- fiance do not plainly prove the contra- ry I conefs I cannot underfland it, viz. C 2 th4t rt

M The Rearonablenefi that the ordination may be none at all, and yet the actions not null. For it is the in- fiance of one who hasno commiffion, but is guilty ofTreafon in what he does ; and yet the People are not to fuffer for this, becaufe it was itmpoilble for them to dif- cern it; and fo his aaionsare not null: and yet He muff have a realCommi{fion from the !Ong, before He can aE in that poft again. Theparallel to thisGovernour and his People, is the Minifter and his People. As the Governour has no authority, and yet his aas are valid; fo the Minifter may have no authority from God onhis part, and yet his anions may be valid as to the people ; Almighty God not permitting them to fuffer for the fault ofothers. This too may ferve to give force ac- count of the blel /ing of Heaven attending yourfacred Miniflrations, which you feem to us, to fpeak of too often ; becaufe if this may be allowed as an argument that ,, God approv'd your ordination, all parties in the World will claim it ; and the molt irregular will plead it, and patronizeun- der it the greatelt irregularities imagin- able. Pray confider this, Here is a pre- tended Governour with noComm:A on ; ma- ny of his a&ions are perhaps for the good of

of CONFORMITY. 2! of theCommon - wealth ; and yet this is no argument that he had a Commion, 'or that the Ding approv'd ofhis acing in his name. So here, The Anions ofa Mini - fier may be for the good of many honer Perfons ; and yet this is no Argument that God approves his Irregular Ordina- tion. The Bleffing, whenever it is, is a reward to the Honefly of the well-mean- ing People; andought not to be interpre- ted as an approbationof theAuthority of the Minifler: as the King's permitting the anions ofthat pretended Governour to be valid, is due to the Honefry of the People whocould not find out the deceit;but can- not be thought an approbation ofthe pre- tences of that Perfon, who was guilty of Treafon, in counterfeiting his Hand and Seal. The refult of what I have faid is this. Thofe ofYou whowereordain'd by Pref- biters, without Bifhops, becaufe Epifcopal Ordination could not be had (which Mr. Calamy gives us leave to take for the true reafon) we acknowledge to have had a realOrdination;and yourAuthority to have lafled as long as that neceffity tailed ; and confequently,all yourAasvalid,even as to the authorityofthem ; thisnecefty making them fo as effeaually as if you had had C 3 regular

+!2 Ái The ,Reafonablenefs regular Ordination.But when that neceffaty ceas'd, wedar'd no more acknowledge an authority founded only upon a cafe ofne- ceffity,without a.regular Commiljion, when it might be had, than we dare [email protected] ledg him to be truly the King's Vicegerent, who, becaufe, in cafe ofabfolute neceffïty, hehad thecommandofacountry without a regular Lomijfîon, therefore when hecan have this regular Commiìon,refufes to take it. Thofe of you who have fince the re- effablifhment ofEpifcopasy refus'd either to conform as Laymen, or to enter into the Min ffry at this Door ; after our moft fe- rious confideration, we cannot but judge to have put an open, and vifible neglea. upon Regular Ordination, without an ap- parent neceffìty ; giving occafion by this means to more grievous Irregularities. And, therefore, tho' we thinkyour Ani- ons valid, through the mercy of God, to Konen and well-meaning People ; yet we dare not fay that God approves your Or- dination in away we take to be irregular; nor can we content by our anions to give encouragement to fuch Doarins as this, That Regularity is not to be regarded, whelk. ever any Perfòns will pretend a nece ty for thither this tends , how little foever you,

of CONFORMITY. you defign it. Confider this, and fee if therebe no reafon why you fhould com., ply in this point ;at leaf, ifthere be no rea- fon for us to requefr you not to go on to lay this unneceffary bar in the way of others. 2. Having thus given fome account of the reafons of what we require in this point, I will now confider thofe Objeai- ons I find offer'd in your. Names againfl it. Amongft which I donot find any tak- en from the unreafonablenefs of Epifcopal Ordination; or any thing faid againft it ; but all that is objeaed is drawn from that unhappy circumílance of an Ordina- tion before. And this being fUll the cafe, I (hall endeavour, if what I have faid be- fore be not fatisfaEory, to remove thefe Scruples. What I find urg'd is compre- hended under thefe three Heads. r. The Peace ofyour own Confciences. 2. Thecredit :of the reformed Churchesa- broad. 3. The Scruples ofyour own Peo- ple. For, as to nullifyingyour pg. Ordina- tions, I hope, I have faid what is fufficient. z. As to the Peace of your Confciences, we are not for perfuading You to at a- gainfl~ your Confciences ; to prevaricate orplay with holy Things. But, if what I have laid downbefore be true, that an it- C 4 regular 23

s4. The Rea f nablene f s regular Ordination is none at all, when there is no abfolue neceffity ; and, fuppo- fing there was anabfolute neceffity, that it lafis no longer than that neceffity falls ; here can be no Playing with Holy Things, to feek it in a regular way ; becaufe, ac- cording to this reafoning, You are whol- ly unqualified to aa as Miniflers without it. And we profs it upon you ferioufly to confider, if this be not a fair and reafo- cable Account of the Matter. 2. As to theCredit of the reformedChur- ches abroad, we think it no Prefumption, as we cenfure not them, who in a Cafe of neceffity went out of the ordinary me- thod, fo to expeE they will not cenfure is for not approving Irregularities, when there is no fuch neceffity for them. And we judge that youyour felves AEt as you think just and reafonable,without that re- gard to them here pretended ; and (hall judge fo, till we fee you remove, alter,- and _ reform ev'ry thing amongfc you which the Reformed Churches abroad difprove, either in their Declaratiöns, or their Praaice. Nor do we think you would allow it a good Argument for our ïnfifiing upon this, if we could produce Reformed Churches abroad of the fame O- pinion

of CONFORM ITY. pinion with us in this Point, unlefs you were otherwife convinc'd. 3. As to the Scruples ofyour People, we defire to know, whether you will allow it a good Argument for our infifting upon this, that if we fhouldadmit You into the Miniftry without it, this will raife end- le¡s Scruples in the Minds of our belt and moll underfianding People;to fee Men ad- mitted, and acknowledg'd as Miniffers, whohave, without añ abfolute necefíity, as they think , departed from the fetled methodofOrdination, andwilfully fought irregular Ordinations. Now fence We, as well as You, have this Plea ; is it not more fitting that this Plea Mould be laid afide than urg'd as an Argument againfit Vs ? is it not more becoming, on each fide, to ar- gue from the reafonablenefs or unreafon- ablenefs of the thing it felf, than from the Scruples of the People ? unlefs perhaps it be worth while toenquire, whether the Scruples on the part of Regular Ordinations be not to be much more regarded, than the Scruples on the part of Irregular Or- dinations. We defire you to confider, whether, ifyou your felves were fatisfied of the reafonablenefs of this, You have not influence enough upon your Peopic . 'to ;.3

The Reafnablenefi toperfuade them againfl unreafonablefcru. pies. A thing, which ifyou had ferioufly undertaken, how much good might you have done ! how much Evil might you have prevented ! Now, ifyou cannot agree to this, becaufe the thing is unreafonable why are the People's Scruples pretended? If the thing be reafonable, and yet not tobe done becaufe it would raife Scruples in the People ;then it is a good argument for not doing a reafonable thing, that it will raife feruples inothers.But this we hardly think to be your opinion, becaufe this would be laying a neceffity upon your felves very often of aEIing unreafonably : and alto, becaufe we conceive your practice to be a- gainfr this. Nothing can raife more end- lefsferuples inyour people, than Occafonal Communion with a Church, fromwhich you have made a formal Separation. 'They have been fill'dwith amazement and un- cafinefs, and have not knownwhich way to turn themfelves ; and perhaps have been induc'd by it to ftretch their own Con fciencesa little,and furnifh themfelves with diffin&ions , againíf they fhould have occafion for them. And the reafons for this condu&, ifI remember right, are declared to be fuck as the People are hard- ly